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Alice Ricardo-Silva, Teresa Cristina Monte Gonçalves, José Francisco Luitgards-Moura, Catarina Macedo Lopes, Silvano Pedrosa da Silva, Amanda Queiroz Bastos, Nathalia Coelho Vargas, Maria-Rosa Goreti Freitas
During a medical entomology course in Boa Vista, Roraima, colonies of Triatoma maculata closely associated with pigeon nests were observed in concrete air-conditioner box located on the external plastered and cemented walls of a modern brick-built apartment block. In only one eight-hole ceramic brick, located inside one air-conditioner box, 127 specimens of T. maculata were collected. T. maculata is a recognised vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in the surrounding area and its domiciliation increases the risk of Chagas disease transmission...
October 13, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Eric M Moult, Nadia K Waheed, Eduardo A Novais, WooJhon Choi, ByungKun Lee, Stefan B Ploner, Emily D Cole, Ricardo N Louzada, Chen D Lu, Philip J Rosenfeld, Jay S Duker, James G Fujimoto
PURPOSE: To investigate choriocapillaris (CC) alteration in patients with nascent geographic atrophy (nGA) and/or drusen-associated geographic atrophy (DAGA) using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: A 1,050-nm wavelength, 400 kHz A-scan rate swept-source optical coherence tomography prototype was used to perform volumetric swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography over 6 mm × 6 mm fields of view in patients with nGA and/or DAGA...
September 30, 2016: Retina
Terry Kenakin
The modification of ongoing chemical signaling in the brain through allosteric modification of seven transmembrane receptors offers a wealth of diverse beneficial outcomes in drug therapy. Specifically, biased agonism can emphasize beneficial signals and de-emphasize harmful signals thus increasing the effectiveness of agonists and opening up new vistas for previously precluded drug targets. In addition, the modification of natural agonism through positive and negative allostery can provide useful rejuvenation of failing systems...
October 14, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Maria-Victoria Mateos, Albert Oriol, Joaquín Martínez-López, Ana-Isabel Teruel, Enrique Bengoechea, Luis Palomera, Felipe de Arriba, Dixie-Lee Esseltine, Andrew Cakana, Lixia Pei, Helgi van de Velde, Jesus San Miguel
: Bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone (VMP) is a standard-of-care for previously untreated, transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma (MM). Here, we compared outcomes between VMP regimens in the VISTA trial (9-cycle VMP schedule, including 4 cycles of twice weekly bortezomib) and the PETHEMA/GEM05 trial (less intensive 6-cycle VMP schedule with 1 cycle of twice weekly and 5 cycles of weekly bortezomib, then bortezomib-based maintenance). A total of 113 patient pairs matched by propensity score (estimated using logistic regression and incorporating eight exposure/outcome-related parameters) were included in this retrospective analysis...
October 14, 2016: Annals of Hematology
Sven Gottschalk, Thomas Felix Fehm, Xose Luís Deán-Ben, Vassiliy Tsytsarev, Daniel Razansky
Visualization of whole brain activity during epileptic seizures is essential for both fundamental research into the disease mechanisms and the development of efficient treatment strategies. It has been previously discussed that pathological synchronization originating from cortical areas may reinforce backpropagating signaling from the thalamic neurons, leading to massive seizures through enhancement of high frequency neural activity in the thalamocortical loop. However, the study of deep brain neural activity is challenging with the existing functional neuroimaging methods due to lack of adequate spatiotemporal resolution or otherwise insufficient penetration into subcortical areas...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
Patrícia Oliveira, Joana Carvalho, Sara Rocha, Mafalda Azevedo, Inês Reis, Vânia Camilo, Bárbara Sousa, Sofia Valente, Joana Paredes, Raquel Almeida, David Huntsman, Carla Oliveira
Dies1/VISTA induces embryonic stem-cell differentiation, via BMP-pathway, but also acts as inflammation regulator and immune-response modulator. Dies1 inhibition in a melanoma-mouse model led to increased tumour-infiltrating T-cells and decreased tumour growth, emphasizing Dies1 relevance in tumour-microenvironment. Dies1 is involved in cell de/differentiation, inflammation and cancer processes, which mimic those associated with Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT). Despite this axis linking Dies1 with EMT and cancer, its expression, modulation and relevance in these contexts is unknown...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Astrid Petersmann, Till Ittermann, Cornelia Frieß, Norbert Lubenow, Thomas Kohlmann, Andreas Greinacher, Annette Masuch, Matthias Nauck
Determination of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is one central means for diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Assay performance of three troponin I assays was compared previously in a large reference population detecting sex-differences in the 99th percentile only for the Dimension Vista cTnI assay. The present study examined the underlying effects. Values for cTnI were reused. Creatine kinase (CK) activity was determined in 2358 samples from blood donors. Information on physical activity was evaluated from health questionnaires...
November 1, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Charles C Wykoff, Ryan T Le, Rahul N Khurana, David M Brown, William C Ou, Rui Wang, W Lloyd Clark, David S Boyer
PURPOSE: To determine whether the efficacy and safety achieved with 2.0mg intravitreal aflibercept injections (IAI) for diabetic macular edema (DME) during the phase III VISTA DME trial were maintained with individualized, as-needed treatment. DESIGN: Phase IV, multicenter, open-label extension study. METHODS: Sixty patients completing VISTA DME elected to enter the ENDURANCE extension study. All patients received IAI in the presence of clinically relevant DME...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Adam R Pearson, Jonathon P Schuldt, Rainer Romero-Canyas
The recent Paris Agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions, adopted by 195 nations at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, signaled unprecedented commitment by world leaders to address the human social aspects of climate change. Indeed, climate change increasingly is recognized by scientists and policymakers as a social issue requiring social solutions. However, whereas psychological research on intrapersonal and some group-level processes (e.g., political polarization of climate beliefs) has flourished, research into other social processes-such as an understanding of how nonpartisan social identities, cultural ideologies, and group hierarchies shape public engagement on climate change-has received substantially less attention...
September 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Stefan B Ploner, Eric M Moult, WooJhon Choi, Nadia K Waheed, ByungKun Lee, Eduardo A Novais, Emily D Cole, Benjamin Potsaid, Lennart Husvogt, Julia Schottenhamml, Andreas Maier, Philip J Rosenfeld, Jay S Duker, Joachim Hornegger, James G Fujimoto
PURPOSE: Currently available optical coherence tomography angiography systems provide information about blood flux but only limited information about blood flow speed. The authors develop a method for mapping the previously proposed variable interscan time analysis (VISTA) algorithm into a color display that encodes relative blood flow speed. METHODS: Optical coherence tomography angiography was performed with a 1,050 nm, 400 kHz A-scan rate, swept source optical coherence tomography system using a 5 repeated B-scan protocol...
September 28, 2016: Retina
Stavros Giaglis, Sinuhe Hahn, Paul Hasler
Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation represents a form of cell death distinct from apoptosis or necrosis, by which invading pathogens are simultaneously entangled and potentially eliminated. Increased NET formation is observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated small vessel vasculitis, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), and psoriasis. NETs contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity by exposing cryptic autoepitopes, which may facilitate the generation of autoantibodies, induce the production of interferons, and activate the complement cascade...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Jingting Xu, Hong Hu, Yang Dai
BACKGROUND: The identification of enhancers is a challenging task. Various types of epigenetic information including histone modification have been utilized in the construction of enhancer prediction models based on a diverse panel of machine learning schemes. However, DNA methylation profiles generated from the whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) have not been fully explored for their potential in enhancer prediction despite the fact that low methylated regions (LMRs) have been implied to be distal active regulatory regions...
2016: PloS One
Chien-Chia Liu, Rory T Cerbus, Pinaki Chakraborty
In large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows, and other two-dimensional flows, the exponent of the turbulent energy spectra, α, may theoretically take either of two distinct values, 3 or 5/3, but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed α=3. Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which α transitions from 3 to 5/3 for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to 3 for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow...
September 9, 2016: Physical Review Letters
D Liang, J Almeida, C R Vistas
A large aspheric fused silica lens was used to couple efficiently the concentrated solar radiation from the focal zone of a 1.5-m-diameter primary concentrator into a 4-mm-diameter, 35-mm-long Nd:YAG single-crystal rod within a conical pump cavity. Continuous-wave laser power of 29.3 W was measured, attaining 25.0  W/m<sup>2</sup> solar laser collection efficiency, corresponding to a 19% increase over the previous record. Its laser beam figure of merit-the ratio between laser power and the product of Mx2, My2 beam quality factors-of 0...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Jeffrey S Heier, Jean-François Korobelnik, David M Brown, Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth, Diana V Do, Edoardo Midena, David S Boyer, Hiroko Terasaki, Peter K Kaiser, Dennis M Marcus, Quan D Nguyen, Glenn J Jaffe, Jason S Slakter, Christian Simader, Yuhwen Soo, Thomas Schmelter, Robert Vitti, Alyson J Berliner, Oliver Zeitz, Carola Metzig, Frank G Holz
PURPOSE: To compare efficacy and safety of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI) with macular laser photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema (DME) over 3 years. DESIGN: Two similarly designed phase 3 trials: VISTA(DME) and VIVID(DME). PARTICIPANTS: Patients (eyes; n = 872) with central-involved DME. METHODS: Eyes received IAI 2 mg every 4 weeks (2q4), IAI 2 mg every 8 weeks after 5 monthly doses (2q8), or laser control...
November 2016: Ophthalmology
Lukas Egarter Vigl, Daniel Depellegrin, Paulo Pereira, Rudolf de Groot, Ulrike Tappeiner
Accounting for the spatial connectivity between the provision of ecosystem services (ES) and their beneficiaries (supply-benefit chain) is fundamental to understanding ecosystem functioning and its management. However, the interrelationships of the specific chain links within ecosystems and the actual benefits that flow from natural landscapes to surrounding land have rarely been analyzed. We present a spatially explicit model for the analysis of one cultural ecosystem service (aesthetic experience), which integrates the complete ecosystem service delivery chain for Puez-Geisler Nature Park (Italy): (1) The potential service stock (ES capacity) relies on an expert-based land use ranking matrix, (2) the actual supply (ES flow) is based on visibility properties of observation points along recreational routes, (3) the beneficiaries of the service (ES demand) are derived from socioeconomic data as a measure of the visitation rate to the recreation location, and (4) the supply-demand relationship (ES budget) addresses the spatially explicit oversupply and undersupply of ES...
September 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jessica L Rastad, William R Green
Monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) were increased during LP-BM5 retroviral infection, and were capable of suppressing not only T-cell, but also B-cell responses. In addition to previously demonstrating iNOS- and VISTA-dependent M-MDSC mechanisms, in this paper, we detail how M-MDSCs utilized soluble mediators, including the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species superoxide, peroxynitrite, and nitric oxide, and TGF-β, to suppress B cells in a predominantly contact-independent manner. Suppression was independent of cysteine-depletion and hydrogen peroxide production...
September 12, 2016: Virology
Fabrizio Dirri, Ernesto Palomba, Andrea Longobardo, Emiliano Zampetti
Piezoelectric Crystal Microbalances (PCM's) are widely used to study the chemical processes involving volatile compounds in any environment, such as condensation process. Since PCM's are miniaturized sensor, they are very suitable for planetary in situ missions, where can be used to detect and to measure the mass amount of astrobiologically significant compounds, such as water and organics. This work focuses on the realization and testing of a new experimental setup, able to characterize volatiles which can be found in a planetary environment...
September 15, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
Evgeniya Levy, Gregory Barshtein, Leonid Livshits, Paul Ben Ishai, Yuri Feldman
The vitality of red blood cells depends on the process control of glucose homeostasis, including the membrane's ability to "switch off" d-glucose uptake at the physiologically specific concentration of 10-12 mM. We present a comprehensive study of human erythrocytes suspended in buffer solutions with varying concentrations of d-glucose at room temperature, using microwave dielectric spectroscopy (0.5 GHz-50 GHz) and cell deformability characterization (the Elongation ratio). By use of mixture formulas the contribution of the cytoplasm to the dielectric spectra was isolated...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Fábio da Costa Carbogim, Larissa Bertacchini de Oliveira, Vilanice Alves de Araújo Püschel
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the concept of critical thinking (CT) in Rodger's evolutionary perspective. METHOD: documentary research undertaken in the Cinahl, Lilacs, Bdenf and Dedalus databases, using the keywords of 'critical thinking' and 'Nursing', without limitation based on year of publication. The data were analyzed in accordance with the stages of Rodger's conceptual model. The following were included: books and articles in full, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, which addressed CT in the teaching and practice of Nursing; articles which did not address aspects related to the concept of CT were excluded...
2016: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
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