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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130538/-what-if-this-is-my-chance-to-save-my-life-a-semi-structured-interview-study-on-the-motives-and-experiences-of-esrd-patients-who-engaged-in-public-solicitation-of-a-living-kidney-donor
#1
Mathilde C Pronk, Dorthe Slaats, Willij C Zuidema, Medard T Hilhorst, Frank J M F Dor, Michiel Betjes, Willem Weimar, Jacqueline van de Wetering, Emma K Massey
The increase of patients using public solicitation (PS) to find a living kidney donor has generated a debate about the ethical complexities of PS. To investigate why patients engaged in PS and what they experienced during PS we conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 Dutch end-stage renal disease patients who had publicly solicited a living donor. Transcipts were thematically analyzed. We identified ten themes on patients' considerations preceding PS: cautiousness in discussing living donation within social network; reluctance to accept a kidney from loved ones; rejection/withdrawal of related donor candidates; moral objections to black market organs/paid donation; the ease of social media; encouraged by others; ends justyfying the means; despair and urge to take action; public disclosure of vulnerability; fear of being (perceived to be) selfish...
November 12, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109691/adaptive-personality-traits-and-psychosocial-correlates-among-living-kidney-donors
#2
Iris Pollmann, Faikah Gueler, Marie Mikuteit, Mariel Nöhre, Nicolas Richter, Karin Weissenborn, Martina de Zwaan
Since living kidney donors have repeatedly been shown to be mentally more healthy compared to the general population, they might also exhibit more adaptive personality characteristics. We investigated the personality traits of 315 living kidney donors (202 female and 113 male donors) on average 7.1 years after donation using the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, a frequently used personality inventory measuring the "big five" dimensions of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105354/low-oxygen-conditions-promote-synergistic-increases-in-chondrogenesis-during-co-culture-of-human-osteoarthritic-stem-cells-and-chondrocytes
#3
Susan E Critchley, Rajalakshmanan Eswaramoorthy, Daniel J Kelly
There has been increased interest in co-cultures of stem cells and chondrocytes for cartilage tissue engineering as there are the limitations associated with using either cell type alone. Drawbacks associated with the use of chondrocytes include the limited numbers of cells available for isolation from damaged or diseased joints, their dedifferentiation during in vitro expansion and a diminished capacity to synthesise cartilage-specific extracellular matrix components with age and disease. This has motivated the use of adult stem cells with either freshly isolated or culture expanded chondrocytes for cartilage repair applications, however the ideal combination of cells and environmental conditions for promoting robust chondrogenesis remains unclear...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083854/applications-of-photogating-and-time-resolved-spectroscopy-to-mechanistic-studies-of-hydrogenases
#4
Brandon L Greene, Gregory E Vansuch, Bryant C Chica, Michael W W Adams, R Brian Dyer
Rapid and facile redox chemistry is exemplified in nature by the oxidoreductases, the class of enzymes that catalyze electron transfer (ET) from a donor to an acceptor. The key role of oxidoreductases in metabolism and biosynthesis has imposed evolutionary pressure to enhance enzyme efficiency, pushing some toward the diffusion limit. Understanding the detailed molecular mechanisms of these highly optimized enzymes would provide an important foundation for the rational design of catalysts for multielectron chemistry, including fuel production...
October 30, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082402/towards-visualisation-of-central-cell-effects-in-scanning-tunnelling-microscope-images-of-subsurface-dopant-qubits-in-silicon
#5
Muhammad Usman, Benoit Voisin, Joe Salfi, Sven Rogge, Lloyd C L Hollenberg
Atomic-scale understanding of phosphorus donor wave functions underpins the design and optimisation of silicon based quantum devices. The accuracy of large-scale theoretical methods to compute donor wave functions is dependent on descriptions of central-cell corrections, which are empirically fitted to match experimental binding energies, or other quantities associated with the global properties of the wave function. Direct approaches to understanding such effects in donor wave functions are of great interest...
November 9, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076173/fear-of-donation-related-stimuli-is-reported-across-different-levels-of-donation-experience
#6
Christopher R France, Janis L France
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to characterize the extent of donation-related fears among donors with different levels of donation experience. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A sample of 1054 recent donors (48.3% female; mean ± SD age 33.1 ± 9.8 years) completed an anonymous, online survey of their fear of donation-related stimuli, including blood, needles, pain, and fainting. Respondents also provided information regarding demographics, pain, and vasovagal symptoms associated with their recent donation and confidence and intention with respect to a future donation...
October 26, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069088/donation-of-peripheral-blood-stem-cells-to-unrelated-strangers-a-thematic-analysis
#7
Annelies Billen, J Alejandro Madrigal, Katrina Scior, Bronwen E Shaw, Andre Strydom
BACKGROUND: Donation of haematopoietic stem cells, either through bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection, is a generally safe procedure for healthy donors, although side effects are a known risk. Previous research, including our recent quantitative study, has shown that the psychosocial response to donating is usually a positive one and most donors would be willing to donate again in the future. This is often despite experiencing significant side effects during the donation process...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020785/-how-is-the-czech-oocyte-donor-the-analysis-of-their-profile
#8
T Rumpíková, I Oborná, S Bělašková, D Rumpík
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate (a) the basic socio-demographic characteristics of Czech oocytes donors, (b) their attitudes towards anonymous or nonanonymous donation and (c) their motivations to donate oocytes. DESIGN: Original article. SETTING: Clinic of Reproductive Medicine and Gynecology Zlin. METHODS: A total of 215 oocytes donors participated in this study, which was undertaken in years 2015-2016...
2017: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993101/representations-and-motivations-of-blood-donation-in-adolescence-through-a-mixed-method-approach
#9
Sara Alfieri
BACKGROUND: Scientific literature on blood donation is prevalently concentrated on adults, leaving out adolescents almost completely. While the latter represents "ideal" candidates, they constitute, however, the segment of the population least present among blood donors. OBJECTIVES: The present work, composed of two studies, proposes looking into the representations that the adolescents have of blood donation and give voice to the motivations that could persuade them to becoming donors once they reach the legal age for donation...
September 20, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939572/understanding-barriers-and-outcomes-of-unspecified-non-directed-altruistic-kidney-donation-from-both-professional-s-and-patient-s-perspectives-research-protocol-for-a-national-multicentre-mixed-methods-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Rebecca Gare, Petrut Gogalniceanu, Hannah Maple, Lisa Burnapp, Alexis Clarke, Lynsey Williams, Sam Norton, Joseph Chilcot, Paul Gibbs, Annie Mitchell, Paul McCrone, Heather Draper, Nizam Mamode
INTRODUCTION: Living donation accounts for over one-third of all kidney transplants taking place in the UK. (1) The concept of anonymously donating a kidney to a stranger (non-directed altruistic or unspecified kidney donation (UKD)) remains uncomfortable for some clinicians, principally due to concerns about the motivations and long-term physical and psychological outcomes in this donor group. AIMS: The research programme aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of the unspecified donor programme in the UK...
September 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939267/when-unintended-effects-reveal-hidden-intentions-implications-of-mutual-benefit-discourses-for-evaluating-development-cooperation
#11
Niels Keijzer, Erik Lundsgaarde
This article's starting point is that the dichotomy between intended and unintended effects is linked to official policy discourse on the overall purpose and objectives of development cooperation. It describes and discusses recent policy trends that move away from emphasizing developing country benefits toward the pursuit of 'mutual benefit' as the key motivating factor and aim for development cooperation as an area of public policy. A mix of motivations has always driven development cooperation, yet the current policy trend differs in that such motivations are made explicit...
September 18, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938731/the-importance-of-genetic-parenthood-for-infertile-men-and-women
#12
S Hendriks, K Peeraer, H Bos, S Repping, E A F Dancet
STUDY QUESTION: Do men and women beginning to attend a fertility clinic prefer genetic over non-genetic parenthood? SUMMARY ANSWER: Nearly, all infertile men and women prefer genetic parenthood. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Clinicians assume that all infertile couples prefer genetic parenthood over non-genetic parenthood and, therefore, consider treatments with donor gametes an option of last resort. Previous studies of the desire for parenthood identified 30 motivations for genetic parenthood, and 51 motivations for which having a genetically related child is not strictly necessary but might be deemed required...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925551/clade-ii-nitrous-oxide-respiration-of-wolinella-succinogenes-depends-on-the-nosg-c1-c2-h-electron-transport-module-nosb-and-a-rieske-cytochrome-bc-complex
#13
Sascha Hein, Samantha Witt, Jörg Simon
Microbial reduction of nitrous oxide (N2 O) is an environmentally significant process in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. However, it has been recognized only recently that the gene encoding N2 O reductase (nosZ) is organized in varying genetic contexts, thereby defining clade I (or 'typical') and clade II (or 'atypical') N2 O reductases and nos gene clusters. This study addresses the enzymology of the clade II Nos system from Wolinella succinogenes, a nitrate-ammonifying and N2 O-respiring Epsilonproteobacterium that contains a cytochrome c N2 O reductase (cNosZ)...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922903/banking-on-living-kidney-donors-a-new-way-to-facilitate-donation-without-compromising-on-ethical-values
#14
Dominique E Martin, Gabriel M Danovitch
Public surveys conducted in many countries report widespread willingness of individuals to donate a kidney while alive to a family member or close friend, yet thousands suffer and many die each year while waiting for a kidney transplant. Advocates of financial incentive programs or "regulated markets" in kidneys present the problem of the kidney shortage as one of insufficient public motivation to donate, arguing that incentives will increase the number of donors. Others believe the solutions lie-at least in part-in facilitating so-called "altruistic donation;" harnessing the willingness of relatives and friends to donate by addressing the many barriers which serve as disincentives to living donation...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895013/non-donors-attitudes-towards-sperm-donation-and-their-willingness-to-donate
#15
Veerle Provoost, Florence Van Rompuy, Guido Pennings
PURPOSE: The aim of this article is to study attitudes about sperm donation and willingness to donate sperm in students who have never shown an interest in sperm donation. METHODS: The method used in this study is an electronic survey of 1012 male students. RESULTS: Only one third of the respondents (34.3%) would consider donating sperm. Overall, 85.7% indicated a positive attitude towards sperm donation while 14.3% indicated a neutral or negative attitude...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865553/motivations-and-attitudes-of-candidate-sperm-donors-in-belgium
#16
Annelies Thijssen, Veerle Provoost, Eva Vandormael, Nathalie Dhont, Guido Pennings, Willem Ombelet
OBJECTIVE: To study the motivation and attitudes of a candidate sperm donor population in Belgium. DESIGN: Anonymous survey. SETTING: Tertiary referral infertility center. PATIENT(S): One hundred candidate sperm donors applying to the center for a first semen analysis between April 2013 and March 2016. INTERVENTION(S): Invitation to complete an anonymous questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Demographic characteristics, recruitment methods, motivations and attitudes toward payment, donor anonymity, disclosure to offspring, donation to lesbian couples and single women, views on the donor children and social aspects of sperm donation...
September 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857843/altruistic-nondirected-kidney-donation-attitudes-characteristics-and-ethical-implications
#17
Maja Ehlers, Frank Vitinius, Michael Langenbach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Altruistic nondirected kidney donation involves a person donating one of their kidneys to an unknown recipient. The donor's mental health and motives are frequently questioned. We want to highlight this topic and also encourage discussions about ethical implications. RECENT FINDINGS: The main topics are the mental health of altruistic nondirected kidney donors and the general attitude towards the practice of this form of donation as well as the willingness of the public to donate this way...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841764/how-do-people-become-plasma-and-platelet-donors-in-a-vnr-context
#18
Johanne Charbonneau, Marie-Soleil Cloutier, Balia Fainstein
BACKGROUND: The demand for therapeutic plasma-derived products poses a challenge to blood collection agencies (BCAs). In 2014-2015, the volume of plasma sent for fractionation met 17.7% of Quebec's needs for immunoglobulins. This article aims to offer an exploration of the paths blood donors follow in order to become plasma and platelet donors (PPDs). STUDY DESIGN AND METHOD: This analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with 50 PPDs in Quebec, Canada. Our analysis focused on the occurrence of events and the presence of contextual elements identified through: (1) factual data on PPDs; and (2) what PPDs identified as being an influence on their donation experience...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803004/-just-blood-donors-a-study-on-the-multi-affiliations-of-blood-donors
#19
Sara Alfieri, Maura Pozzi, Elena Marta, Vincenzo Saturni, Giovanni Aresi, Paolo Guiddi
BACKGROUND: The present work proposes to explore a phenomenon well known in the world of blood donation, but little explored by literature: multi-affiliations. By that term, in this paper we mean blood donors' engagement in multiple associations of various natures (donation, recreation, sports, etc.) simultaneously. The first objective proposes to explore the phenomenon of multi-affiliations in descriptive terms; the second is to look into the differences-in terms of motivations, family-work-volunteerism reconciliation, life satisfaction, and membership satisfaction-between those who "only" carry out blood donation activity and those who instead participate in multiple associative realities concurrently...
July 25, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795746/pt-dipyridyl-tetrazine-metal-organic-network-on-the-au-100-surface-insights-from-first-principles-calculations
#20
Duy Le, Talat S Rahman
Metal-organic coordination networks with active metal centers are a promising class of materials for next-generation catalysts. Motivated by experimental observations of the formation of a Pt-Dipyridyl Tetrazine (DT) metal-organic network on the Au(100) surface [D. Skomski et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 9862], we carried out density functional theory based calculations on the same system. In this discussion, we demonstrate that the strong interaction between DT ligands and Pt metal centers makes the network stable and that the Pt centers become positively charged by donating their electrons to the DT ligands, resulting in +2 oxidation states for the Pt centers...
October 26, 2017: Faraday Discussions
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