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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542841/blood-donors-perceptions-motivators-and-deterrents-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-scoping-review-of-evidence
#1
REVIEW
Lucy Asamoah-Akuoko, Oliver W Hassall, Imelda Bates, Henrik Ullum
Achieving an adequate blood supply in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through donor mobilization and retention is crucial. Factors that motivate or deter blood donors vary according to beliefs and social norms. Understanding the factors that influence blood donation behaviour in SSA is vital to developing effective strategies to address blood donor motivation and retention. This review of 35 studies from 16 SSA countries collates available evidence concerning the perceptions, motivators and deterrents that influence blood donors in SSA...
May 22, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527046/on-harm-thresholds-and-living-organ-donation-must-the-living-donor-benefit-on-balance-from-his-donation
#2
Nicola Jane Williams
For the majority of scholars concerned with the ethics of living organ donation, inflicting moderate harms on competent volunteers in order to save the lives or increase the life chances of others is held to be justifiable provided certain conditions are met. These conditions tend to include one, or more commonly, some combination of the following: (1) The living donor provides valid consent to donation. (2) Living donation produces an overall positive balance of harm-benefit for donors and recipients which cannot be obtained in a less harmful manner...
May 19, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515024/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-towards-blood-donation-among-health-care-providers-in-hospitals-at-bahir-dar-city-ethiopia
#3
Bayeh Abera, Beyan Mohammed, Wendmagegn Betela, Reshid Yimam, Adam Oljira, Merhab Ahmed, Wubet Tsega, Wondemagegn Mulu, Endalew Yizengaw
Like other sub-Saharan Africa, in Ethiopia there is a shortage of adequate and safe blood supplies. Health care providers are potential resource and promoter of voluntary blood donation. This study was conducted to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice towards blood donation among health care providers in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. Paper based questionnaire was distributed to 276 health care providers from May 01 to June 30, 2016. Overall, 42.8% had donated blood at least once. Of these, males accounted for 60%...
April 26, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510355/the-national-landscape-of-living-kidney-donor-follow-up-in-the-united-states
#4
Macey L Henderson, Alvin G Thomas, Ashton Shaffer, Allan B Massie, Xun Luo, Courtenay M Holscher, Tanjala S Purnell, Krista Lentine, Dorry L Segev
In 2013, OPTN/UNOS mandated that transplant centers collect data on living kidney donors (LKDs) at 6-months, 1-year, and 2-years post-donation, with policy-defined thresholds for the proportion of complete living donor follow-up (LDF) data submitted in a timely manner (60 days before or after the expected visit date). While mandated, it was unclear how centers across the country would perform in meeting thresholds, given potential donor and center-level challenges of LDF. To better understand the impact of this policy, we studied SRTR data for 31,615 LKDs between 1/2010-6/2015, comparing proportions of complete and timely LDF form submissions pre- and post-policy implementation...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505547/synthesis-of-indole-analogs-as-potent-%C3%AE-glucuronidase-inhibitors
#5
Mohd Syukri Baharudin, Muhammad Taha, Syahrul Imran, Nor Hadiani Ismail, Fazal Rahim, Muhammad Tariq Javid, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Muhammad Ali
Natural products are the main source of motivation to design and synthesize new molecules for drug development. Designing new molecules against β-glucuronidase inhibitory is utmost essential. In this study indole analogs (1-35) were synthesized, characterized using various spectroscopic techniques including (1)H NMR and EI-MS and evaluated for their β-glucuronidase inhibitory activity. Most compounds were identified as potent inhibitors for the enzyme with IC50 values ranging between 0.50 and 53.40μM, with reference to standard d-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (IC50=48...
May 7, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501802/stability-of-proteins-in-dried-blood-spot-biobanks
#6
Johan Björkesten, Stefan Enroth, Qiujin Shen, Lotta Wik, David Hougaard, Arieh Cohen, Lene Sörensen, Vilmantas Giedraitis, Martin Ingelsson, Anders Larsson, Masood Kamali-Moghaddam, Ulf Landegren
An important motivation for the construction of biobanks is to discover biomarkers that identify diseases at early, potentially curable stages. This will require biobanks from large numbers of individuals, preferably sampled repeatedly, where the samples are collected and stored under conditions that preserve potential biomarkers. Dried blood samples are attractive for biobanking because of the ease and low cost of collection and storage. Here we have investigated their suitability for protein measurements...
May 13, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489287/broken-chains-and-reneging-a-review-of-1-748-kidney-paired-donation-transplants
#7
Nick Cowan, H Albin Gritsch, Nima Nisseri, Joe Sinacore, Jeffrey Veale
Concerns regarding the potential for broken chains and reneges within kidney paired donation (KPD) and its effect on chain length have been previously raised. While these concerns have been tested in simulation studies, "real world" data has yet to be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the actual rate and cause of broken chains within a large KPD program. All patients undergoing renal transplantation through the National Kidney Registry from 2008 through May 2016 were included for analysis...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488803/promises-and-challenges-in-continuous-tracking-utilizing-amino-acids-in-skin-secretions-for-active-multi-factor-biometric-authentication-for-cybersecurity
#8
Juliana Agudelo, Vladimir Privman, Jan Halámek
We consider a new concept of biometric-based cybersecurity systems for active authentication by continuous tracking, which utilizes biochemical processing of metabolites present in skin secretions. Skin secretions contain a large number of metabolites and small molecules that can be targeted for analysis. Here we argue that amino acids found in sweat can be exploited for the establishment of an amino acid profile capable of identifying an individual user of a mobile or wearable device. Individual and combinations of amino acids processed by biocatalytic cascades yield physical (optical or electronic) signals, providing a time-series of several outputs that, in their entirety, should suffice to authenticate a specific user based on standard statistical criteria...
May 10, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486562/exogenous-alpha-1-antitrypsin-down-regulates-serpina1-expression
#9
Ahmad Karadagi, Helene Johansson, Helen Zemack, Sandeep Salipalli, Lisa-Mari Mörk, Kristina Kannisto, Carl Jorns, Roberto Gramignoli, Stephen Strom, Knut Stokkeland, Bo-Göran Ericzon, Danny Jonigk, Sabina Janciauskiene, Greg Nowak, Ewa C S Ellis
The main goal of the therapy with purified human plasma alpha1-antitrypsin (A1AT) is to increase A1AT levels and to prevent lungs from elastolytic activity in patients with PiZZ (Glu342Lys) A1AT deficiency-related emphysema. Potential hepatic gains of this therapy are unknown. Herein, we investigated the effect of A1AT therapy on SERPINA1 (gene encoding A1AT) expression. The expression of SERPINA1 was determined in A1AT or A1AT plus Oncostatin M (OSM) treated primary human hepatocytes isolated from liver tissues from A1AT deficient patients and control liver tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467235/applying-the-health-belief-model-and-an-integrated-behavioral-model-to-promote-breast-tissue-donation-among-asian-americans
#10
Autumn Shafer, Kelly Kaufhold, Yunjuan Luo
An important part in the effort to prevent, treat, and cure breast cancer is research done with healthy breast tissue. The Susan G. Komen for the Cure Tissue Bank at Indiana University Simon Cancer Center (KTB) encourages women to donate a small amount of healthy breast tissue and then provides that tissue to researchers studying breast cancer. Although KTB has a large donor base, the volume of tissue samples from Asian women is low despite prior marketing efforts to encourage donation among this population...
May 3, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449623/why-search-for-a-sperm-donor-online-the-experiences-of-women-searching-for-and-contacting-sperm-donors-on-the-internet
#11
Vasanti Jadva, Tabitha Freeman, Erika Tranfield, Susan Golombok
Whilst studies have examined the experiences of women who use clinic donors, to date there has been limited research investigating women's motivations and experiences of searching for a sperm donor online. A total of 429 women looking for a sperm donor on Pride Angel (a website that facilitates contact between donors and recipients) completed an online survey. Fifty-eight percent (249) saw advantages of obtaining donated sperm online with the most common advantage reported as being able to connect with and meet the donor (n = 50 (24%))...
April 28, 2017: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394024/a-brief-motivational-interview-promotes-internal-motivation-to-donate-blood-among-young-adults-with-and-without-a-prior-donation-history
#12
Irina E Livitz, Kristen R Fox, Lina K Himawan, Christopher R France
BACKGROUND: Recruitment and retention of first-time and repeat donors is essential to maintain a stable blood supply. Recent evidence has shown that promoting internal motivation may be an effective strategy to enhance donation behavior. We tested the efficacy of an in-person motivational interview at increasing internal motivation and intention to donate. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A sample of 219 donors and nondonors (69.4% female; mean ± SD age, 19.2 ± 1...
April 10, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339737/a-novel-chronic-opioid-monitoring-tool-to-assess-prescription-drug-steady-state-levels-in-oral-fluid
#13
Naum Shaparin, Neel Mehta, Frank Kunkel, Richard Stripp, Damon Borg, Elizabeth Kolb
Objective. : Interpretation limitations of urine drug testing and the invasiveness of blood toxicology have motivated the desire for the development of simpler methods to assess biologically active drug levels on an individualized patient basis. Oral fluid is a matrix well-suited for the challenge because collections are based on simple noninvasive procedures and drug concentrations better correlate to blood drug levels as oral fluid is a filtrate of the blood. Well-established pharmacokinetic models were utilized to generate oral fluid steady state concentration ranges to assess the interpretive value of the alternative matrix to monitor steady state plasma oxycodone levels...
February 23, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336244/-commitment-in-plasmapheresis-donation-a-study-of-determinants-among-regular-donors-in-plasmapheresis
#14
S Delépine-Farvacques, Florence Terrade, B Danic, J-P Lebaudy
The purpose of this study, based on the Theory of planned behavior, is to identify and ultimately better understand what determines the fidelity and the regularity of donors committed in plasmapheresis donation. This qualitative study is a primary stage to establish a classification of donors in a French socio-cultural context. For this reason, we have carried out a survey among 16 regular plasmapheresis donors, by way of semi-structured individual interviews at the Établissement français du sang - Brittany...
June 2017: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286719/violence-exclusion-and-resilience-among-ivoirian-travestis
#15
Matthew Thomann, Robbie Corey-Boulet
Among sexual and gender minorities in Côte d'Ivoire, travestis are defined as individuals born anatomically male who live as women on a full- or part-time basis. Travestis encounter harsher stigmatization and violence than sexual minorities whose gender normativity allows them to avoid unwanted attention. Moreover, they have traditionally been underserved by Ivoirian sexual minority rights groups, who have worked to distance themselves from travestis, framing them as recklessly indiscreet. In this paper, we examine the extent to which travestis' isolation has lessened in the wake of the post-election violence that followed Côte d'Ivoire's 2010 presidential election...
2017: Critical African Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264142/using-body-donor-demographics-to-assist-the-implementation-of-donation-programs-in-brazil
#16
Andrea Oxley da Rocha, Deivis de Campos, Marco Aurélio Farina, Gabriel Sartori Pacini, Marina Cornelli Girotto, Arlete Hilbig
The use of human material in anatomy education depends upon the generosity of body donors. However, little is known regarding the demographics of body donors in Brazil, where voluntary body donation is a relatively rare phenomenon. Hence, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the demographic profile of applicants to the Body Donation Program (BDP) at the Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre in Brazil, as well as to assess whether the observed characteristics of body donors are unique to that sample, or if they merely reflect the characteristics of the regional population...
March 6, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260448/pathology-results-at-autopsy-in-brain-dead-patients-with-brain-tumors
#17
Farahnaz Sadegh Beigee, Shagin Shahryari, Meysam Mojtabaee, Mihan Pourabdollah Toutkaboni
OBJECTIVES: Brain tumors are the most challenging causes of brain deaths due to the lack of pathology results in many cases. It is not uncommon to find a brain tumor in a brain-dead patient with no pathology results or neuroradiology reports available; this would exclude the deceased from organ donation. The mortality that occurs while patients are on transplant wait lists motivated us to find a solution to prevent losing brain-dead patients as potential donors. We present our experiences in autopsy examinations of brain tumors and the results of frozen-section pathology...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260441/thirty-years-of-experience-at-the-first-tunisian-kidney-transplant-center
#18
Ezzedine Abderrahim, Asma Zammouri, Mohamed Mongi Bacha, Mondher Ounissi, Tahar Gargah, Hafedh Hedri, Riadh Ben Slama, Rafika Bardi, Mohamed Chebil, Taieb Ben Abdallah
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to report the results of 30 years of experience at the first kidney transplant center in Tunisia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All kidney transplants performed at the center between June 1986 and June 2016 were included. The study period was divided into 3 decades. Recipient and donor data and follow-up information were obtained from a local database and patient medical records. Comparative analyses were performed using the t test for continuous variables and the Χ² test for qualitative variables...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217590/partnerships-for-organizing-blood-donation-camp-an-experience-from-rural-north-india
#19
Shashi Kant, Sumit Malhotra, Farhad Ahamed, S Archana, Chandrakant S Pandav
BACKGROUND: Rural areas pose challenges for motivating villagers to donate blood. We organized a blood donation camp in a rural setting by engaging multiple stakeholders. We examined the factors that influenced blood donation. METHODS: Local level stakeholders were involved in planning of the camp. Mobilization of donors was attempted through intensive awareness generation activities utilizing multiple channels. A list of willing blood donors was prepared. RESULTS: Out of 152 willing donors, 88 reported to donation camp, and after screening, 67 donated the blood...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209774/methyl-donor-supplementation-alters-cognitive-performance-and-motivation-in-female-offspring-from-high-fat-diet-fed-dams
#20
Sarah E McKee, Nicola M Grissom, Christopher T Herdt, Teresa M Reyes
During gestation, fetal nutrition is entirely dependent on maternal diet. Maternal consumption of excess fat during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of neurologic disorders in offspring, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia. In a mouse model, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed offspring have cognitive and executive function deficits as well as whole-genome DNA and promoter-specific hypomethylation in multiple brain regions. Dietary methyl donor supplementation during pregnancy or adulthood has been used to alter DNA methylation and behavior...
February 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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