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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078667/philanthropy-in-health-professions-education-research-determinants-of-success
#1
Robert Paul, Elisa Hollenberg, Brian D Hodges
CONTEXT: Fund-raising is a new practice in medical education research. OBJECTIVES: This qualitative study explores a cross-sectional analysis of philanthropy in medical education in Canada and Europe and identifies some common characteristics in the fund-raising system, key roles and characteristics of research sites that have had success. METHODS: Medical education research sites that had received donations greater than Can$100 000 were identified by searching publicly available sources...
January 11, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042200/adolescents-conceived-through-donor-insemination-in-mother-headed-families-a%C3%A2-qualitative-study-of-motivations-and-experiences-of-contacting-and-meeting-same-donor-offspring
#2
Sherina Persaud, Tabitha Freeman, Vasanti Jadva, Jenna Slutsky, Wendy Kramer, Miriam Steele, Howard Steele, Susan Golombok
This study interviewed adolescents conceived using sperm donation to examine their experiences of contacting and meeting 'same-donor offspring' (i.e. donor-conceived offspring raised in different families who share the same donor), their motivations for this contact, and how they make meaning of these relationships. This in-depth qualitative study involved semi-structured interviews with 23 young people aged 12-19 years (mean = 14 years). Interviewees were motivated by curiosity about their biological relations and by wanting to extend their family...
January 2017: Children & Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039304/allergen-valency-dose-and-fc%C3%AE%C2%B5ri-occupancy-set-thresholds-for-secretory-responses-to-pen-a-1-and-motivate-design-of-hypoallergens
#3
Avanika Mahajan, Lama A Youssef, Cédric Cleyrat, Rachel Grattan, Shayna R Lucero, Christopher P Mattison, M Frank Erasmus, Bruna Jacobson, Lydia Tapia, William S Hlavacek, Mark Schuyler, Bridget S Wilson
Ag-mediated crosslinking of IgE-FcεRI complexes activates mast cells and basophils, initiating the allergic response. Of 34 donors recruited having self-reported shrimp allergy, only 35% had significant levels of shrimp-specific IgE in serum and measurable basophil secretory responses to rPen a 1 (shrimp tropomyosin). We report that degranulation is linked to the number of FcεRI occupied with allergen-specific IgE, as well as the dose and valency of Pen a 1. Using clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat-based gene editing, human RBL(rαKO) cells were created that exclusively express the human FcεRIα subunit...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030474/therapeutic-benefits-of-the-methyl-donor-s-adenosylmethionine-sam-on-nerve-injury-induced-mechanical-hypersensitivity-and-cognitive-impairment-in-mice
#4
Stéphanie Grégoire, Magali Millecamps, Lina Naso, Sonia Do Carmo, A Claudio Cuello, Moshe Szyf, Laura S Stone
Despite considerable advances in understanding mechanisms involved in chronic pain, effective treatment remains elusive. Co-morbid conditions including anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment further impact quality of life. Chronic pain is associated with reversible changes in brain anatomy and function and with long-term changes in gene expression. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, contribute to wide-spread and long-lasting reprogramming of gene expression. We previously reported decreases in global DNA methylation in the mouse frontal cortex six months following induction of neuropathic pain using the Spared Nerve Injury (SNI) model...
December 22, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017869/endosteal-like-extracellular-matrix-expression-on-melt-electrospun-written-scaffolds
#5
Maria Lourdes Muerza-Cascante, Ali Shokoohmand, Kiarash Khosrotehrani, David Haylock, Paul D Dalton, Dietmar W Hutmacher, Daniela Loessner
: Tissue engineering technology platforms constitute a unique opportunity to integrate cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins into scaffolds and matrices that mimic the natural microenvironments in vitro. The developments of tissue-engineered 3D models that mimic the endosteal microenvironment enable researchers to discover the causes and improve treatments for blood and immune-related diseases. The aim of this study was to establish a physiologically relevant in vitro model using 3D printed scaffolds to assess the contribution of human cells to the formation of a construct that mimics human endosteum...
December 22, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989609/limbic-circuitry-activation-in-ethanol-withdrawal-is-regulated-by-a-chromosome-1-locus
#6
Kari J Buck, Gang Chen, Laura B Kozell
Physiological dependence and associated withdrawal episodes are thought to constitute a motivational force sustaining alcohol use/abuse and contributing to relapse in alcoholics. Although no animal model exactly duplicates alcoholism, models for specific factors, including the withdrawal syndrome, are useful for identifying potential genetic and neural determinants of liability in humans. We previously identified highly significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with large effects on predisposition to withdrawal after chronic and acute alcohol exposure in mice and mapped these loci to the same region of chromosome 1 (Alcdp1 and Alcw1, respectively)...
December 8, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979752/applying-self-determination-theory-to-the-blood-donation-context-the-blood-donor-competence-autonomy-and-relatedness-enhancement-blood-donor-care-trial
#7
Christopher R France, Janis L France, Bruce W Carlson, Victoria Frye, Louisa Duffy, Debra A Kessler, Mark Rebosa, Beth H Shaz
The Blood Donor Competency, Autonomy, and Relatedness Enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) project was designed as a practical application of self-determination theory to encourage retention of first-time donors. Self-determination theory proposes that people are more likely to persist with behaviors that are internally-motivated, and that externally-motivated behavior can evolve and become internalized given the appropriate socio-environmental conditions. According to self-determination theory, motivation to engage in blood donation may become increasingly self-determined if the behavior satisfies fundamental human needs for competence (a sense of self-efficacy to achieve specific goals), autonomy (a sense of volitional control over one's behavior), and relatedness (a sense of connection to a larger group)...
December 12, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976772/scalable-exfoliation-and-dispersion-of-two-dimensional-materials-an-update
#8
Hengcong Tao, Yuqin Zhang, Yunnan Gao, Zhenyu Sun, Chao Yan, John Texter
The preparation of dispersions of single- and few-sheet 2D materials in various solvents, as well as the characterization methods applied to such dispersions, is critically reviewed. Motivating factors for producing single- and few-sheet dispersions of 2D materials in liquids are briefly discussed. Many practical applications are expected for such materials that do not require high purity formulations and tight control of donor and acceptor concentrations, as required in conventional Fab processing of semiconductor chips...
January 4, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887716/who-requests-their-sperm-donor-s-identity-the-first-ten-years-of-information-releases-to-adults-with-open-identity-donors
#9
Joanna E Scheib, Alice Ruby, Jean Benward
OBJECTIVE: To report findings from 10 years of requests from adults eligible to obtain their open-identity sperm donor's information. DESIGN: Analysis of archived family and donor data. Semistructured interviews at information releases. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): A total of 85 DI adults requesting 43 donor identities; program data on 256 DI families. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): We identified [1] demographic predictors of requesting donor identities, [2] information release timing and length, and [3] request motives...
November 22, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881620/catching-fakes-new-markers-of-urine-sample-validity-and-invalidity
#10
Melissa M Goggin, Cheng-Min Tann, Anna Miller, An Nguyen, Gregory C Janis
Urine drug testing is common for workplace drug testing, prescription management, emergency medicine and the criminal justice system. Unsurprisingly, with the significant consequences based upon the results of urine drug testing, a donor in need of concealing the contents of their sample is highly motivated to cheat the process. Procedures and safeguards ensuring sample validity are well known, and include measuring sample temperature at the time of collection, and laboratory measurements of creatinine, specific gravity and pH...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879190/transplantation-in-africa-an-overview
#11
Elmi Muller
Africa is underdeveloped in terms of treatment options for patients with end-stage renal failure. Economic growth and corresponding increases in health expenditures in the African region mean that we can confidently anticipate increased demand for organ transplantation within the region over the next few years. Renal failure in Africa occurs mainly due to glomerular nephropathies, hypertension, diabetes, and HIV. For the subset of the population that might be considered medically suitable for transplantation, demand for transplantation is tightly constrained by the availability of specialist physicians and surgeons, pathology facilities, capacity to achieve acceptable graft outcomes, cultural and religious attitudes towards organ donation, trust in the health system, and the extent to which patients are able to meet the costs of surgery and ongoing immunosuppression...
2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875643/crowdfunding-for-medical-care-ethical-issues-in-an-emerging-health-care-funding-practice
#12
Jeremy Snyder
Crowdfunding websites allow users to post a public appeal for funding for a range of activities, including adoption, travel, research, participation in sports, and many others. One common form of crowdfunding is for expenses related to medical care. Medical crowdfunding appeals serve as a means of addressing gaps in medical and employment insurance, both in countries without universal health insurance, like the United States, and countries with universal coverage limited to essential medical needs, like Canada...
November 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865131/evaluation-of-cellular-uptake-cytotoxicity-and-cellular-ultrastructural-effects-of-heteroleptic-oxidovanadium-iv-complexes-of-salicylaldimines-and-polypyridyl-ligands
#13
Gonzalo Scalese, Isabel Correia, Julio Benítez, Santiago Rostán, Fernanda Marques, Filipa Mendes, António Pedro Matos, João Costa Pessoa, Dinorah Gambino
Searching for prospective vanadium-based drugs for cancer treatment, a new series of structurally related [V(IV)O(L-2H)(NN)] compounds (1-8) was developed. They include a double deprotonated salicylaldimine Schiff base ligand (L-2H) and different NN-polypyridyl co-ligands having DNA intercalating capacity. Compounds were characterized in solid state and in solution. EPR spectroscopy suggests that the NN ligands act as bidentate and bind through both nitrogen donor atoms in an axial-equatorial mode. The cytotoxicity was evaluated in human tumoral cells (ovarian A2780, breast MCF7, prostate PC3)...
January 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865040/psychological-outcomes-of-living-liver-donors-from-a-multi-center-prospective-study-results-from-the-adult-to-adult-living-donor-liver-transplantation-cohort-study-a2all
#14
Z Butt, M A Dew, Q Liu, M A Simpson, A R Smith, J Zee, B W Gillespie, S E Abbey, D P Ladner, R Weinrieb, R A Fisher, S Hafliger, N Terrault, J Burton, A H Sherker, A Di Martini
While single-center and cross-sectional studies have suggested modest impact of liver donation on donor psychological well-being, few studies have assessed these outcomes prospectively among a large cohort. We conducted one of the largest, prospective, multi-center studies of psychological outcomes in living liver donors within the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL-2) Consortium. 271 (91%) of 297 eligible donors were interviewed at least once at pre-donation, 3-, 6-, 12- and 24-months post-donation using validated measures...
November 19, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853152/a-natural-light-driven-inward-proton-pump
#15
Keiichi Inoue, Shota Ito, Yoshitaka Kato, Yurika Nomura, Mikihiro Shibata, Takayuki Uchihashi, Satoshi P Tsunoda, Hideki Kandori
Light-driven outward H(+) pumps are widely distributed in nature, converting sunlight energy into proton motive force. Here we report the characterization of an oppositely directed H(+) pump with a similar architecture to outward pumps. A deep-ocean marine bacterium, Parvularcula oceani, contains three rhodopsins, one of which functions as a light-driven inward H(+) pump when expressed in Escherichia coli and mouse neural cells. Detailed mechanistic analyses of the purified proteins reveal that small differences in the interactions established at the active centre determine the direction of primary H(+) transfer...
November 17, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816867/effectiveness-of-weight-loss-intervention-in-highly-motivated-people
#16
Mariétou H Ouayogodé
A variety of approaches have been implemented to address the rising obesity epidemic, with limited success. I consider the success of weight loss efforts among a group of highly motivated people: those required to lose weight in order to qualify for a life-saving kidney transplantation. Out of 246 transplantation centers, I identified 156 (63%) with explicit body mass index (BMI) requirements for transplantation, ranging from 30 to 50kg/m(2). Using the United States national registry of transplant candidates, I examine outcomes for 29,608 obese deceased-donor transplant recipients between 1990 and 2010...
December 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795455/blood-soy-milk-and-vitality-the-wartime-origins-of-blood-banking-in-china-1943-45
#17
Wayne Soon
This article examines the multiple meanings of blood transfusion and banking in modern China through the history of the first Chinese blood bank, established by the Overseas Chinese in 1943 to solicit blood for the war effort. Through investigating the attitudes of Chinese soldiers and civilians toward the blood bank, this article argues for the multiplicity of motivations underpinning society's attitudes toward blood banking and donation. Cultural notions of blood were an important but not the sole factor in their consideration...
2016: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788789/a-study-on-the-attitude-toward-kidney-transplantation-and-factors-among-hemodialysis-patients-in-china
#18
B Qiao, L Liu, J Liu, J Xie
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation (KT) is the most effective treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease. However, objective data regarding the willingness of patients with end-stage renal disease to undergo transplantation are lacking in China. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes and impact factors regarding KT among patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis. METHODS: This study used a cross-sectional approach. Between June and July 2015, a total of 326 hemodialysis outpatients completed a self-designed questionnaire to assess their attitudes toward KT and satisfaction with dialysis...
October 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759390/mimicking-photosynthesis-with-electrode-supported-lipid-nanoassemblies
#19
Mingming Wang, Wei Zhan
The grand scale, ultimate efficiency, and sustainability of natural photosynthesis have inspired generations of researchers in biomimetic light energy utilization. As an essential and ubiquitous component in all photosynthetic machinery, lipids and their assemblies have long been recognized as powerful molecular scaffolds in building artificial photosynthetic systems. Model lipid bilayers, such as black lipid membranes and liposomes (vesicles), have been extensively used to host natural as well as synthetic photo- and redox-active species, thereby enabling key photosynthetic processes, such as energy transfer and photoinduced electron transfer, to be examined in well-defined, natural-like membrane settings...
November 15, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717388/performance-based-incentives-may-be-appropriate-to-address-challenges-to-delivery-of-prevention-of-vertical-transmission-of-hiv-services-in-rural-mozambique-a-qualitative-investigation
#20
Roseanne C Schuster, Octávio de Sousa, Jacqueline Rivera, Rebecca Olson, Delphine Pinault, Sera L Young
BACKGROUND: Performance-based incentives (PBIs) have garnered global attention as a promising strategy to improve healthcare delivery to vulnerable populations. However, literature gaps in the context in which an intervention is implemented and how the PBIs were developed exist. Therefore, we (1) characterized the barriers and promoters to prevention of vertical transmission of HIV (PVT) service delivery in rural Mozambique, where the vertical transmission rate is 12 %, and (2) assessed the appropriateness for a PBI's intervention and application to PVT...
October 7, 2016: Human Resources for Health
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