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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777641/social-norms-and-adolescents-sexual-health-an-introduction-for-practitioners-working-in-low-and-mid-income-african-countries
#1
Beniamino Cislaghi, Holly Shakya
Donors, practitioners and scholars are increasingly interested in harnessing the potential of social norms theory to improve adolescents' sexual and reproductive health outcomes. However, social norms theory is multifaceted, and its application in field interventions is complex. An introduction to social norms that will be beneficial for those who intend to integrate a social norms perspective in their work to improve adolescents' sexual health in Africa is presented. First three main schools of thought on social norms, looking at the theoretical standpoint of each, are discussed...
March 2018: African Journal of Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765295/incentives-for-blood-donation-a-discrete-choice-experiment-to-analyze-extrinsic-motivation
#2
Andrew Sadler, Ling Shi, Susanne Bethge, Axel Mühlbacher
Background: Demographic trends affect size and age structure of populations. One of the consequences will be an increasing need for blood products to treat age-related diseases. Donation services rely on voluntariness and charitable motivation. It might be questioned whether there will be sufficient blood supply with voluntary donation. The present study focused on elicitation of preferences for incentives and aimed to contribute to the discussion on how to increase donation rates. Methods: A self-administered discrete choice experiment (DCE) was applied...
April 2018: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763391/should-trauma-physicians-treat-a-severely-injured-patient-for-the-sake-of-elucidating-preferences-about-organ-donation
#3
Sandra R DiBrito, Macey L Henderson
Organ donation potential is not a motivator of care in the trauma bay, and it is ethically problematic to consider organ donor potential during the active resuscitation of a trauma patient. Despite organ donation being a public good, the role of the trauma physician is to maintain focus on the patient as an individual and to respect a patient's right to life and autonomy. This tenet of medicine is the foundation of the trust that a community and individuals must have in order for the health care system to function...
May 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762910/-why-did-you-really-do-it-a-mixed-method-analysis-of-the-factors-underpinning-motivations-to-register-as-a-body-donor
#4
Jon Cornwall, Zoe Poppelwell, Ruth McManus
Individuals who register as body donors do so for various reasons, with aiding medical science a common motivation. Despite awareness of several key reasons for donation, there are few in-depth explorations of these motivations to contextualize persons' reasons for donating. This study undertakes a mixed-method exploration of motivations for body donation to facilitate deeper understanding of the reasons underpinning donor registration. A survey of all newly registered body donors at a New Zealand university was performed over a single year...
May 15, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762669/ethics-of-oocyte-banking-for-third-party-assisted-reproduction-a-systematic-review
#5
E M Kool, A M E Bos, R van der Graaf, B C J M Fauser, A L Bredenoord
BACKGROUND: The demand for donor oocytes has increased dramatically over the years. Today people in need of ART with the use of donor oocytes can appeal to commercial or public donor oocyte banks. The introduction of oocyte banks has shed a new light on the practice of ART using donor oocytes. The establishment and maintenance of oocyte banks should be sensitive to the ethical considerations. However, it is currently unclear which ethical aspects have to be taken into account. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this article is to identify the ethical aspects of establishing and maintaining oocyte banks for third-party ART...
May 14, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751094/the-interest-of-women-with-mayer-rokitansky-k%C3%A3-ster-hauser-syndrome-and-laparoscopic-vecchietti-neovagina-in-uterus-transplantation
#6
Roman Chmel, Marta Novackova, Zlatko Pastor, Jiri Fronek
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess a group of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKH) women with surgically created neovaginas in the interest of uterus transplantation (UTx) and to recruit the first group of applicants for a uterus transplant trial. DESIGN: and Setting: This is an original prospective study using semistructured interviews. PARTICIPANTS: A study group of 50 MRKH syndrome women with Vecchietti neovaginas was recruited by letter of invitation...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734085/attitude-towards-reciprocity-as-a-motive-for-oocyte-donation
#7
Guido Pennings, Célia Ravel, Jean-Maxime Girard, Mathilde Domin-Bernhard, Veerle Provoost
OBJECTIVE: Finding out whether patients would be motivated by reciprocity when considering donating oocytes to others. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective monocentric study in the CECOS of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) of Rennes (France) on the opinion of patients regarding reciprocity. Couples who had a child with donor sperm were asked whether they would consider oocyte donation as a way of giving something back. RESULTS: Twenty six couples and one man answered the questionnaire...
May 1, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724118/perceptions-motivations-and-concerns-about-living-organ-donation-among-people-living-with-hiv
#8
Sarah E Van Pilsum Rasmussen, Macey L Henderson, Juli Bollinger, Shanti Seaman, Diane Brown, Christine M Durand, Dorry L Segev, Jeremy Sugarman
Recent changes to United States law now permit people living with HIV (PLWH) to donate organs to HIV-infected (HIV+) recipients under research protocols. PLWH may have unique motivations for and concerns about living donation and understanding them is critical to ensuring the integrity of this novel approach to organ transplantation. We conducted in-depth interviews with PLWH from an urban HIV clinic who had previously indicated their willingness to be a living donor. Interviews elicited information on their motivations, perceived benefits, and concerns regarding living donation...
May 3, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723174/-it-s-hard-to-ask-examining-the-factors-influencing-decision-making-among-end-stage-renal-disease-patients-considering-approaching-family-and-friends-for-a-kidney
#9
Merryn A Jones, Jon Cornwall
AIM: People needing kidney transplants in New Zealand can receive organs from deceased donors or from a living kidney donor. This project explored issues surrounding donor recruitment, examining the lived experience of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in order to facilitate improved donor recruitment for ESRD patients. METHOD: A qualitative study comprising interviews of ESRD patients in Hawke's Bay, focusing on the factors surrounding approaching family and friends for a kidney...
May 4, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722609/-i-didn-t-have-anything-to-decide-i-wanted-to-help-my-kids-an-interview-based-study-of-consent-procedures-for-sampling-human-biological-material-for-genetic-research-in-rural-pakistan
#10
Nana Cecilie Halmsted Kongsholm, Jesper Lassen, Peter Sandøe
BACKGROUND: Individual, comprehensive, and written informed consent is broadly considered an ethical obligation in research involving the sampling of human material. In developing countries, however, local conditions, such as widespread illiteracy, low levels of education, and hierarchical social structures complicate compliance with these standards. As a result, researchers may modify the consent process to secure participation. To evaluate the ethical status of such modified consent strategies it is necessary to assess the extent to which local practices accord with the values underlying informed consent...
May 3, 2018: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617178/recruitment-of-feces-donors-among-blood-donors-results-from-an-observational-cohort-study
#11
Simon Mark Dahl Jørgensen, Christian Erikstrup, Khoa Manh Dinh, Lars Erik Lemming, Jens Frederik Dahlerup, Christian Lodberg Hvas
As the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has gained momentum, an increasing need for continuous access to healthy feces donors has developed. Blood donors constitute a healthy subset of the general population and may serve as an appropriate group for recruitment. In this study, we investigated the suitability of blood donors as feces donors. In a prospective cohort study, we recruited blood donors onsite at a public Danish blood bank. Following their consent, the blood donors underwent a stepwise screening process: First, blood donors completed an electronic pre-screening questionnaire to rule out predisposing risk factors...
April 4, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579823/impact-of-clinical-simulation-training-in-transplantation
#12
N Marogna, R Bernardi, M Monti, G Costa, M Aguirre Mandau, J L de Echave
INTRODUCTION: The Hospital El Cruce is a high complexity center that performs transplants, both the procurement and the implant of organs and tissues. To deal with the low availability of organs and tissues from cadaveric donors it has been implemented the training through clinical simulation. OBJECTIVE: To assess if continuous training through procurement clinical simulation workshops modifies the production and quality indicators of organ and tissue procurement for transplantation in the hospital...
March 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573423/toxic-money-or-paid-altruism-the-meaning-of-payments-for-identity-release-gamete-donors
#13
Leah Gilman
Public discourses commonly frame gamete, organ and other forms of bodily donation as altruistic 'gifts'. However, despite on-going debates about the ethics of payments to donors, few studies have examined the views of donors themselves regarding the meaning of payments and their compatibility (or not) with understandings of these practices as gifts. This article addresses this issue, analysing 24 in-depth interviews with UK identity-release gamete donors. It was crucial to all participants that their donation be viewed as fundamentally other-oriented, motivated by the desire to help others...
March 24, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572859/blood-donors-preferences-for-blood-donation-for-biomedical-research
#14
Vera Raivola, Karoliina Snell, Satu Pastila, Ilpo Helén, Jukka Partanen
BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of blood donors are recruited to participate in biomedical research. As blood services depend on voluntary donors, successful recruitment calls for a better understanding of donors' expectations and attitudes toward the use of samples in research. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixty-one semistructured interviews were conducted with blood donors at eight Finnish Red Cross Blood Service donation sites in Finland. The 10- to 30-minute interviews included open-ended questions about donors' views on blood donation for patients and for biomedical research...
March 23, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532485/facilitators-and-barriers-for-rhd-immunized-women-to-become-and-remain-anti-d-donors
#15
Yolentha Maria Slootweg, Johanna Maria Koelewijn, Wim L de Kort, Masja de Haas, Eva-Maria Merz
BACKGROUND: The successful introduction of prophylaxis with anti-RhD immunoglobulin has resulted in a significant decline of pregnancy-related RhD immunizations but also has decreased the availability of naturally immunized women as (new) anti-D donors. An influx of new donors is necessary to maintain a sufficient pool of anti-D donors. We investigated motivators, barriers, and predictors for anti-D donorship in RhD-immunized women. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A mixed-methods design was applied, including focus group discussions and questionnaires...
April 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477272/experiences-of-women-who-donated-human-milk
#16
Laura M Candelaria, Diane L Spatz, Noreen Giordano
OBJECTIVE: To examine the experiences of women who donated breast milk to a hospital-based milk bank regulated under the policies and procedures set forth by the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HMBANA). DESIGN: Qualitative, phenomenological design. SETTING: The Mothers' Milk Bank in a children's hospital in the Northeastern region of the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve HMBANA-approved milk donors older than 21 years with infants hospitalized in the NICU...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472138/understanding-the-underlying-motives-and-intention-among-indian-blood-donors-towards-voluntary-blood-donation-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
S Saha, B Chandra
OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to fill the gap in the literature by conducting a comprehensive research on Indian donor's intention towards voluntary blood donation in India. The study attempts to conceptualize and validate an integrative framework incorporating voluntary function inventory (VFI) in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model with the purpose tomeasure the voluntary blood donation intention. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Structural equation modeling (SEM) has been used to rigorously test the hypothesized interrelationships among the underlying motives influencing voluntary blood donation intention...
May 2018: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451873/in-silico-analysis-of-antibiotic-induced-clostridium-difficile-infection-remediation-techniques-and-biological-adaptations
#18
Eric W Jones, Jean M Carlson
In this paper we study antibiotic-induced C. difficile infection (CDI), caused by the toxin-producing C. difficile (CD), and implement clinically-inspired simulated treatments in a computational framework that synthesizes a generalized Lotka-Volterra (gLV) model with SIR modeling techniques. The gLV model uses parameters derived from an experimental mouse model, in which the mice are administered antibiotics and subsequently dosed with CD. We numerically identify which of the experimentally measured initial conditions are vulnerable to CD colonization, then formalize the notion of CD susceptibility analytically...
February 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437270/clinicians-attitudes-and-approaches-to-evaluating-the-potential-living-kidney-donor-recipient-relationship-an-interview-study
#19
Angelique F Ralph, Phyllis Butow, Jonathan C Craig, Jeremy R Chapman, John S Gill, John Kanellis, Allison Tong
AIM: Careful assessment of the potential donor-recipient relationship is recommended by guidelines to prevent undue coercion, and ensure realistic expectations and genuine motivations. However, relationships are complex, nuanced and value-laden, and can be challenging to evaluate in living kidney donation. We aimed to describe the attitudes and approaches of transplant clinicians towards assessing the relationship between potential living kidney donors and their recipients. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 54 transplant clinicians (nephrologists, surgeons, coordinators, social workers, psychiatrists and psychologists) from 32 transplant centres across nine countries including Australia, United States, Canada and New Zealand...
February 13, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424063/it-is-only-fair-blood-donors-are-more-sensitive-to-violations-of-fairness-norms-than-nondonors-converging-psychometric-and-ultimatum-game-evidence
#20
E Ferguson, C Lawrence
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The design of effective donor recruitment campaigns requires an accurate understanding of donor motivations. This requires cross-validation of theoretically derived, psychometrically assessed motivations with behavioural preferences. Theoretical models suggest that blood donors should be more sensitive than nondonors to violations of fairness norms. Specifically, active blood donors, compared to nondonors, should endorse beliefs of reciprocal fairness, norms of both positive and negative reciprocity and reject more unfair offers in a behavioural economic game (the ultimatum game)...
April 2018: Vox Sanguinis
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