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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547567/effects-of-electron-acceptors-on-sulphate-reduction-activity-in-activated-sludge-processes
#1
Francisco Rubio-Rincón, Carlos Lopez-Vazquez, Laurens Welles, Tessa van den Brand, Ben Abbas, Mark van Loosdrecht, Damir Brdjanovic
The concentration of sulphate present in wastewater can vary from 10 to 500 mg SO4(2-)/L. During anaerobic conditions, sulphate is reduced to sulphide by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulphide generation is undesired in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Previous research indicated that SRB are inhibited by the presence of electron acceptors (such as O2, NO3 and NO2). However, the contact times and concentrations used in those studies are by far higher than occur in WWTPs. Since sulphide can influence the biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal processes, this research aimed to understand how the different electron acceptors commonly present in biological nutrient removal (BNR) systems can affect the proliferation of SRB...
May 25, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544987/a-high-efficiency-denitrification-bioreactor-for-the-treatment-of-acrylonitrile-wastewater-using-waterborne-polyurethane-immobilized-activated-sludge
#2
Honghong Dong, Wei Wang, Zhaozheng Song, Hao Dong, Jianfeng Wang, Shanshan Sun, Zhongzhi Zhang, Ming Ke, Zhenjia Zhang, Wei-Min Wu, Guangqing Zhang, Jie Ma
The performance of a laboratory-scale, high-efficiency denitrification bioreactor (15L) using activated sludge immobilized by waterborne polyurethane in treating acrylonitrile wastewater with high concentration of nitrate nitrogen (249mg/L) was investigated. The bioreactor was operated at 30°C for 220days. Batch denitrification experiments showed that the optimal operation parameters were C/NO3(-)-N molar ratio of 2.0 using sodium acetate as electron donor and carrier filling rate of 20% (V/V) in the bioreactor...
May 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542841/blood-donors-perceptions-motivators-and-deterrents-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-scoping-review-of-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Lucy Asamoah-Akuoko, Oliver W Hassall, Imelda Bates, Henrik Ullum
Achieving an adequate blood supply in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through donor mobilization and retention is crucial. Factors that motivate or deter blood donors vary according to beliefs and social norms. Understanding the factors that influence blood donation behaviour in SSA is vital to developing effective strategies to address blood donor motivation and retention. This review of 35 studies from 16 SSA countries collates available evidence concerning the perceptions, motivators and deterrents that influence blood donors in SSA...
May 22, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525753/the-u6-snrna-m-6-a-methyltransferase-mettl16-regulates-sam-synthetase-intron-retention
#4
Kathryn E Pendleton, Beibei Chen, Kuanqing Liu, Olga V Hunter, Yang Xie, Benjamin P Tu, Nicholas K Conrad
Maintenance of proper levels of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is critical for a wide variety of biological processes. We demonstrate that the N(6)-adenosine methyltransferase METTL16 regulates expression of human MAT2A, which encodes the SAM synthetase expressed in most cells. Upon SAM depletion by methionine starvation, cells induce MAT2A expression by enhanced splicing of a retained intron. Induction requires METTL16 and its methylation substrate, a vertebrate conserved hairpin (hp1) in the MAT2A 3' UTR...
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508423/oxoborane-rbo-complexation-and-concomitant-electrophilic-bond-activation-processes
#5
Anindya Swarnakar, Christian Hering-Junghans, Michael Ferguson, Robert McDonald, Eric Rivard
Donor-acceptor complexes of the oxoboranes, ClB=O and HOB=O, were synthesized and each feature short multiply bonded (B=O) linkages. The retention of high Lewis acidic character within these encapsulated monomeric oxoboranes was manifest by their ability to support C-F and Si-O bond activation/functionalization. The reported ClB=O complexes can be regarded as synthetic surrogates of the [BO]+ cation, an inorganic analogue of CO.
May 15, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474337/impact-of-predictive-scoring-model-and-e-mail-messages-on-african-american-blood-donors
#6
Lohith S Bachegowda, Brad Timm, Pinaki Dasgupta, Christopher D Hillyer, Debra Kessler, Mark Rebosa, Christopher R France, Beth H Shaz
BACKGROUND: Expanding the African American (AA) donor pool is critical to sustain transfusion support for sickle cell disease patients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The aims were to: 1) apply cognitive computing on donation related metrics to develop a predictive model that effectively identifies repeat AA donors, 2) determine whether a single e-mail communication could improve AA donor retention and compare retention results on higher versus lower predictive score donors, and 3) evaluate the effect of e-mail marketing on AA donor retention with culturally versus nonculturally tailored message...
May 5, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467674/evaluation-of-a-mixed-anionic-nonionic-surfactant-modified-eggshell-membrane-as-an-advantageous-adsorbent-for-the-solid-phase-extraction-of-sudan-i-iv-as-model-analytes
#7
Ying Li, Anyi Wang, Yunfei Bai, Shiping Wang
The coadsorption of mixed anionic-nonionic surfactants, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate with Triton X-100, on the surface of eggshell membrane was investigated based on adsorption isotherms to improve the solid-phase extraction performance of eggshell membrane towards organic contaminants. Results showed that even though excess Triton X-100 might inhibit the adsorption of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, a low dosage of Triton X-100 can significantly improve sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate modification and enhance the extraction efficiency of eggshell membrane from 73...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446462/sodium-storage-in-human-tissues-is-mediated-by-glycosaminoglycan-expression
#8
Michael Fischereder, Bernhard Michalke, Elisa Schmoeckel, Antje Habicht, Raphael Kunisch, Ivana Pavelic, Bermadett Szabados, Ulf Schönermarck, Peter Nelson, Manfred Stangl
The current paradigm regarding sodium handling in animals and humans postulates that total body sodium is regulated predominately via regulation of extracellular volume. Active sodium storage independent of volume retention is thought to be negligible. However, studies in animals, hypertensive patients and healthy humans suggest non-osmotic storage of sodium in skin. We hypothesized that tissue sodium concentrations ([Na]T) found in humans vary and reflect regulation due to variable glycosaminoglycan content due to variable expression of XYLT-1...
April 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443363/a-mathematical-model-of-aerobic-methane-oxidation-coupled-to-denitrification
#9
Oskar Modin
Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria use methane as their only source of energy and carbon. They release organic compounds that can serve as electron donors for co-existing denitrifiers. This interaction between methanotrophs and denitrifiers is known to contribute to nitrogen losses in natural environments and has also been exploited by researchers for denitrification of nitrate-contaminated wastewater. The purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical model describing aerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification in suspended-growth reactors...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440624/acid-base-catalysis-in-glycosidations-a-nature-derived-alternative-to-the-generally-employed-methodology
#10
Peng Peng, Richard R Schmidt
Inverting glycosyltransferases enforce in the active site an intramolecular, acid-base catalyzed glycosidation that, due to proximity of the donor anomeric carbon and the acceptor hydroxyl group, follows an SN2-type reaction. Spacers, tethering donor and acceptor via nonreacting functional groups, led in intramolecular glycosidations to excellent yields and, independent of the donor anomeric configuration, to either the α- or the β-anomer. The requirement of a demanding protecting group pattern confines the application of this efficient method...
April 25, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396528/human-enterocytes-as-an-in-vitro-model-for-the-evaluation-of-intestinal-drug-metabolism-characterization-of-drug-metabolizing-enzyme-activities-of-cryopreserved-human-enterocytes-from-twenty-four-donors
#11
Ming-Chih David Ho, Nick Ring, Kirsten Amaral, Utkarsh Doshi, Albert Li
We report here successful isolation and cryopreservation of enterocytes from human small intestine. The enterocytes were isolated by enzyme digestion of the intestinal lumen followed by partial purification via differential centrifugation. The enterocytes were cryopreserved directly after isolation without culturing to maximize retention of in vivo drug metabolizing enzyme activities. Post-thaw viability of the cryopreserved enterocytes was consistently over 80% based on trypan blue exclusion. Cryopreserved enterocytes pooled from 8 donors (4 male and 4 female) were evaluated for their metabolism of 14 pathway-selective substrates: CYP1A2 (phenacetin hydroxylation), CYP2A6 (coumarin 7-hydroxylation), CYP2B6 (bupropion hydroxylation), CYP2C8 (paclitaxel 6α-hydroxylation), CYP2C9 (diclofenac 4-hydroxylation), CYP2C19 (s-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylation), CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan hydroxylation), CYP2E1 (chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation), CYP3A4 (midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation), CYP2J2 (astemizole O-demethylation), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT; 7-hydroxycoumarin glucuronidation), sulfotransferase (SULT; 7-hydroxycoumarin sulfation), and carboxylesterase 2 (CES2; irinotecan hydrolysis) activities...
April 10, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394128/water-soluble-pd8l4-self-assembled-molecular-barrel-as-an-aqueous-carrier-for-hydrophobic-curcumin
#12
Imtiyaz Ahmad Bhat, Ruchi Jain, Mujahuddin M Siddiqui, Deepak K Saini, Partha Sarathi Mukherjee
A tetrafacial water-soluble molecular barrel (1) was synthesized by coordination driven self-assembly of a symmetrical tetrapyridyl donor (L) with a cis-blocked 90° acceptor [cis-(en)Pd(NO3)2] (en = ethane-1,2-diamine). The open barrel structure of (1) was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The presence of a hydrophobic cavity with large windows makes it an ideal candidate for encapsulation and carrying hydrophobic drug like curcumin in an aqueous medium. The barrel (1) encapsulates curcumin inside its molecular cavity and protects highly photosensitive curcumin from photodegradation...
April 10, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394024/a-brief-motivational-interview-promotes-internal-motivation-to-donate-blood-among-young-adults-with-and-without-a-prior-donation-history
#13
Irina E Livitz, Kristen R Fox, Lina K Himawan, Christopher R France
BACKGROUND: Recruitment and retention of first-time and repeat donors is essential to maintain a stable blood supply. Recent evidence has shown that promoting internal motivation may be an effective strategy to enhance donation behavior. We tested the efficacy of an in-person motivational interview at increasing internal motivation and intention to donate. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A sample of 219 donors and nondonors (69.4% female; mean ± SD age, 19.2 ± 1...
April 10, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389623/neoplastic-plasma-cells-generate-an-inflammatory-environment-within-bone-marrow-and-markedly-alter-the-distribution-of-t-cells-between-lymphoid-compartments
#14
Oliver C Goodyear, Sarah Essex, Anandram Seetharam, Supratik Basu, Paul Moss, Guy Pratt
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and multiple myeloma (MM) are characterised by the accumulation of malignant plasma cells within bone marrow and lead to a range of abnormalities in the peripheral blood T cell repertoire. We investigated the level of inflammatory chemokines within the bone marrow and blood of patients with MGUS and MM and related this to the pattern of chemokine receptor expression on T cells in both compartments.The expression of a wide range of chemokine ligands for CXCR3 and CCR4 was markedly increased within the bone marrow of patients with MGUS and MM compared to healthy donors...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389600/intravascular-donor-monocytes-play-a-central-role-in-lung-transplant-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury
#15
Kate Colette Tatham, Kieran Patrick O'Dea, Rosalba Romano, Hannah Elizabeth Donaldson, Kenji Wakabayashi, Brijesh Vipin Patel, Louit Thakuria, Andre Rudiger Simon, Padmini Sarathchandra, Nandor Marczin, Masao Takata
RATIONALE: Primary graft dysfunction in lung transplant recipients derives from the initial, largely leukocyte-dependent, ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Intravascular lung-marginated monocytes have been shown to play key roles in experimental acute lung injury, but their contribution to lung ischaemia-reperfusion injury post transplantation is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To define the role of donor intravascular monocytes in lung transplant-related acute lung injury and primary graft dysfunction...
April 7, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381264/hiv-policy-implementation-in-two-health-and-demographic-surveillance-sites-in-uganda-findings-from-a-national-policy-review-health-facility-surveys-and-key-informant-interviews
#16
Ellen McRobie, Alison Wringe, Jessica Nakiyingi-Miiro, Francis Kiweewa, Tom Lutalo, Gertrude Nakigozi, Jim Todd, Jeffrey William Eaton, Basia Zaba, Kathryn Church
BACKGROUND: Successful HIV testing, care and treatment policy implementation is essential for realising the reductions in morbidity and mortality those policies are designed to target. While adoption of new HIV policies is rapid, less is known about the facility-level implementation of new policies and the factors influencing this. METHODS: We assessed implementation of national policies about HIV testing, treatment and retention at health facilities serving two health and demographic surveillance sites (HDSS) (10 in Kyamulibwa, 14 in Rakai)...
April 5, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361127/longterm-maintenance-of-human-naive-t-cells-through-in-situ-homeostasis-in-lymphoid-tissue-sites
#17
Joseph J C Thome, Boris Grinshpun, Brahma V Kumar, Masa Kubota, Yoshiaki Ohmura, Harvey Lerner, Gregory D Sempowski, Yufeng Shen, Donna L Farber
Naïve T cells develop in the thymus and coordinate immune responses to new antigens; however, mechanisms for their long-term persistence over the human lifespan remain undefined. Here, we investigated human naïve T cell development and maintenance in primary and secondary lymphoid tissues obtained from individual organ donors aged 3 months-73 years. In the thymus, the frequency of double-positive thymocytes declined sharply in donors over age 40 coincident with reduced recent thymic emigrants (RTE) in lymphoid tissues, while naïve T cells were functionally maintained predominantly in lymph nodes (LN)...
December 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360110/the-cftr-trafficking-mutation-f508del-inhibits-the-constitutive-activity-of-slc26a9
#18
Carol A Bertrand, Shalini Mitra, Sanjay K Mishra, Xiaohui Wang, Yu Zhao, Joseph M Pilewski, Dean R Madden, Raymond A Frizzell
Several members of the SLC26A family of anion transporters associate with CFTR, forming complexes in which CFTR and SLC26A functions are reciprocally regulated. This association is thought to be facilitated by PDZ scaffolding interactions. CFTR has been shown to be positively regulated by NHERF-1, and negatively regulated by CAL in airway epithelia. However, it's unclear which PDZ-domain protein(s) interact with SLC26A9, a SLC26A family member found in airway epithelia. We have previously shown that primary, human bronchial epithelia (HBE) from non-CF donors exhibit constitutive anion secretion attributable to SLC26A9...
March 30, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336244/-commitment-in-plasmapheresis-donation-a-study-of-determinants-among-regular-donors-in-plasmapheresis
#19
S Delépine-Farvacques, Florence Terrade, B Danic, J-P Lebaudy
The purpose of this study, based on the Theory of planned behavior, is to identify and ultimately better understand what determines the fidelity and the regularity of donors committed in plasmapheresis donation. This qualitative study is a primary stage to establish a classification of donors in a French socio-cultural context. For this reason, we have carried out a survey among 16 regular plasmapheresis donors, by way of semi-structured individual interviews at the Établissement français du sang - Brittany...
June 2017: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324826/nitrogen-removal-by-the-enhanced-floating-treatment-wetlands-from-the-secondary-effluent
#20
Lei Gao, Weili Zhou, Jungchen Huang, Shengbing He, Yijia Yan, Wenying Zhu, Suqing Wu, Xu Zhang
Three novel floating treatment wetlands, including autotrophic enhanced floating treatment wetland (AEFTW), heterotrophic enhanced floating treatment wetland (HEFTW) and enhanced floating treatment wetland (EFTW) were developed to remove nitrogen from the secondary effluent. Results showed that the analogously excellent nitrogen removal performance was achieved in AEFTW and HEFTW. About 89.4% of the total nitrogen (TN) was removed from AEFTW at a low S/N of 0.9 and 88.5% from HEFTW at a low C/N of 3.5 when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 1d in summer...
March 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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