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Human twin studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754148/age-prediction-of-children-and-adolescents-aged-6-17-years-an-epigenome-wide-analysis-of-dna-methylation
#1
Chunxiao Li, Wenjing Gao, Ying Gao, Canqing Yu, Jun Lv, Ruoran Lv, Jiali Duan, Ying Sun, Xianghui Guo, Weihua Cao, Liming Li
The DNA methylation age, a good reflection of human aging process, has been used to predict chronological age of adults and newborns. However, the prediction model for children and adolescents was absent. In this study, we aimed to generate a prediction model of chronological age for children and adolescents aged 6-17 years by using age-specific DNA methylation patterns from 180 Chinese twin individuals. We identified 6,350 age-related CpGs from the epigenome-wide association analysis (N=179). 116 known age-related sites in children were confirmed...
May 12, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742386/heritability-estimates-of-cortical-anatomy-the-influence-and-reliability-of-different-estimation-strategies
#2
Sejal Patel, Raihaan Patel, Min Tae M Park, Mario Masellis, Jo Knight, M Mallar Chakravarty
Twin study designs have been previously used to investigate the heritability of neuroanatomical measures, such as regional cortical volumes. Volume can be fractionated into surface area and cortical thickness, where both measures are considered to have independent genetic and environmental bases. Region of interest (ROI) and vertex-wise approaches have been used to calculate heritability of cortical thickness and surface area in twin studies. In our study, we estimate heritability using the Human Connectome Project magnetic resonance imaging dataset composed of healthy young twin and non-twin siblings (mean age of 29, sample size of 757)...
May 6, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740156/research-on-oral-microbiota-of-monozygotic-twins-with-discordant-caries-experience-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#3
Hongle Wu, Benhua Zeng, Bolei Li, Biao Ren, Jianhua Zhao, Mingyun Li, Xian Peng, Mingye Feng, Jiyao Li, Hong Wei, Lei Cheng, Xuedong Zhou
Oral microbiome is potentially correlated with many diseases, such as dental caries, periodontitis, oral cancer and some systemic diseases. Twin model, as an effective method for studying human microbiota, is widely used in research of relationship between oral microbiota and dental caries. However, there were few researches focusing on caries discordant twins. In this study, in vitro assays were conducted combined with 16S rRNA sequencing analysis on oral microbiota sampled from twins who presented discordant caries experience and mice model was developed as well...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735759/measurement-of-internal-ph-in-helicobacter-pylori-by-using-green-fluorescent-protein-fluorimetry
#4
Yi Wen, David R Scott, Olga Vagin, Elmira Tokhtaeva, Elizabeth A Marcus, George Sachs
Helicobacter pylori is an organism known to colonize the normal human stomach. Previous studies have shown that the bacterium does this by elevating its periplasmic pH via the hydrolysis of urea. However, the value of the periplasmic pH was calculated indirectly from the proton motive force equation. To measure the periplasmic pH directly in H. pylori , we fused EGFP to the predicted twin arginine-signal peptides of HydA and KapA from H. pylori , and TorA from E. coli The fusion proteins were expressed in the H...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713738/fetal-median-sacral-artery-anatomy-study-by-micro-ct-imaging
#5
P Meignan, A Binet, A R Cook, H Lardy, G Captier
PURPOSE: The median sacral artery (MSA) is the termination of the dorsal aorta, which undergoes a complex regression and remodeling process during embryo and fetal development. The MSA contributes to the pelvic vascularization and may be injured during pelvic surgery. The embryological steps of MSA development, anastomosis formation and anatomical variations are linked, but not fully understood. METHODS: The pelvic vascularization and more precisely the MSA of a human fetus at 22 weeks of gestation (GW) were studied using micro-CT imaging...
April 30, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699034/-association-between-obesity-and-dna-methylation-among-the-7-16-year-old-twins
#6
C X Li, Y Gao, W J Gao, C Q Yu, J Lyu, R R Lyu, J L Duan, Y Sun, X H Guo, S F Wang, B Zhou, G Wang, W H Cao, L M Li
Objective: On whole-genome scale, we tried to explore the correlation between obesity-related traits and DNA methylation sites, based on discordant monozygotic twin pairs. Methods: A total of 90 pairs of 6-17 year-old twins were recruited in Chaoyang district, Yanqing district and Fangshan district in Beijing in 2016. Information on twins was gathered through a self-designed questionnaire and results: from physical examination, including height, weight and waist circumference of the subjects under study. DNA methylation detection was chosen on the Illumina Human Methylation EPIC BeadChip...
April 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698746/for-submission-to-the-journal-of-gynaecology-obstetrics-and-human-reproduction
#7
Mélanie Korsakissok, Marion Groussolles, Odile Dicky, Corinne Alberge, Charlotte Casper, Corinne Azogui-Assouline
OBJECTIVE: To describe the morbidity and mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born from a Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (TTTS) pregnancy treated using laser fetoscopy in Toulouse. POPULATION AND METHOD: All pregnancies with TTTS treated by laser fetoscopy in our centre were included. Antenatal and postnatal morbidity and neonatal morbidity were identified in the medical records retrospectively. The neurodevelopmental outcome was studied using Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) sent to the parents, an oral interview with the parents and with the child's doctor (last objective neurological examination, rehabilitation needs, learning disabilities)...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695307/use-of-dietary-indices-to-control-for-diet-in-human-gut-microbiota-studies
#8
Ruth C E Bowyer, Matthew A Jackson, Tess Pallister, Jane Skinner, Tim D Spector, Ailsa A Welch, Claire J Steves
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors have a large influence on the composition of the human gut microbiota. One of the most influential and well-studied is host diet. To assess and interpret the impact of non-dietary factors on the gut microbiota, we endeavoured to determine the most appropriate method to summarise community variation attributable to dietary effects. Dietary habits are multidimensional with internal correlations. This complexity can be simplified by using dietary indices that quantify dietary variance in a single measure and offer a means of controlling for diet in microbiota studies...
April 25, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695065/isolation-of-high-purity-anthocyanin-monomers-from-red-cabbage-with-recycling-preparative-liquid-chromatography-and-their-photostability
#9
Yijun Chen, Zikun Wang, Hanghang Zhang, Yuan Liu, Shuai Zhang, Qingyan Meng, Wenjie Liu
Anthocyanins from red cabbage are of great importance for their applications in the food industry as natural colorants and their beneficial effects on human wellness as natural antioxidants. This study aimed to develop an effective method for the isolation of anthocyanins with the help of a combination of alternate recycling and direct recycling preparative liquid chromatography. Ten major components of anthocyanins from red cabbage were isolated and their structures were identified by HPLC-MS/MS. Meanwhile, the stability of the isolated anthocyanins under various light conditions was also investigated so as to provide data for their storage...
April 24, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689083/significant-common-environmental-effects-on-leukocyte-subpopulations
#10
Maya Botzman, Irit Gat-Viks
Major efforts are invested in the analysis of phenotypic variation in a population of individuals. While many of these studies focus on the genetic basis of phenotypic variation via measurements of DNA polymorphic sites, the environmental effects are still elusive. Here we propose a methodology, called CCCE ('Cell Composition Common Environment'), to identify environmental effects on the composition of immune cell functionalities. Specifically, CCCE is focused on the common experiences that are shared between siblings (the 'common environment'), designed to correct for cell subpopulation heterogeneity, and is based on a multicolor flow cytometry analysis across a large cohort of human monozygotic and dizygotic twins...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676599/psoriasis-in-pregnancy-case-series-and-literature-review-of-data-concerning-exposure-during-pregnancy-to-ustekinumab
#11
M Galluzzo, S D'Adamio, L Bianchi, M Talamonti
Psoriasis tends to improve for approximately half of patients during pregnancy, but an equal number of patients report no change or worsening during this period, when lots of medications, like biologics, are not indicated. The aim of our study was to review data of patient that had been pregnant during ustekinumab treatment, analyzing data of our data set between September 2010 and February 2018. We found data of three patients that had been pregnant during ustekinumab treatment. All three patients successfully completed the pregnancy without complications...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676501/the-canary-in-the-coal-mine-continence-care-for-people-with-dementia-in-acute-hospital-wards-as-a-crisis-of-dehumanization
#12
Paula Boddington, Katie Featherstone
Continence is a key moment of care that can tell us about the wider care of people living with dementia within acute hospital wards. The spotlight is currently on the quality of hospital care of older people across the UK, yet concerns persist about their poor treatment, neglect, abuse, and discrimination within this setting. Thus, within hospitals, the care of people living with dementia is both a welfare issue and a human rights issue. The challenge of continence care for people living with dementia can be seen as the 'canary in the coal mine' for the unravelling of dignity within the acute setting...
May 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673331/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-preterm-birth-at-kenyatta-national-hospital
#13
Peter Wagura, Aggrey Wasunna, Ahmed Laving, Dalton Wamalwa, Paul Ng'ang'a
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization estimates the prevalence of preterm birth to be 5-18% across 184 countries of the world. Statistics from countries with reliable data show that preterm birth is on the rise. About a third of neonatal deaths are directly attributed to prematurity and this has hindered the achievement of Millennium Development Goal-4 target. Locally, few studies have looked at the prevalence of preterm delivery and factors associated with it. This study determined the prevalence of preterm birth and the factors associated with preterm delivery at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya...
April 19, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668891/maternal-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-and-early-offspring-development
#14
Griffith A Bell, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Sunni L Mumford, Hyojun Park, James Mills, Erin M Bell, Miranda Broadney, Edwina H Yeung
STUDY QUESTION: Is maternal polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) associated with developmental delays in offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: Offspring of mothers with PCOS were at higher risk of failure on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There is growing evidence that offspring of mothers with PCOS may be at higher risk for developmental disorders due to potential exposure to hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Few studies exist regarding maternal PCOS and early childhood development in the USA...
April 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667377/the-usefulness-of-determination-of-the-procalcitonin-pct-concentration-in-gbs-piositive-pregnant-womens-blood-serum-for-anticipations-of-infections-in-newborns
#15
Wojciech Cnota, Dominika Mucha, Jan Mucha
Group-B streptococci (GBS) are commensal bacteria of the human body. They may, however, pose a serious life hazard to pregnant women. During labour, newborns of GBS-positive mothers run the risk of infections that may eventually lead to severe complications, sepsis or even death. For this reason, it is very important to find new diagnostic markers that will enable fast and effective diagnostics and control of the disease process. The level of procalcitonin emerges as a promising diagnostic parameter. AIM. Analysis of the impact of the procalcitonin (PCT) level in GBS-positive pregnant women on the possibility of complications and infections in mothers and newborns MATERIAL AND METHODS...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660295/breastfeeding-twins-factors-related-to-weaning
#16
Fernanda Cristina Ferreira Mikami, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira Francisco, Agatha Rodrigues, Wagner Rodrigues Hernandez, Marcelo Zugaib, Maria de Lourdes Brizot
BACKGROUND: Many factors may influence a woman's decision to start and maintain breastfeeding. Research aim: This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with breastfeeding cessation in twin infants during the first 6 months after birth and to describe the main reasons for weaning cited by mothers of twins. METHODS: This is a secondary data analysis of a prospective randomized trial conducted in Brazil. Data were obtained through longitudinal quantitative and qualitative self-reported interviews...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655398/adult-empathy-possible-gender-differences-in-gene-environment-architecture-for-cognitive-and-emotional-components-in-a-large-italian-twin-sample
#17
Virgilia Toccaceli, Corrado Fagnani, Nancy Eisenberg, Guido Alessandri, Augusto Vitale, Maria Antonietta Stazi
Empathy plays a central role in prosocial behavior and human cooperation. Very few twin researchers have investigated innate and environmental effects in adult empathy, and twin research on gender differences in these effects is sparse. The goal of this study was to examine innate and environmental influences on three components of an empathy scale frequently used with adults - the expression of cognitive (CE), emotional (EE), and social skills (SS) empathy - and to explore gender differences in the influences...
April 15, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652693/perspectives-for-progress-concepts-about-v-combining-dot-above-o2max-and-trainability-are-context-dependent
#18
Michael J Joyner, Carsten Lundby
Some individuals show little or no increase in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in response to training programs consistent with public health guidelines. However, results from studies using more intense programs challenge the concept that some humans have limited trainability. We explore the implications of these divergent observations on the biology of trainability and propose a new set of twin studies to explore them.
April 12, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649670/the-influence-of-the-twin-peg-design-on-femoral-interface-temperature-and-maximum-load-to-failure-in-cemented-oxford-unicompartmental-knee-arthroplasty
#19
Tobias Reiner, Martin Schwarze, Benjamin Panzram, Matthias C Klotz, Rudi G Bitsch, Sebastian Jaeger
BACKGROUND: The twin peg femoral component was introduced for the cemented Oxford unicondylar knee to increase implant stability. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the influence of the twin peg design on femoral interface temperature and maximum load to failure in comparison to the single peg design. METHODS: In this experimental study medial Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty was performed in 12 pairs of fresh-frozen human knees. A cemented femoral single peg component was implanted on the one side (group A) and a cemented twin peg component on the other side (group B)...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619236/evaluation-of-the-isl1-gene-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bladder-exstrophy-in-a-swedish-cohort
#20
Samara Arkani, Jia Cao, Johanna Lundin, Daniel Nilsson, Thomas Källman, Gillian Barker, Gundela Holmdahl, Christina Clementsson Kockum, Hans Matsson, Agneta Nordenskjöld
Bladder exstrophy is a congenital closure defect of the urinary bladder with a profound effect on morbidity. Although the malformation is usually sporadic, a genetic background is supported by an increased recurrence risk in relatives, higher concordance rates in monozygotic twins and several associated chromosomal aberrations. Recently, the ISL1 gene was presented as a candidate gene for bladder exstrophy and epispadias complex (BEEC) development in two different studies. In our study, we screened for genetic variants in the ISL1 gene in DNA from 125 Swedish patients using Sanger sequencing and array-CGH analysis...
2018: Human Genome Variation
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