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Human twin studies

Sally J Wadsworth, John C DeFries, Erik G Willcutt, Bruce F Pennington, Richard K Olson
Because of recent concerns about the replication of published results in the behavioral and biomedical sciences (Ioannidis, PLoS Medicine, Vol. 2, 2005, p. e124; Open Science Collaboration, Science, Vol. 349, 2015, p. 943; Pashler & Wagenmakers, Perspectives on Psychological Science, Vol. 7, 2012, pp. 528-530), we have conducted a replication of our recently published analyses of longitudinal reading performance and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder data from twin pairs selected for reading difficulties (Wadsworth et al...
October 17, 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
K N Anderson, J J Connor, A F Koerner, M A Rueter
STUDY QUESTION: Compared to families with IVF singletons, what are parental depressive, parent-adolescent interaction and adolescent adjustment outcomes in families with 11-17-year-old IVF twins? SUMMARY ANSWER: No differences were detected for any measured outcome between families with 11-17-year-old IVF twins and those with IVF singletons, despite high statistical power. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: When IVF twins are younger than 5-years-old, parents tend to have more mental health difficulties and poorer parent-child interactions relative to IVF singletons...
October 15, 2016: Human Reproduction
Neda Sadeghi, John H Gilmore, Guido Gerig
Twin studies provide valuable insights into the analysis of genetic and environmental factors influencing human brain development. However, these findings may not generalize to singletons due to differences in pre- and postnatal environments. One would expect the effect of these differences to be greater during the early years of life. To address this concern, we compare longitudinal diffusion data of white matter regions for 26 singletons and 76 twins (monozygotic and dizygotic) from birth to 2 years of age...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
K C Takarinda, A D Harries, C Sandy, T Mutasa-Apollo, C Zishiri
Setting: Zimbabwe has a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) driven tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, with antiretroviral therapy (ART) scaled up in the public sector since 2004. Objective: To determine whether national ART scale-up was associated with annual national TB case notification rates (CNR), stratified by disease type and category, between 2000 and 2013. Design: This was a retrospective study using aggregate data from global reports. Results: The number of people living with HIV and retained on ART from 2004 to 2013 increased from 8400 to 665 299, with ART coverage increasing from <0...
September 2016: Public Health Action
Christopher E Gordon, Owen F Price, Elizabeth M Tasker, Andrew J Denham
High severity wildfires pose threats to human assets, but are also perceived to impact vegetation communities because a small number of species may become dominant immediately after fire. However there are considerable gaps in our knowledge about species-specific responses of plants to different fire severities, and how this influences fuel hazard in the short and long-term. Here we conduct a floristic survey at sites before and two years after a wildfire of unprecedented size and severity in the Warrumbungle National Park (Australia) to explore relationships between post-fire growth of a fire responsive shrub genera (Acacia), total mid-story vegetation cover, fire severity and fuel hazard...
September 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Laila Noli, Antonio Capalbo, Yaser Dajani, Danilo Cimadomo, Jean Bvumbe, Laura Rienzi, Filippo Maria Ubaldi, Caroline Ogilvie, Yacoub Khalaf, Dusko Ilic
Studies reporting term pregnancy and the production of genetically identical offspring from isolated blastomeres of early stage embryos have been carried out in small and large animals. However, very little is known about the effects of embryo splitting on the development and reproductive competency of human embryos. In this study, we investigated the effects of embryo splitting on profile of microRNAs (miRNAs) detected in their spent blastocyst medium (SBM) by comparative analysis of miRNA profiles in SBM of human twin embryos created by blastomere biopsy and SBM of blastocysts that resulted in a healthy pregnancy and live birth following embryo transfer...
October 17, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Boris Novakovic, Christine E Napier, Regan Vryer, Eva Dimitriadis, Ursula Manuelpillai, Andrew Sharkey, Jeffrey M Craig, Roger R Reddel, Richard Saffery
STUDY QUESTION: What factors regulate elongated telomere length in the human placenta? SUMMARY ANSWER: Hypomethylation of TERRA promoters in the human placenta is associated with high expression TERRA genes, however, no clear mechanistic link between these phenomena and elongated telomere length in the human placenta was found. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Human placenta tissue and trophoblasts show longer telomere lengths compared to gestational age-matched somatic cells...
September 7, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
Ting Xu, Alexander Opitz, R Cameron Craddock, Margaret J Wright, Xi-Nian Zuo, Michael P Milham
Resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) is a powerful in-vivo tool for examining the functional architecture of the human brain. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability to characterize transitions between functionally distinct cortical areas through the mapping of gradients in intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) profiles. To date, this novel approach has primarily been applied to iFC profiles averaged across groups of individuals, or in one case, a single individual scanned multiple times. Here, we used a publically available R-fMRI dataset, in which 30 healthy participants were scanned 10 times (10 min per session), to investigate differences in full-brain transition profiles (i...
September 6, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Wei Wen, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Karen A Mather, Wanlin Zhu, Jiyang Jiang, Pierre Lafaye de Micheaux, Margaret J Wright, David Ames, Perminder S Sachdev
This study examined the heritability of brain grey matter structures in a subsample of older adult twins (93 MZ and 68 DZ twin pairs; mean age 70 years) from the Older Australian Twins Study. The heritability estimates of subcortical regions ranged from 0.41 (amygdala) to 0.73 (hippocampus), and of cortical regions, from 0.55 (parietal lobe) to 0.78 (frontal lobe). Corresponding structures in the two hemispheres were influenced by the same genetic factors and high genetic correlations were observed between the two hemispheric regions...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jose A Lopez-Escamez, Thanos Bibas, Rilana F F Cima, Paul Van de Heyning, Marlies Knipper, Birgit Mazurek, Agnieszka J Szczepek, Christopher R Cederroth
Subjective tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of external or bodily-generated sounds. Chronic tinnitus is a highly prevalent condition affecting over 70 million people in Europe. A wide variety of comorbidities, including hearing loss, psychiatric disorders, neurodegenerative disorders, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction, have been suggested to contribute to the onset or progression of tinnitus; however, the precise molecular mechanisms of tinnitus are not well understood and the contribution of genetic and epigenetic factors remains unknown...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
James M Sherlock, Karin J H Verweij, Sean C Murphy, Andrew C Heath, Nicholas G Martin, Brendan P Zietsch
Choice of romantic partner is an enormously important component of human life, impacting almost every facet of day-to-day existence, however; the processes underlying this choice are remarkably complex and have so far been largely resistant to scientific explanation. One consistent finding is that, on average, members of romantic dyads tend to be more alike than would be expected by chance. Selecting for self-similarity is at least partially driven by phenotypic matching wherein couples share similar phenotypes, and preferences for a number of these traits are partly genetically influenced (e...
September 2, 2016: Behavior Genetics
Shaoming Zhou, Ruihuan Xu, Fusheng He, Jiaxiu Zhou, Yan Wang, Jianli Zhou, Mingbang Wang, Wenhao Zhou
Early colonization of gut microbiota in human gut is a complex process. It remains unclear when gut microbiota colonization occurs and how it proceeds. In order to study gut microbiota composition in human early life, the present study recruited 10 healthy pairs of twins, including five monozygotic (MZ) and five dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs, whose age ranged from 0 to 6 years old. 20 fecal samples from these twins were processed by shotgun metagenomic sequencing, and their averaged data outputs were generated as 2G per sample...
2016: PloS One
Sander H M Kleijkers, Eleni Mantikou, Els Slappendel, Dimitri Consten, Jannie van Echten-Arends, Alex M Wetzels, Madelon van Wely, Luc J M Smits, Aafke P A van Montfoort, Sjoerd Repping, John C M Dumoulin, Sebastiaan Mastenbroek
STUDY QUESTION: Does embryo culture medium influence pregnancy and perinatal outcome in IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: Embryo culture media used in IVF affect treatment efficacy and the birthweight of newborns. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A wide variety of culture media for human preimplantation embryos in IVF/ICSI treatments currently exists. It is unknown which medium is best in terms of clinical outcomes. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the culture medium used for the in vitro culture of embryos affects birthweight, but this has never been demonstrated by large randomized trials...
October 2016: Human Reproduction
Alexander Weiss, Bart M L Baselmans, Edith Hofer, Jingyun Yang, Aysu Okbay, Penelope A Lind, Mike B Miller, Ilja M Nolte, Wei Zhao, Saskia P Hagenaars, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Lindsay K Matteson, Harold Snieder, Jessica D Faul, Catharina A Hartman, Patricia A Boyle, Henning Tiemeier, Miriam A Mosing, Alison Pattie, Gail Davies, David C Liewald, Reinhold Schmidt, Philip L De Jager, Andrew C Heath, Markus Jokela, John M Starr, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Magnus Johannesson, David Cesarini, Albert Hofman, Sarah E Harris, Jennifer A Smith, Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen, Laura Pulkki-Råback, Helena Schmidt, Jacqui Smith, William G Iacono, Matt McGue, David A Bennett, Nancy L Pedersen, Patrik K E Magnusson, Ian J Deary, Nicholas G Martin, Dorret I Boomsma, Meike Bartels, Michelle Luciano
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits...
October 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Mohamed Ali, Zeitoun Moustafa M
AIMS: This study aimed at elucidating the effects of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) on the ovarian follicular dynamics, progesterone, estradiol-17β profiles, and pregnancy of dairy cows. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three groups (G, n=5 cows) of multiparous dairy cows were used. G1 (C) control cows were given controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and prostaglandin F2α; G2 (L) cows were given low dose (525 IU and G3 (H) cows were given high dose (1800 IU) of r-hFSH on twice daily basis at the last 3 days before CIDR removal...
July 2016: Veterinary World
Nancy L Segal
The 2016 Satellite Meeting of the International Society of Twin Studies took place on June 20 in Brisbane, Australia. The host institution was the QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute. An overview of selected presentations and activities is provided. This synopsis is followed by a brief tribute to the recent passing of our esteemed colleague, Dr Irving I. Gottesman. Next, there are summaries of research on monozygotic twinning after single embryo transfer, a twin study of mononucleosis susceptibility, cerebral injury following twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome surgery, and a correction and clarification regarding an article by Segal (2016) on the Brazilian Twin Registry...
October 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Yoo Kuen Chan, Pui San Loh
More than 90% of the human species are right handed. Although outwardly our body appears symmetrical, a 50/50% lateralization in handedness never occurs. Neither have we seen more than 50% left handedness in any subset of the human population. By 12-15weeks of intrauterine life, as many as 6 times more fetuses are noted by ultrasound studies to be sucking on their right thumbs. Distinct difference in oxygenation leading to dissimilar energy availability between right and left subclavian arteries in place by week 9 of life may hold the clue to the lateralization of hand function and eventually, the same in the brain...
September 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Venla Berg, Virpi Lummaa, Ian J Rickard, Karri Silventoinen, Jaakko Kaprio, Markus Jokela
Personality has been associated with reproductive success in humans and other animals, suggesting potential evolutionary selection pressures. However, studies to date have only examined these associations on a phenotypic level, which may be inadequate in estimating evolutionary change. Using a large longitudinal twin dataset of contemporary Finns, we compared the phenotypic (breeder's equation) and genetically informed (the Robertson-Price identity) associations between lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and two personality traits-neuroticism and extraversion...
August 9, 2016: Behavior Genetics
C Calhaz-Jorge, C de Geyter, M S Kupka, J de Mouzon, K Erb, E Mocanu, T Motrenko, G Scaravelli, C Wyns, V Goossens
STUDY QUESTION: The 16th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report presents the data of the treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) and intrauterine insemination (IUI) initiated in Europe during 2012: are there any changes compared with previous years? SUMMARY ANSWER: Despite some fluctuations in the number of countries reporting data, the overall number of ART cycles has continued to increase year by year, the pregnancy rates (PRs) in 2012 remained stable compared with those reported in 2011, and the number of transfers with multiple embryos (3+) and the multiple delivery rates were lower than ever before...
August 2016: Human Reproduction
Teresa Rodriguez-Calvo, Somayeh Sabouri, Florence Anquetil, Matthias G von Herrath
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the loss of pancreatic beta cells in the islets of Langerhans. Although genetic predisposition plays an important role in T1D development, studies of identical twins suggest that environmental factors such as viruses and other pathogens may be critical triggers either through direct cytolytic effect and gradual beta cell destruction, or by bystander activation of the immune system. In addition, viruses may circumvent the host immune response and have the capacity to establish chronic lifelong infections...
October 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
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