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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228057/n-acetylcysteine-nac-ameliorates-epstein-barr-virus-latent-membrane-protein-1-induced-chronic-inflammation
#1
Xiao Gao, Eirini-Maria Lampraki, Sarwah Al-Khalidi, Muhammad Asif Qureshi, Rhea Desai, Joanna Beatrice Wilson
Chronic inflammation results when the immune system responds to trauma, injury or infection and the response is not resolved. It can lead to tissue damage and dysfunction and in some cases predispose to cancer. Some viruses (including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)) can induce inflammation, which may persist even after the infection has been controlled or cleared. The damage caused by inflammation, can itself act to perpetuate the inflammatory response. The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) of EBV is a pro-inflammatory factor and in the skin of transgenic mice causes a phenotype of hyperplasia with chronic inflammation of increasing severity, which can progress to pre-malignant and malignant lesions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227146/time-dependent-recovery-of-human-synovial-membrane-mesenchymal-stem-cell-function-after-high-dose-steroid-therapy-case-report-and-laboratory-study
#2
Yukihiko Yasui, David A Hart, Norihiko Sugita, Ryota Chijimatsu, Kota Koizumi, Wataru Ando, Yu Moriguchi, Kazunori Shimomura, Akira Myoui, Hideki Yoshikawa, Norimasa Nakamura
BACKGROUND: The use of mesenchymal stem cells from various tissue sources to repair injured tissues has been explored over the past decade in large preclinical models and is now moving into the clinic. PURPOSE: To report the case of a patient who exhibited compromised mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) function shortly after use of high-dose steroid to treat Bell's palsy, who recovered 7 weeks after therapy. STUDY DESIGN: Case report and controlled laboratory study...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222231/al-amyloidosis-from-molecular-mechanisms-to-targeted-therapies
#3
REVIEW
Giampaolo Merlini
Systemic amyloidosis is caused by misfolding and extracellular deposition of circulating proteins as amyloid fibrils, resulting in the dysfunction of vital organs. The most common systemic amyloidosis, light-chain (AL) amyloidosis, is caused by misfolded light chains produced by a small, dangerous B-cell clone. The process of amyloid formation, organ targeting, and damage is multifaceted and, after disease initiation, the complexity of the downstream pathogenic cascade increases, rendering its control a challenge...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220360/substitutions-of-prp-n-terminal-histidine-residues-modulate-scrapie-disease-pathogenesis-and-incubation-time-in-transgenic-mice
#4
Sabina Eigenbrod, Petra Frick, Uwe Bertsch, Gerda Mitteregger-Kretzschmar, Janina Mielke, Marko Maringer, Niklas Piening, Alexander Hepp, Nathalie Daude, Otto Windl, Johannes Levin, Armin Giese, Vignesh Sakthivelu, Jörg Tatzelt, Hans Kretzschmar, David Westaway
Prion diseases have been linked to impaired copper homeostasis and copper induced-oxidative damage to the brain. Divalent metal ions, such as Cu2+ and Zn2+, bind to cellular prion protein (PrPC) at octapeptide repeat (OR) and non-OR sites within the N-terminal half of the protein but information on the impact of such binding on conversion to the misfolded isoform often derives from studies using either OR and non-OR peptides or bacterially-expressed recombinant PrP. Here we created new transgenic mouse lines expressing PrP with disrupted copper binding sites within all four histidine-containing OR's (sites 1-4, H60G, H68G, H76G, H84G, "TetraH>G" allele) or at site 5 (composed of residues His-95 and His-110; "H95G" allele) and monitored the formation of misfolded PrP in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218753/neuronal-responses-to-the-scratching-and-caressing-of-one-s-own-skin-in-patients-with-skin-picking-disorder
#5
Anne Schienle, Sonja Übel, Albert Wabnegger
Skin-picking disorder (SPD) is a common mental disorder. The predominant symptom involves the repeated scratching and picking of one's own skin. This behavior causes severe tissue damage (sores, scars, and infections), often leading to disfigurement. Besides physical injury, SPD is associated with clinically significant distress and impairment in important areas of functioning. The neurobiological mechanisms of SPD are still poorly understood. In this study, 30 SPD patients and 31 control participants (35 women, 26 men) with a mean age of 34 years were instructed to either scratch or gently stroke a small skin area on their arms during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
December 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217386/early-worsening-of-diabetic-retinopathy-after-rapid-improvement-of-blood-glucose-control-in-patients-with-diabetes
#6
REVIEW
S Feldman-Billard, É Larger, P Massin
AIM: To review the frequency, importance of and risk factors for "early worsening of diabetic retinopathy" (EWDR) after rapid improvement of blood glucose in patients with diabetes. METHODS: This was a systematic review of key references (PubMed 1980-2016) and the current international recommendations for the above-mentioned topics. RESULTS: EWDR has been described during intensive treatment (IT) in patients with uncontrolled type 1 or 2 diabetes, and after pancreas transplantation or bariatric surgery...
November 11, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214721/surface-characterization-of-titanium-implant-healing-abutments-before-and-after-placement
#7
Sutton E Wheelis, Thomas G Wilson, Pilar Valderrama, Danieli C Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Implant healing abutments (IHA) have a vital role in soft tissue healing after implant placement. Although there is thorough investigation on the implant surface, little is known about the effects potentially damaging oral conditions impose on healing abutments. PURPOSE: To characterize the surface of titanium healing abutments before and after clinical placement to understand the effects of the oral environment and time on the device surface. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten regular Straumann IHA were subjected to characterization pre and postplacement to elucidate the effects of the oral environment on device surfaces...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214422/emu-oil-improves-clinical-indicators-of-disease-in-a-mouse-model-of-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer
#8
Lauren C Chartier, Gordon S Howarth, Ian C Lawrance, Debbie Trinder, Scott J Barker, Suzanne Mashtoub
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ulcerative colitis is a remitting and relapsing inflammatory bowel disorder. Current treatments are limited, and if poorly controlled, colitis may progress to colorectal cancer. Previously, Emu Oil protected the intestine in experimental models of gut damage. We aimed to determine whether Emu Oil could reduce the severity of chronic colitis and prevent the onset of neoplasia in a mouse model of colitis-associated colorectal cancer. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice were injected (day 0) with azoxymethane, followed by ad libitum access to three dextran sulfate sodium/water cycles (7 days of dextran sulfate sodium and 14 days of water)...
December 6, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214038/cell-bound-complement-activation-products-in-sle
#9
REVIEW
Rosalind Ramsey-Goldman, Jian Li, Thierry Dervieux, Roberta Vezza Alexander
Diagnosis of SLE is based on clinical manifestations and laboratory findings. Timely diagnosis and treatment are important to control disease activity and prevent organ damage. However, diagnosis is challenging because of the heterogeneity in clinical signs and symptoms, and also because the disease presents with alternating periods of flare and quiescence. As SLE is an autoimmune disease characterised by the formation of autoantibodies, diagnostic immunology laboratory tests for detecting and quantifying autoantibodies are commonly used for the diagnosis and classification of SLE...
2017: Lupus Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212335/-glycemic-variability-and-microvascular-complications-of-diabetes
#10
Martin Prázný, Jan Škrha, Jan Šoupal, Jan Škrha
Vascular complications of diabetes result from long lasting unsatisfactory glycemic control. We usually assess glycemic control based on the value of glycated hemoglobin HbA1c. The glycated hemoglobin test, however, says nothing about short-term glycemic fluctuations. Recently, continuous monitoring of glycemia has enabled us an in-depth assessment of changes in glucose concentrations, called glycemic variability. Together with the research of short-term glycemic variability, also the study of long-term fluctuations in glycemic control based on HbA1c variability has now intensified...
2017: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210193/islet-damage-during-isolation-as-assessed-by-mirnas-and-the-correlation-of-mirna-levels-with-posttransplant-outcome-in-islet-autotransplantation
#11
Prathab Balaji Saravanan, Mazhar A Kanak, Charles A Chang, Carly Darden, Gumpei Yoshimatsu, Michael C Lawrence, Bashoo Naziruddin
High-quality pancreatic islets are essential for better posttransplant endocrine function in total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT), yet stress during the isolation process affects quality and yield. We analyzed islet-enriched miRNAs -375 and -200c released during isolation to assess damage and correlated the data with posttransplant endocrine function. The absolute concentration of miR-375, miR-200c, and C-peptide was measured in various islet isolation steps, including digestion, dilution, recombination, purification, and bagging, in 12 cases of TPIAT...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207388/resveratrol-does-not-protect-from-ischemia-induced-acute-kidney-injury-in-an-in-vivo-rat-model
#12
Anja Bienholz, Rahel Mae Pang, Hana Guberina, Ursula Rauen, Oliver Witzke, Benjamin Wilde, Frank Petrat, Thorsten Feldkamp, Andreas Kribben
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The natural polyphenol resveratrol (RSV) has been shown to ameliorate ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced damage. Therefore, a rat model of I/R-induced AKI equipped with intensive monitoring was utilized to examine direct renal protection by RSV in vivo. METHODS: AKI was induced by bilateral renal clamping (45 min) followed by reperfusion (3 h). Solvent-free RSV was continuously infused intravenously (0.056 and 0.28 mg/kg) in a total volume of 7 ml/kg/h starting from 30 min before renal clamping...
December 5, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204091/lipocalin-2-as-a-clinical-significance-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#13
Arif Gulkesen, Gurkan Akgol, Ahmet K Poyraz, Suleyman Aydin, Affan Denk, Tulay Yildirim, Arzu Kaya
Aim of the study: In this study, serum lipokalin 2 (LCN-2) levels and its clinical and radiological significance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis was evaluated. Material and methods: The study enrolled 37 patients with RA and 34 healthy controls. Serum LCN-2 level was measured using ELISA method. Patients with DAS 28 scores ≤ 3.2, and > 3.2 were allocated into lower and high/moderate disease activity groups, respectively. Additionally patients were divided into 2 groups as early RA (disease duration ≤ 2 years) and established RA (duration of the disease ≥ 2 years)...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203043/-blood-pressure-target-in-2017
#14
A Yannoutsos, A Bura-Rivière, P Priollet, J Blacher
OBJECTIVE: The issue of how far blood pressure (BP) should be lowered under antihypertensive treatment is still an important matter of scientific debate. The aim of the present review is to consider the clinical relevance of individualized BP goal under treatment in hypertensive patients according to their age, comorbidities or established cardio-vascular (CV) disease. DATA FROM THE LITERATURE: The French and European recommendations propose a systolic BP target between 130 and 139mmHg (<150mmHg after 80 years) and diastolic BP target <90mmHg in hypertensive patients whatever their level of risk...
December 2017: Journal de Médecine Vasculaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201211/effects-of-freshwater-clam-extract-on-fracture-induced-inflammation-at-early-stage
#15
Kuang-Ting Yeh, Wen-Tien Wu, Yi-Maun Subeq, Chi-Chien Niu, Kuang-Wen Liao, Ing-Ho Chen, Ru-Ping Lee
The inflammatory process after traumatic fracture and soft tissue injury includes release of inflammatory cytokines and activated polymorph nuclear cells (PMN) that can cause subsequent affected limbs delayed healing and vital organ complications. Analgesics have good effect on relief of the symptom but may cause further burden for hepatic and renal metabolism. Freshwater clam extract (FCE) has been demonstrated to suppress the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α production after hemorrhagic shock, and decrease the level of liver injury marker in rats...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200830/notoginsenoside-r1-attenuates-high-glucose-induced-endothelial-damage-in-rat-retinal-capillary-endothelial-cells-by-modulating-the-intracellular-redox-state
#16
Chunlan Fan, Yuan Qiao, Minke Tang
The aim of this study was to examine whether Notoginsenoside R1 (NR1) attenuates high glucose-induced cell damage in rat retinal capillary endothelial cells (RCECs) and to explore the mechanisms involved. The exposure of rat RCECs to high concentration of glucose (30 mM) for 72 h led to significant cytotoxicity, including decreased cell viability, reduced mitochondrial DNA copy number, increased lactate dehydrogenase release and elevated apoptosis. NR1, when present in the culture medium, markedly attenuated the high glucose-induced cytotoxicity in rat RCECs...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195382/a-dynamic-monitoring-approach-for-the-surface-morphology-evolution-measurement-of-plasma-facing-components-by-means-of-speckle-interferometry
#17
Hongbei Wang, Xiaoqian Cui, Chunlei Feng, Yuanbo Li, Mengge Zhao, Guangnan Luo, Hongbin Ding
Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) in a magnetically confined fusion plasma device will be exposed to high heat load and particle fluxes, and it would cause PFCs' surface morphology to change due to material erosion and redeposition from plasma wall interactions. The state of PFCs' surface condition will seriously affect the performance of long-pulse or steady state plasma discharge in a tokamak; it will even constitute an enormous threat to the operation and the safety of fusion plasma devices. The PFCs' surface morphology evolution measurement could provide important information about PFCs' real-time status or damage situation and it would help to a better understanding of the plasma wall interaction process and mechanism...
November 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193677/gallic-acid-a-common-dietary-phenolic-improves-health-associated-biochemical-parameters-and-prevents-oxidative-damage-of-dna-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-results-of-a-placebo-controlled-pilot-study
#18
Franziska Ferk, Michael Kundi, Helmut Brath, Thomas Szekeres, Halh Al-Serori, Miroslav Mišík, Philipp Saiko, Rodrig Marculescu, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Siegfried Knasmueller
SCOPE: Oxidative imbalance plays a key role in cancer induction and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to find out if gallic acid (GA) prevents oxidative stress in diabetic patients. Therefore, we investigated its impact on oxidation of DNA bases and on other health-related macromolecules. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed an intervention study (n = 19) with GA and monitored alterations of the DNA stability in single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assays in lymphocytes...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193022/experimental-study-of-delivery-of-humidified-warm-carbon-dioxide-during-open-abdominal-surgery
#19
S Carpinteri, S Sampurno, J Malaterre, R Millen, M Dean, J Kong, T Chittleborough, A Heriot, A C Lynch, R G Ramsay
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to monitor the effect of humidified-warm carbon dioxide (HWCO2 ) delivered into the open abdomen of mice, simulating laparotomy. METHODS: Mice were anaesthetized, ventilated and subjected to an abdominal incision followed by wound retraction. In the experimental group, a diffuser device was used to deliver HWCO2 ; the control group was exposed to passive air flow. In each group of mice, surgical damage was produced on one side of the peritoneal wall...
November 28, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192697/mapping-piezoelectric-response-in-nanomaterials-using-a-dedicated-non-destructive-scanning-probe-technique
#20
Yonatan Calahorra, Michael Smith, Anuja Datta, Hadas Benisty, Sohini Kar-Narayan
There has been tremendous interest in piezoelectricity at the nanoscale, for example in nanowires and nanofibers where piezoelectric properties may be enhanced or controllably tuned, thus necessitating robust characterization techniques of piezoelectric response in nanomaterials. Piezo-response force microscopy (PFM) is a well-established scanning probe technique routinely used to image piezoelectric/ferroelectric domains in thin films, however, its applicability to nanoscale objects is limited due to the requirement for physical contact with an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip that may cause dislocation or damage, particularly to soft materials, during scanning...
December 1, 2017: Nanoscale
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