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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033797/white-matter-abnormalities-in-children-with-hiv-infection-and-exposure
#1
Marcin Jankiewicz, Martha J Holmes, Paul A Taylor, Mark F Cotton, Barbara Laughton, André J W van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
Background: Due to changes in guidelines and access to treatment, more children start combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in infancy. With few studies examining the long-term effects of perinatal HIV infection and early ART on neurodevelopment, much is still unknown about brain maturation in the presence of HIV and ART. Follow-up studies of HIV infected (HIV+) children are important for monitoring brain development in the presence of HIV infection and ART. Methods: We use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine white matter (WM) in 65 HIV+ and 46 control (HIV exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV unexposed uninfected (HU)) 7-year-old children...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032126/weekly-follow-up-of-acute-lesions-in-three-early-multiple-sclerosis-patients-using-mr-spectroscopy-and-diffusion
#2
Gabriel Kocevar, Claudio Stamile, Salem Hannoun, Jean-Amédée Roch, Françoise Durand-Dubief, Sandra Vukusic, François Cotton, Dominique Sappey-Marinier
OBJECT: Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion formation, including inflammation, demyelination/remyelination and axonal damage, and their temporal evolution are still not clearly understood. To this end, three acute white matter lesions were monitored using a weekly multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three untreated patients with early relapsing-remitting MS and one healthy control subject were followed weekly for two months...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027495/monitoring-and-managing-antibiotic-resistance-in-refugee-children
#3
Helena C Maltezou, Dana Elhadad, Daniel Glikman
The past decade the Middle East and Southeastern Europe have witnessed an enormous movement of refugees due to the Syrian war and conflicts in Asia and Africa. Although carriage of and infections with multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens in refugees have been reported, pediatric data are scarce. Areas covered: MDR bacterial carriage and infections, and MDR-tuberculosis (TB) in refugee children from 2010. Expert commentary: High MDR carriage rates in refugee children are attributed to high pre-civil war MDR rates, war-damaged infrastructure and healthcare systems, and poor hygiene conditions...
October 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023775/prenatal-sonographic-monitoring-of-progressive-cardiac-damages-caused-by-anti-ro-antibodies-a-case-report
#4
Fuanglada Tongprasert, Rekwan Sittiwangkul, Thitikarn Lerthiranwong, Theera Tongsong
Maternal autoantibodies to Ro/SSA are often linked to congenital heart block and rarely associated with structural defects. We describe the case of a fetus with anti-Ro-mediated second-degree block at 19 weeks, which progressed to a complete block, fibroelastosis, atrioventricular valve insufficiency, and semilunar valve stenosis/insufficiency at 20, 22, 24, and 26 weeks, respectively, although the fetus received transplacental anti-arrhythmic drugs. The 2150-g fetus was vaginally delivered at 35 weeks. An external pacemaker was inserted immediately after birth and replaced with permanent pacemaker at the age of 3 months...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018615/a-randomized-control-trial-feasibility-evaluation-of-an-mhealth-intervention-for-wheelchair-skill-training-among-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#5
Edward M Giesbrecht, William C Miller
BACKGROUND: Providing mobility skills training to manual wheelchair (MWC) users can have a positive impact on community participation, confidence and quality of life. Often such training is restricted or not provided at all because of the expense of, and limited access to, occupational and physical therapists before and after discharge. This is particularly true among middle-aged and older adults, who often have limited access to rehabilitation services and require more time to learn motor skills...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018233/altered-neurovascular-coupling-as-measured-by-optical-imaging-a-biomarker-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Konstantin Kotliar, Christine Hauser, Marion Ortner, Claudia Muggenthaler, Janine Diehl-Schmid, Susanne Angermann, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Christoph Schmaderer, Timo Grimmer
Neurovascular coupling can be directly assessed by retinal vessel response to flickering light using optical imaging methods. The response is altered in a number of ocular and cardiovascular diseases. Whether it is altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is investigated. Retinal vessel reaction to monochromatic flicker stimulation was examined by Dynamic Vessel Analyzer independent of the commercial software in elderly subjects: 15 patients with mild-to-moderate dementia due to AD (ADD); 24 patients with mild cognitive impairment due to AD (MCI); 15 cognitively healthy controls (HC)...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992847/-rhabdomyolysis-after-isotretinoin-treatment-in-a-17-year-old-male
#7
Cecilie Paulsrud, Ida-Marie Stender, Lisbeth Samsø Schmidt
Rhabdomyolysis is a rare, but known complication to treat-ment with systemic isotretinoin in patients with acne and can lead to severe kidney damage. In our case report a 17-year-old male, exercising moderately, developed rhab-domyolysis without kidney injury after two-month treatment with isotretinoin 20 mg daily. He complained of some muscle pain and was treated according to guidelines for rhabdomyolysis with no sequelae. Frequent monitoring of muscle complaints and control of serum creatine kinase in patients with affected liver and kidney function is essential...
October 2, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991460/a-smart-europium-ruthenium-complex-as-anticancer-prodrug-controllable-drug-release-and-real-time-monitoring-under-different-light-excitations
#8
Hongguang Li, Chen Xie, Rongfeng Lan, Shuai Zha, Chi-Fai Chan, Wing-Yan Wong, Ka-Lok Ho, Brandon Dow Chan, Yuxia Luo, Jing-Xiang Zhang, Ga-Lai Law, William C S Tai, Jean-Claude Georges Bunzli, Ka-Leung Wong
A unique, dual-function, photo-activatable anticancer prodrug, RuEuL, has been tailored that features a ruthenium(II) com-plex linked to a cyclen-europium chelate via a π-conjugated bridge. Under irradiation at 488 nm, the dark-inactive prodrug undergoes photodissociation, releasing the DNA-damaging ruthenium species. Under evaluation-window irradiation (λirr = one-photon 350 nm or two-photon 700 nm), the drug delivery process can be quantitatively monitored in real-time thanks to the long-lived red europium emission...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989880/arrhythmias-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Gaurav Agarwal, Satish Kumar Singh
Chronic hyperglycaemia of Type 2 diabetes mellitus causes long term damage to heart resulting in coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction (MI), congestive heart failure (CHF), and sudden death from arrhythmias. AIMS: To study the prevalence of different types of arrhythmias in T2DM, particularly in association with Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN). METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 100 patients of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) presenting with cardiac arrhythmias, was done at our hospital over 2 years...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989565/risk-of-liver-disease-in-methotrexate-treated-patients
#10
REVIEW
Richard Conway, John J Carey
Methotrexate is the first line drug treatment for a number of rheumatic and non-rheumatic diseases. It is effective in controlling disease activity and preventing disease-related damage, and significantly cheaper than many alternatives. Use in rheumatoid arthritis infers a significant morbidity and mortality benefit. Methotrexate is generally well tolerated but can cause symptomatic adverse events. Multiple serious adverse events have been attributed to methotrexate, based largely on older reports using high or daily doses, and subsequent case reports and circumstantial evidence...
September 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986822/global-spread-of-hemorrhagic-fever-viruses-predicting-pandemics
#11
Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Marc Souris, Willy Valdivia-Granda
As successive epidemics have swept the world, the scientific community has quickly learned from them about the emergence and transmission of communicable diseases. Epidemics usually occur when health systems are unprepared. During an unexpected epidemic, health authorities engage in damage control, fear drives action, and the desire to understand the threat is greatest. As humanity recovers, policy-makers seek scientific expertise to improve their "preparedness" to face future events.Global spread of disease is exemplified by the spread of yellow fever from Africa to the Americas, by the spread of dengue fever through transcontinental migration of mosquitos, by the relentless influenza virus pandemics, and, most recently, by the unexpected emergence of Ebola virus, spread by motorbike and long haul carriers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985617/the-%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-improves-high-fat-diet-induced-cerebral-damage-through-inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-reaction
#12
Yang Liu, Qinghua Zhang, Li Wang, Hui Wang, Tao Sun, Hechun Xia, Yi Yang, Li Zhang
This study is to clarify the protective role of α-lipoic acid in high-fat diet-induced cerebral damage mice. The mice were divided into 5 groups: normal control group, high-fat diet (HFD) group, low-dose α-lipoic acid group for prevention, high-dose α-lipoic acid group for prevention, and high-dose α-lipoic acid group for treatment. The groups' weights and blood glucose changes were monitored. We used HE staining to observe morphological changes in the cerebral cortex. The expression levels of the oxidative stress proteins SOD2, catalase, and the inflammatory pathway proteins p-JNK, p-ERK were measured by western blot and immunochemistry...
September 28, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979776/usefulness-of-99m-tc-dimercaptosuccinic-acid-renal-scan-in-the-diagnosis-and-follow-up-of-acute-tubulointerstitial-nephritis-in-children
#13
Enrico Vidal, Elisabetta Miorin, Pietro Zucchetta, Elisa Benetti, Germana Longo, Davide Meneghesso, Mattia Parolin, Luisa Murer
BACKGROUND: Symptoms and signs of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) are nonspecific; therefore, renal biopsy is often necessary to clarify the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy in the diagnosis and follow-up of ATIN. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of five patients (nine renal units) with a median age of 14 years who underwent DMSA scan after a clinical and/or biopsy-proven diagnosis of ATIN...
October 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977005/renal-cold-storage-followed-by-transplantation-impairs-expression-of-key-mitochondrial-fission-and-fusion-proteins
#14
Nirmala Parajuli, Stephen Shrum, Julia Tobacyk, Alex Harb, John M Arthur, Lee Ann MacMillan-Crow
BACKGROUND: The majority of transplanted kidneys are procured from deceased donors which all require exposure to cold storage (CS) for successful transplantation. Unfortunately, this CS leads to renal and mitochondrial damage but, specific mitochondrial targets affected by CS remain largely unknown. The goal of this study is to determine whether pathways involved with mitochondrial fusion or fission, are disrupted during renal CS. METHODS: Male Lewis rat kidneys were exposed to cold storage (CS) alone or cold storage combined with transplantation (CS/Tx)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969461/inhibition-of-nadph-oxidase-by-apocynin-promotes-myocardial-antioxidant-response-and-prevents-isoproterenol-induced-myocardial-oxidative-stress-in-rats
#15
Lokman H Tanriverdi, Hakan Parlakpinar, Onural Ozhan, Necip Ermis, Alaadin Polat, Nigar Vardi, Kevser Tanbek, Azibe Yildiz, Ahmet Acet
Preventive and/or therapeutic interventions for ischemic heart disease have gained considerable attention worldwide. We investigated the mechanism(s) underlying cardioprotection of apocynin (APO) and whether it attenuates isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial damage in vivo. Thirty-two male Wistar Albino rats were randomised into four groups (n = 8 for each group): Group I (Control); Group II (ISO), ISO was given intraperitoneally (ip) (150 mg/kg/d) daily for 2 consecutive days; Group III (APO + ISO), APO was applied ip 20 mg/kg 30 min before the first ISO administration and continued for the next 2 d after the second ISO administration; Group IV (ISO + APO), after the ISO treatment on days 1 and 2, 20 mg/kg APO was given ip on days 3 and 4...
October 3, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962220/clinical-study-on-the-changes-of-lung-specific-proteins-cc16-after-lung-contusion
#16
Meng-Ni Wen, Gang Zhao, Jia-Ying Zhang, Yong-Hong Zhao
The aim of the present study was to examine the clinical value of continuously monitoring serum CC16 levels in diagnosing pulmonary contusion, estimating its severity degree and predicting disease progression. Thirty-one acute trauma patients with lung contusion diagnosed by chest computed tomography (CT) were included, and chest CT was re-examined on day 1, 3 and 7 after injury. Calculating all the contusion volume by the Siemens syngo volume calculation program, complications such as pleural effusion or atelectasis were observed and recorded...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961778/evidence-for-soybean-aphid-hemiptera-aphididae-resistance-to-pyrethroid-insecticides-in-the-upper-midwestern-united-states
#17
Anthony A Hanson, James Menger-Anderson, Celia Silverstein, Bruce D Potter, Ian V MacRae, Erin W Hodgson, Robert L Koch
Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a damaging invasive pest of soybean in the upper Midwest. Threshold-based insecticide applications are the primary control method for soybean aphid, but few insecticide groups are available (i.e., pyrethroids, organophosphates, and neonicotinoids). To quantify current levels of soybean aphid susceptibility to pyrethroids in the upper Midwest and monitor for insecticide resistance, leaf-dip bioassays were performed with λ-cyhalothrin in 2013-2015, and glass-vial bioassays were performed with λ-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin in 2015 and 2016...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959659/comparison-of-waterborne-and-intraperitoneal-exposure-to-fipronil-in-the-caspian-white-fish-rutilus-frisii-on-acute-toxicity-and-histopathology
#18
Rashid Alijani Ardeshir, Hossein Zolgharnein, Abdolali Movahedinia, Negin Salamat, Ebrahim Zabihi
Fipronil is an effective insecticide widely used in agriculture with potential ecotoxicological consequences. The median lethal dose (LD50) and concentration (LC50) of fipronil in 16.3 g Caspian white fish, Rutilus frisii kutum fingerlings were determined. To determine the LD50, a total of 133 fish were assigned to 19 tanks (7 fish/tank) including one control and 6 treatment groups (300, 450, 550, 650, 750, 850 mg/kg). Fish were injected intraperitoneally and monitored at 96 h. The LD50 of fipronil was 632 mg/kg suggesting it was slightly toxic to the Caspian white fish...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954009/selenocysteine-modulates-resistance-to-environmental-stress-and-confers-anti-aging-effects-in-c-elegans
#19
Jun-Sung Kim, So-Hyeon Kim, Sang-Kyu Park
OBJECTIVE: The free radical theory of aging suggests that cellular oxidative damage caused by free radicals is a leading cause of aging. In the present study, we examined the effects of a well-known anti-oxidant amino acid derivative, selenocysteine, in response to environmental stress and aging using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system. METHOD: The response to oxidative stress induced by H2O2 or ultraviolet irradiation was compared between the untreated control and selenocysteine-treated groups...
August 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946755/elevated-dna-damage-oxidative-stress-and-impaired-response-defense-system-inflicted-in-patients-with-myocardial-infarction
#20
Sumayya Shahzad, Asif Hasan, Abul Faiz Faizy, Somaiya Mateen, Naureen Fatima, Shagufta Moin
BACKGROUND: Ischemic tissue damage in myocardial infarction (MI) is allied with the exaggerated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) beyond the countering capability of chain-breaking radical scavengers, fallouts in the form of oxidatively burdened myocardial tissue. METHODS: One hundred and twenty five patients with MI were included in the study to evaluate the dynamics of redox status of patients by monitoring the antioxidant potential, biomarkers of oxidative stress, lipid indices, RBC membrane damage when compared to healthy individuals in patients with MI congregated on the basis of Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score, risk factors, and age...
January 1, 2017: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
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