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Damage control and monitoring

Shamsa Aliramaji, Ali Zamanian, Masoud Mozafari
Tissue engineering is a promising approach in repairing damaged tissues. During the last few years, magnetic nanoparticles have been of great interest in this field of study due to their controlled responsive characteristics in specific external magnetic fields. In this study, after synthesizing iron oxide (magnetite) nanoparticles through a reverse coprecipitation method, silk fibroin/chitosan-based magnetic scaffolds were prepared using different amounts of magnetite nanoparticles (0, 0.5, 1 and 2%) by freeze-casting method...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
N Didbaridze, N Lomidze, T Abuladze, G Qiliptari, T Didbaridze, I Gvasalia, Z Mkervalishvili, N Gogokhia
Anaerobic clostridial infection is the most severe form of paraproctitis. The incubation period is very short, from 3 to 6 hours, sometimes lasting for 1-2 days. Clostridial infection spreads rapidly and induces gas gangrene, causes destruction of cells and other intermediate substances, and impedes blood circulation. This paper presents a case study of an extremely severe form of anaerobic infection with spontaneous gas gangrene, cellulitis, fasciomyositic necrosis, severe intoxication and septic shock on the abdominal front and lateral surfaces...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Paolo Gabrieli, Francesca Scolari
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a pest species with extremely high agricultural relevance. This is due to its reproductive behavior: females damage the external surface of fruits and vegetables when they lay eggs and the hatched larvae feed on their pulp. Wild C. capitata populations are traditionally controlled through insecticide spraying and/or eco-friendly approaches, the most successful being the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The SIT relies on mass-rearing, radiation-based sterilization and field release of males that retain their capacity to mate but are not able to generate fertile progeny...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Edimar Olegário de Campos Júnior, Rosiane Gomes da Silva Oliveira, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira, Henrique Nazareth Souto, Carlos Fernando Campos, Júlio Cesar Nepomuceno, Sandra Morelli
Exposure to certain pollutants induces a series of alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that may result in genotoxic/mutagenic effects in exposed individuals. The present study aimed to monitor genotoxic, mutagenic, and recombinogenic potential and consequently water quality in two streams in the Paranaíba River basin in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using two bioindicator fish (Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis). The micronucleus (MN) test and somatic recombination and mutation test (SMART) were employed to assess DNA damage...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Theodore Pincus
RAPID3 (routine assessment of patient index data) is an index found within a multi-dimensional health assessment questionnaire (MDHAQ) for routine clinical care, composed only of 3 self-report scores for physical function, pain, and patient global estimate, each scored 0-10, for a total of 0-30. RAPID3 is correlated significantly with DAS28 (Disease Activity Score) and CDAI (Clinical Disease Activity Index), and distinguishes active from control treatments as efficiently as these indices in clinical trials involving adalimumab, abatacept, certolizumab, infliximab, and rituximab...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Takahisa Miyatake, Tomoyuki Yokoi, Taro Fuchikawa, Nobuyoshi Korehisa, Toru Kamura, Kana Nanba, Shinsuke Ryouji, Nagisa Kamioka, Mantaro Hironaka, Midori Osada, Takahiko Hariyama, Rikiya Sasaki, Kazutaka Shinoda
The cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.), is an important stored-product pest worldwide because it damages dry foods. Detection and removal of the female L. serricorne will help to facilitate the control of the insect by removal of the egg-laying populations. In this manuscript, we examined the responses by L. serricorne to direct and reflected light in transparent cube (50 m(3)) set in a chamber (200 m(3)) and a stored facility with both direct and reflected UV-LED lights. The study also examined the responses by the beetles to light in the presence or absence of pheromone in traps that are placed at different heights...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Do Hee Kim, Hee Jin Kwon, Sang A Ji, Hye Ryoun Jang, Sin-Ho Jung, Jung-Han Kim, Jae Hyeon Kim, Jung Eun Lee, Wooseong Huh, Yoon-Goo Kim, Dae Joong Kim, Ha Young Oh
Primary aldosteronism (PA) may induce significant decline of renal function and structural damage of kidney. However, it is difficult to evaluate accurate renal function in patients with PA, because glomerular hyperfiltration and aldosterone escape can conceal renal impairment. In this retrospective cohort study, we compared changes in renal function after unilateral adrenalectomy between patients with PA and patients with other adrenal diseases. Risk factors associated with postoperative renal impairment in patients with PA were analyzed...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Daniela Pelclova, Vladimir Zdimal, Petr Kacer, Martin Komarc, Zdenka Fenclova, Stepanka Vlckova, Nadezda Zikova, Jaroslav Schwarz, Otakar Makes, Tomas Navratil, Sergey Zakharov, Dhimiter Bello
Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) is a commercially important nanomaterial used in numerous applications. Experimental studies with nanotitania have documented lung injury and inflammation, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Production workers in TiO2 manufacturing with a high proportion of nanoparticles and a mixture of other air pollutants, such as gases and organic aerosols, had increased markers of oxidative stress, including DNA and protein damage, as well as lipid peroxidation in their exhaled breath condensate (EBC) compared to unexposed controls...
October 18, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Ran-Hui Cha, Hajeong Lee, Jung Pyo Lee, Chun Soo Lim, Yon Su Kim, Sung Gyun Kim
OBJECTIVE: Blood pressure (BP) control is the most established practice for preventing the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We examined the BP control and nocturnal dipping pattern change in hypertensive patients with CKD and its effects on target organ damages. DESIGN AND METHOD: We recruited 378 hypertensive CKD patients from 4 centers in Korea. They underwent office and ambulatory BP monitoring at the time of enrollment and 1 year after. High office and ambulatory BP was defined as > 140/90 mmHg and > 135/85 mmHg (daytime)/> 120/70 mmHg (nighttime), respectively...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Guido Grassi
The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), sponsored by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute in the USA, allocated 9361 hypertensive patients (mean age 68 years) to two systolic blood pressure treatment targets (either < 120mmHg or < 140mmHg). Although SPRINT intended to enrol hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk, it specifically excluded patients with diabetes mellitus or prior stroke. SPRINT was stopped earlier than planned, after a mean follow-up of 3.26 years, on the recommendation of its data and safety monitoring board, and data were published on 9 November 2015...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Canan Turgut, Godhuli Sinha, Jouko Lahtinen, Kai Nordlund, Mohammed Belmahi, Patrick Philipp
Quantitative analyses in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) become possible only if ionization processes are controlled. The Storing Matter technique has been developed to circumvent this so-called matrix effect, primarily for inorganic samples, but has also been extended to organic samples. For the latter, it has been applied to polystyrene in order to investigate the extent of damage in the polymer, its fragmentation during the sputter deposition process and the effect of the deposition process on the spectra taken by Time-of-Flight SIMS (ToF-SIMS)...
October 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Jian-Jun Wen, Xianxiu Wan, John Thacker, Nisha Jain Garg
BACKGROUND: Chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCM) caused by Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) infection is prevalent in Latin America and recognized as an emerging infectious heart disease in the US. The NO-cGMP-PKG1α pathway maintains cardiac homeostasis and inotropy and may be disturbed due to phosphodiesterase (PDE5) mediated cGMP catabolism in CCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were infected with Tc, and at the end of acute parasitemia (i.e. 45 days post-infection), treated with sildenafil (SIL, 1 mg/kg) twice per week for 3 weeks...
June 2016: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
Betty Laverdet, Dorothée Girard, Audrey Bayout, Nelly Bordeau, Claire Demiot, Alexis Desmoulière
BACKGROUND: Damage to the peripheral nervous system influences wound healing and, after a deep burn, imperfect cutaneous nerve regeneration occurs. A third-degree burn model was developed in rats combined with the use of resiniferatoxin (RTX), known to promote sensory neuropathy. METHODS: Rats were injected intraperitoneally either with RTX or vehicle. A mechanical sensory assay and the hot plate thermal sensory test were performed. The structural integrity of the sciatic nerve was assessed using transmission electron microcopy...
October 12, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Sumit Kumar Chakrabarti, Sujoy Ghosh, Sandip Banerjee, Satinath Mukherjee, Subhankar Chowdhury
CONTEXT: The available data concerning oxidant stress and antioxidant capacity in hypothyroidism are scanty and inconclusive. While some authors suggest that tissues may be protected from oxidant damage because of a hypometabolic state in hypothyroidism, others report increased oxidative stress in hypothyroidism. Selenium acts as a cofactor for the thyroid hormone (TH) deiodinases that activate and then deactivate various THs and their metabolites. Selenium may inhibit thyroid autoimmunity...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ryota Nakazato, Shogo Hotta, Daisuke Yamada, Miki Kou, Saki Nakamura, Yoshifumi Takahata, Hajime Tei, Rika Numano, Akiko Hida, Shigeki Shimba, Michihiro Mieda, Eiichi Hinoi, Yukio Yoneda, Takeshi Takarada
Similar to neurons, microglia have an intrinsic molecular clock. The master clock oscillator Bmal1 modulates interleukin-6 upregulation in microglial cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide. Bmal1 can play a role in microglial inflammatory responses. We previously demonstrated that gliotransmitter ATP induces transient expression of the clock gene Period1 via P2X7 purinergic receptors in cultured microglia. In this study, we further investigated mechanisms underlying the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production by clock molecules in microglial cells...
October 11, 2016: Glia
Jean-Frederic Colombel, Neeraj Narula, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
Strategies for management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are shifting from simple control of symptoms toward full control of these diseases (clinical and endoscopic remission), with the final aim of blocking their progression and preventing bowel damage and disability. New goals have been proposed for treatment, such as treat to target and tight control based on therapeutic monitoring and early intervention. For patients who achieve clinical remission, there is often interest in discontinuation of therapy due to safety and/or economic concerns...
October 5, 2016: Gastroenterology
Thomas Minor, Katja Sutschet, Oliver Witzke, Andreas Paul, Anja Gallinat
BACKGROUND: Post-transplant function of suboptimal kidney grafts can be improved but not accurately predicted by hypothermic machine perfusion. Therefore, a new concept of ex situ pre-implantation machine perfusion with controlled rewarming up to subnormothermic temperatures was developed and evaluated. METHODS: Porcine kidneys (n= 6/ group) were retrieved before or 30 min after cardiac arrest of the donor and subjected to 18 hours of static cold storage. In some cases 90 min of machine controlled oxygenated rewarming (COR) was added thereafter...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Anelise Barth, Natália Brucker, Angela M Moro, Sabrina Nascimento, Gabriela Goethel, Caroline Souto, Rafael Fracasso, Elisa Sauer, Louise Altknecht, Bárbara da Costa, Marta Duarte, Camila B Menezes, Tiana Tasca, Marcelo D Arbo, Solange Cristina Garcia
Environmental exposure to pollutants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), could lead to carcinogenesis development. However, there is a gap on the mechanisms involved in this effect. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential relationship between exposure to environmental air pollution and inflammation process in DNA damage in taxi drivers. This study included 45 taxi drivers and 40 controls; non-smokers composed both groups. Biological monitoring was performed through quantification of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP)...
October 8, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mariette Matondo, Marlène Marcellin, Karima Chaoui, Marie-Pierre Bousquet-Dubouch, Anne Gonzalez-de-Peredo, Bernard Monsarrat, Odile Burlet-Schiltz
The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) plays a critical role in the degradation of proteins implicated in cell cycle control, signal transduction, DNA damage response, apoptosis and immune response. Proteasome inhibitors can inhibit the growth of a broad spectrum of human cancer cells by altering the balance of intracellular proteins. However, the targets of these compounds in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells have not been fully characterized. Herein, we combined large-scale quantitative analysis by SILAC-MS and targeted quantitative proteomic analysis in order to identify proteins regulated upon proteasome inhibition in two AML cell lines displaying different stages of maturation: immature KG1a cells and mature U937 cells...
October 6, 2016: Proteomics
Florian Schmaranzer, Pascal C Haefeli, Markus S Hanke, Emanuel F Liechti, Stefan F Werlen, Klaus A Siebenrock, Moritz Tannast
BACKGROUND: Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) allows an objective, noninvasive, and longitudinal quantification of biochemical cartilage properties. Although dGEMRIC has been used to monitor the course of cartilage degeneration after periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for correction of hip dysplasia, such longitudinal data are currently lacking for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) How does the mean acetabular and femoral dGEMRIC index change after surgery for FAI at 1-year followup compared with a similar group of patients with FAI treated without surgery? (2) Does the regional distribution of the acetabular and femoral dGEMRIC index change for the two groups over time? (3) Is there a correlation between the baseline dGEMRIC index and the change of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) at 1-year followup? (4) Among those treated surgically, can dGEMRIC indices distinguish between intact and degenerated cartilage? METHODS: We performed a prospective, comparative, nonrandomized, longitudinal study...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
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