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Fetal well being test

Priyadarsini Kumar, Kewa Gao, Chuwang Wang, Christopher Pivetti, Lee Lankford, Diana Farmer, Aijun Wang
Hemophilia A (HA) is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by mutations in the factor VIII ( FVIII) gene leading to deficient blood coagulation. The current standard of care is frequent infusions of plasma-derived FVIII or recombinant B-domain-deleted FVIII (BDD-FVIII). While this treatment is effective, many patients eventually develop FVIII inhibitors that limit the effectiveness of the infused FVIII. As a monogenic disorder, HA is an ideal target for gene or cell-based therapy. Several studies have investigated allogeneic stem cell therapy targeting in utero or postnatal treatment of HA but have not been successful in completely correcting HA...
January 2018: Cell Transplantation
Shirin Niromanesh, Mahboobeh Shirazi, Mitra Eftekhariyazdi, Forough Mortazavi
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common medical complications of pregnancy and is related to poor perinatal outcomes. Reduction of neonatal complications of GDM is feasible by assessment of fetal well-being. Both fetal Doppler and NST are used for the screening of high-risk pregnancies. Objective: We aimed to compare the non-stress test (NST) and umbilical artery (UA) Doppler assessments for evaluation of the adverse perinatal outcomes in GDM...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
Sara Filoche, Beverley Lawton, Angela Beard, Anthony Dowell, Peter Stone
Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is a new screen for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. It is a screening test based on technology that involves the analysis of feto-placental DNA that is present in maternal blood. This DNA is then analysed for abnormalities of specific chromosomes (eg 13, 18, 21, X, Y). NIPT has a much higher screening capability for chromosomal abnormalities than current combined first trimester screening, with ~99% sensitivity for trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) and at least a 10-fold higher positive predictive value...
December 2017: Journal of Primary Health Care
Deepa Singal, Chantalle Menard, Christine J Neilson, Marni Brownell, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Albert Chudley, Ryan Zarychanski, Ahmed Abou-Setta
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this paper is to provide a protocol for a systematic review assessing the effectiveness of evidence from randomised controlled trials comparing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions with placebo/dummy interventions or usual standards of care in children and adolescents (<18 years old). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The following electronic databases will be searched: Medline (Ovid), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Plus with Full text (EBSCO), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library-Wiley), PsycINFO (ProQuest) and Proquest DissertationsandTheses will be searched from inception to March 2017 for relevant citations of published trials using individualised search strategies prepared for database...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Open
Mariano S Pedano, Xin Li, Shuchen Li, Zeyi Sun, Stevan M Cokic, Eveline Putzeys, Kumiko Yoshihara, Yashuhiro Yoshida, Zhi Chen, Kirsten Van Landuyt, Bart Van Meerbeek
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the eluates from 3 freshly-mixed and setting hydraulic calcium-silicate cements (hCSCs) on human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) and to examine the effect of a newly developed hCSC containing phosphopullulan (PPL) on HDPCs. METHODS: Human dental pulp cells, previously characterized as mesenchymal stem cells, were used. To collect the eluates, disks occupying the whole surface of a 12-well plate were prepared using an experimental hCSC containing phosphopullulan (GC), Nex-Cem MTA (GC), Biodentine (Septodont) or a zinc-oxide (ZnO) eugenol cement (material-related negative control)...
March 7, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Lutiana Roque Simões, Gustavo Sangiogo, Michael Hikaru Tashiro, Jaqueline S Generoso, Cristiano Julio Faller, Diogo Dominguini, Gustavo Antunes Mastella, Giselli Scaini, Vijayasree Vayalanellore Giridharan, Monique Michels, Drielly Florentino, Fabricia Petronilho, Gislaine Zilli Réus, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, Alexandra I Zugno, Tatiana Barichello
Evidence suggest that prenatal immune system disturbance contributes largely to the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. We investigated if maternal immune activation (MIA) could induce inflammatory alterations in fetal brain and pregnant rats. Adult rats subjected to MIA also were investigated to evaluate if ketamine potentiates the effects of infection. On gestational day 15, Wistar pregnant rats received lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce MIA. After 6, 12 and 24 h, fetus brain, placenta, and amniotic fluid were collected to evaluate early effects of LPS...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Jessica M Page, Robert M Silver
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review current evidence regarding the most useful tests for evaluation of potential causes of stillbirth. RECENT FINDINGS: Stillbirth remains one of the most devastating obstetric complications. Recent advances include work investigating the highest yield diagnostic tests for determining a cause of death in stillbirths. Placental pathology and fetal autopsy improve the diagnostic yield when combined with maternal clinical history. Additional tools include genetic evaluation, and testing for antiphospholipid antibodies and fetal-maternal hemorrhage based on the clinical scenario...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Antoni Borrell
Prenatal diagnosis of birth defects initially targeted Down syndrome and neural tube defects. Screening for fetal structural anomalies has expanded to screen any relevant malformation by means of a universal ultrasound scan. Although it is now apparent that clinically relevant genetic anomalies have a similar 3% birth prevalence, prenatal diagnosis programs still focus on Down syndrome. A new comprehensive paradigm is suggested, that provides information on all three groups of genetic disorders, chromosomal, submicroscopic and single-gene, causing intellectual and neurodevelopmental disability...
February 26, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Amber M Wood, Elizabeth G Livingston, Brenna L Hughes, Jeffrey A Kuller
Importance: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) complicates approximately 0.2% to 2% of pregnancies and can lead to increased fetal risks in pregnancy. Objective: This review aims to increase the knowledge of women's health care providers regarding the diagnosis, management, and fetal risks associated with ICP. Results: The diagnosis of ICP is based on symptoms of pruritus that typically include the palms and soles, as well as elevated bile acid levels...
February 2018: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
Julia I Heger, Karolin Froehlich, Jana Pastuschek, Astrid Schmidt, Christin Baer, Ralf Mrowka, Claudia Backsch, Ekkehard Schleußner, Udo R Markert, André Schmidt
BACKGROUND: The use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) as growth supplement for human cell and tissue culture is widely spread in basic research as well as in clinical approaches, although several limitations must be considered, such as unstable composition and availability, biosafety and ethical aspects. Regarding interspecies differences, xenogeneic growth factors may evoke incompatibilities and non-desired interactions with human cells resulting in imprecise outcome of human-relevant data...
February 21, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Timothy J Lee, Daniel L Rolnik, Melody A Menezes, Andrew C McLennan, Fabricio da Silva Costa
STUDY QUESTION: Are fetal fraction, test failure rate and positive predictive value (PPV) of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) testing different in singleton IVF conceptions compared to spontaneous conceptions? SUMMARY ANSWER: Fetal fraction is significantly lower; test failure rate is higher and PPV of cffDNA testing is lower in singleton pregnancies conceived by IVF than those conceived spontaneously. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: cffDNA testing, which analyses circulating cffDNA in maternal blood, has very high accuracy for detection of trisomy 21 in the general obstetric population...
February 15, 2018: Human Reproduction
Krzysztof M Krawczyk, Damian Matak, Lukasz Szymanski, Cezary Szczylik, Camillo Porta, Anna M Czarnecka
The use of fetal bovine serum hinders obtaining reproducible experimental results and should also be removed in hormone and growth factor studies. In particular hormones found in FBS act globally on cancer cell physiology and influence transcriptome and metabolome. The aim of our study was to develop a renal carcinoma serum free culture model optimized for (embryonal) renal cells in order to select the best study model for downstream auto-, para- or endocrine research. Secondary aim was to verify renal carcinoma stem cell culture for this application...
February 17, 2018: Cytotechnology
Monica A Stoops, G Douglas Winget, Christopher J DeChant, Ray L Ball, Terri L Roth
Genetic sexing of animals with long gestation time benefits the management of captive populations. Here, X and Y chromosome-specific primers, based on equine gene sequencing data, were developed and tested on captive rhinoceroses (10 males, 20 females) representing four species (Diceros bicornis, Certaotherium simum simum, Rhinoceros unicornis, and Dicerorhinus sumatrensis). The Y chromosome-specific primer set targeted SRY (Sex-determining region Y), and amplified a 177-bp product following PCR of DNA extracted from males, but not females, of all species...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Yaqing Wang, Li Wang, Yujuan Zhu, Jianhua Qin
Nicotine has been recognized to trigger various neuronal disabilities in the fetal brain and long-lasting behavioral deficits in offspring. However, further understanding of fetal brain development under nicotine exposure is challenging due to the limitations of existing animal models. Here, we create a new brain organoid-on-a-chip system derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) that allows us to model neurodevelopmental disorders under prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) at early stages. The brain organoid-on-a-chip system facilitates 3D culture, in situ neural differentiation, and self-organization of brain organoids under continuous perfused cultures in a controlled manner...
February 13, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Tatiana Catanzarite, Shannon Bremner, Caitlin L Barlow, Laura Bou-Malham, Shawn O'Connor, Marianna Alperin
BACKGROUND: Maternal birth trauma to the pelvic floor muscles is thought to be consequent to mechanical demands placed on these muscles during fetal delivery that exceed muscle physiological limits. The above is consistent with studies of striated limb muscles that identify hyperelongation of sarcomeres, the functional muscle units, as the primary cause of mechanical muscle injury and resultant muscle dysfunction. However, pelvic floor muscles' mechanical response to strains have not been examined at a tissue level...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Gemma Agustí, Thomas Le Calvez, Marie-Cecile Trouilhé, Philippe Humeau, Francesc Codony
The presence of Waddlia chondrophila has been related to respiratory tract infections and human and animal fetal death. Although several sources of infection have been suggested, the actual source remains unknown and limited information exists on the prevalence of W. chondrophila in the environment. This pathogen has been previously detected in well water but its presence has not been confirmed in water networks. Since these bacteria have been detected in water reservoirs, it has been hypothesized that they can access artificial water systems and survive until they find appropriate conditions to proliferate...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Torvid Kiserud, Alexandra Benachi, Kurt Hecher, Rogelio González Perez, José Carvalho, Gilda Piaggio, Lawrence D Platt
Ultrasound biometry is an important clinical tool for the identification, monitoring, and management of fetal growth restriction and development of macrosomia. This is even truer in populations in which perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are high, which is a reason that much effort is put onto making the technique available everywhere, including low-income societies. Until recently, however, commonly used reference ranges were based on single populations largely from industrialized countries. Thus, the World Health Organization prioritized the establishment of fetal growth charts for international use...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Laura M Carlson, Emily Hardisty, Catherine C Coombs, Neeta L Vora
Cell-free DNA screening for fetal aneuploidy is a commonly used testing strategy in pregnancies at high risk for fetal aneuploidy. The use of cell-free DNA screening is expanding to the low-risk population, because the detection rate for trisomy 21 surpasses that of traditional screening modalities. Although the sensitivity and specificity of cell-free DNA are superior to traditional screening, false-positive results do occur and may indicate an adverse maternal health condition, including maternal mosaicism or, rarely, malignancy...
March 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
M L Martinez-Fierro, G P Hernández-Delgadillo, V Flores-Morales, E Cardenas-Vargas, M Mercado-Reyes, I P Rodriguez-Sanchez, I Delgado-Enciso, C E Galván-Tejada, J I Galván-Tejada, J M Celaya-Padilla, I Garza-Veloz
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy complex disease, distinguished by high blood pressure and proteinuria, diagnosed after the 20th gestation week. Depending on the values of blood pressure, urine protein concentrations, symptomatology, and onset of disease there is a wide range of phenotypes, from mild forms developing predominantly at the end of pregnancy to severe forms developing in the early stage of pregnancy. In the worst cases severe forms of PE could lead to systemic endothelial dysfunction, eclampsia, and maternal and/or fetal death...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Alison G Cahill, Methodius G Tuuli, Molly J Stout, Julia D López, George A Macones
BACKGROUND: Intrapartum electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) is the most commonly used tool in obstetrics in the United States, however, which EFM patterns predict acidemia remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to describe the frequency of patterns seen in labor using modern nomenclature, and to test the hypothesis that visually interpreted patterns are associated with acidemia and morbidities in term infants. We further identified patterns prior to delivery, alone or in combination, predictive of acidemia and neonatal morbidity...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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