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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933606/relaxin-like-peptides-in-male-reproduction-a-human-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Richard Ivell, Alexander I Agoulnik, Ravinder Anand-Ivell
The relaxin family of peptide hormones and their cognate G-protein coupled receptors are becoming physiologically well characterized in the cardiovascular system and particularly in female reproductive processes. Much less is known about the physiology and pharmacology of these peptides in male reproduction, particularly as regards the human. H2-relaxin is involved in prostate function and growth, while INSL3 is a major product of the testicular Leydig cells and in the adult appears to modulate steroidogenesis and germ cell survival...
December 9, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931506/neural-stem-cells-derived-from-human-parthenogenetic-stem-cells-engraft-and-promote-recovery-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model-of-parkinsons-disease
#2
Rodolfo Gonzalez, Ibon Garitaonandia, Maxim Poustovoitov, Tatiana Abramihina, Caleb McEntire, Ben Culp, Jordan Attwood, Alexander Noskov, Trudy Christiansen-Weber, Marwa Khater, Sergio Mora-Castilla, Cuong To, Andrew Crain, Glenn Sherman, Andrey Semechkin, Louise C Laurent, John D Elsworth, John Sladek, Evan Y Snyder, D Eugene Redmond, Russell A Kern
Cell therapy has attracted considerable interest as a promising therapeutic alternative for patients with Parkinsons disease (PD). Clinical studies have shown that grafted fetal neural tissue can achieve considerable biochemical and clinical improvements in PD. However, the source of fetal tissue grafts is limited and ethically controversial. Human parthenogenetic stem cells offer a good alternative because they are derived from unfertilized oocytes without destroying potentially viable human embryos and can be used to generate an unlimited supply of neural cells for transplantation...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929669/fgf23-is-not-required-to-regulate-fetal-phosphorus-metabolism-but-exerts-effects-within-12-hours-after-birth
#3
Yue Ma, Beth J Kirby, Nicholas A Fairbridge, Andrew C Karaplis, Beate Lanske, Christopher S Kovacs
Loss of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) causes hyperphosphatemia, extraskeletal calcifications, and early mortality; excess FGF23 causes hypophosphatemia with rickets or osteomalacia. However, FGF23 may not be important during fetal development. FGF23 deficiency (Fgf23 null) and FGF23 excess (Phex null) did not alter fetal phosphorus or skeletal parameters. In this study we further tested our hypothesis that FGF23 is not essential for fetal phosphorus regulation but becomes important after birth. Although co-receptor Klotho null adults have extremely high FGF23 concentrations, intact FGF23 was normal in Klotho null fetuses, as were fetal phosphorus and skeletal parameters, and placental and renal expression of FGF23 target genes...
December 8, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929218/emerging-vector-borne-diseases
#4
Mark K Huntington, Jay Allison, Dilip Nair
Several mosquito-borne viral infections have recently emerged in North America; West Nile virus is the most common in the United States. Although West Nile virus generally causes a self-limited, flulike febrile illness, a serious neuroinvasive form may occur. Dengue is the most common vector-borne viral disease worldwide, and it has been a significant public health threat in the United States since 2009. Known as breakbone fever for its severe myalgias and arthralgias, dengue may cause a hemorrhagic syndrome...
October 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926974/pregnant-patient-knowledge-and-behavior-regarding-perinatal-oral-health
#5
Bernard Gonik, Eline Wilson, Melanie Mayberry, Bushra Yuki Joarder
Objective Perinatal oral health is important to obstetric practice, with significant implications for maternal, fetal, and infant health. This study sought to describe and compare knowledge and behavior related to perinatal oral health in two distinct populations of pregnant women. Methods An anonymous 13-question survey was distributed at two patient centers (urban teaching clinics and suburban referral center), examining patient knowledge and behaviors pertaining to oral health. Descriptive statistics were tabulated...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926646/treatment-of-a-pregnant-patient-in-a-persistent-vegetative-state
#6
Matthew P Romagano, William E Scorza, Stephen E Lammers, Carole Dorr, John C Smulian
BACKGROUND: Brain injury leading to a persistent vegetative state during pregnancy involves difficult medical and ethical decisions. CASE: A 21-year-old multigravid woman entered a persistent vegetative state at 20 1/7 weeks of gestation after cardiac arrest with postanoxic brain injury from a suspected drug overdose. The clinical disciplines responsible for her case formed a collaborative care plan involving ventilator, nutrition, and medication support of the mother and regular fetal monitoring and ultrasound testing...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924908/development-of-novel-noninvasive-prenatal-testing-protocol-for-whole-autosomal-recessive-disease-using-picodroplet-digital-pcr
#7
Mun Young Chang, Ah Reum Kim, Min Young Kim, Soyoung Kim, Jinsun Yoon, Jae Joon Han, Soyeon Ahn, Changsoo Kang, Byung Yoon Choi
We developed a protocol of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT), employing a higher-resolution picodroplet digital PCR, to detect genetic imbalance in maternal plasma DNA (mpDNA) caused by cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA). In the present study, this approach was applied to four families with autosomal recessive (AR) congenital sensorineural hearing loss. First, a fraction of the fetal DNA in mpDNA was calculated. Then, we made artificial DNA mixtures (positive and negative controls) to simulate mpDNA containing the fraction of cffDNA with or without mutations...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923401/effectiveness-of-the-who-safe-childbirth-checklist-program-in-reducing-severe-maternal-fetal-and-newborn-harm-in-uttar-pradesh-india-study-protocol-for-a-matched-pair-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Katherine E A Semrau, Lisa R Hirschhorn, Bhala Kodkany, Jonathan M Spector, Danielle E Tuller, Gary King, Stuart Lipsitz, Narender Sharma, Vinay Pratap Singh, Bharath Kumar, Neelam Dhingra-Kumar, Rebecca Firestone, Vishwajeet Kumar, Atul A Gawande
BACKGROUND: Effective, scalable strategies to improve maternal, fetal, and newborn health and reduce preventable morbidity and mortality are urgently needed in low- and middle-income countries. Building on the successes of previous checklist-based programs, the World Health Organization (WHO) and partners led the development of the Safe Childbirth Checklist (SCC), a 28-item list of evidence-based practices linked with improved maternal and newborn outcomes. Pilot-testing of the Checklist in Southern India demonstrated dramatic improvements in adherence by health workers to essential childbirth-related practices (EBPs)...
December 7, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923274/frequency-of-fetal-maternal-microchimerism-an-analysis-of-the-hla-drb1-gene-in-cord-blood-and-maternal-sample-pairs
#9
Eun Youn Roh, Jong Hyun Yoon, Sue Shin, Eun Young Song, Hye Yoon Chung, Myoung Hee Park
PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the frequency of fetal-maternal microchimerism among cord blood (CB) from a Korean population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We previously developed a nested polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism method for microchimerism detection that is highly sensitive (0.01-0.001%) and specific. We used this method to investigate the frequency of fetal-maternal HLA-DRB1 microchimerism among 153 maternal and 152 CB samples...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920020/repeated-failed-non-invasive-prenatal-testing-in-a-woman-with-immune-thrombocytopenia-and-antiphospholipid-syndrome-lessons-learnt
#10
C Y Y Hui, W C Tan, E L Tan, L K Tan
We present a case of a 37-year-old Chinese woman (gravida 4 para 0) with a history of immune thrombocytopenia and type IIb antiphospholipid syndrome. She was started on 100 mg of aspirin, 20 mg of prednisolone and 20 mg of subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin daily for her fourth pregnancy. She opted for non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy screening but had failed results three times consecutively from insufficient fetal cfDNA initially or high variance in cfDNA counts on redraws. She declined invasive karyotyping...
December 5, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918947/the-effect-of-blood-staining-on-cervicovaginal-quantitative-fetal-fibronectin-concentration-and-prediction-of-spontaneous-preterm-birth
#11
Natasha L Hezelgrave, Katy Kuhrt, Kate Cottam, Paul T Seed, Rachel M Tribe, Andrew H Shennan
OBJECTIVE: Spontaneous preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin (fFN) has enhanced prediction of preterm birth and, more recently, quantified results have become available so that management can planned more effectively and targeted to individual women. Manufacture guidelines stipulate that fetal fibronectin (fFN) samples should be discarded in the presence of moderate to heavy vaginal bleeding but there hasn't yet been any formal investigation into the effect of blood staining on fetal fibronectin concentration and subsequent preterm birth prediction...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916859/postnatal-gene-therapy-improves-spatial-learning-despite-the-presence-of-neuronal-ectopia-in-a-model-of-neuronal-migration-disorder
#12
Huaiyu Hu, Yu Liu, Kevin Bampoe, Yonglin He, Miao Yu
Patients with type II lissencephaly, a neuronal migration disorder with ectopic neurons, suffer from severe mental retardation, including learning deficits. There is no effective therapy to prevent or correct the formation of neuronal ectopia, which is presumed to cause cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that learning deficits were not solely caused by neuronal ectopia and that postnatal gene therapy could improve learning without correcting the neuronal ectopia formed during fetal development. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated spatial learning of cerebral cortex-specific protein O-mannosyltransferase 2 (POMT2, an enzyme required for O-mannosyl glycosylation) knockout mice and compared to the knockout mice that were injected with an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) encoding POMT2 into the postnatal brains with Barnes maze...
November 29, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915499/first-trimester-contingent-screening-for-trisomies-21-18-13-is-this-model-cost-efficient-and-feasible-in-pubblic-health-system
#13
Enrico Colosi, Valentina D'Ambrosio, Enrico Periti
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of three different first trimester screening models for trisomies 21, 18 and 13, in terms of detection rate, invasive test rate and final costs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed the distribution of risk for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 in a population of 20.831 singleton pregnancies based on maternal age, fetal heart rate, nuchal translucency, free beta human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy associated plasma protein A (Combined test)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915495/placental-respiratory-chain-complex-activities-in-high-risk-pregnancies
#14
Mojtaba Beyramzadeh, Zeliha Gunnur Dikmen, Nergiz K Erturk, Zafer Selcuk Tuncer, Filiz Akbiyik
OBJECTIVES: Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is the key energy source for placental functions and fetal growth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the function of placenta in high risk pregnancies by measuring mitochondrial respiratory chain complex (RCC) activities, and to evaluate the correlation between double test risk ratio and RCC activities. METHODS: The placenta samples were collected from 50 pregnant women. The controls consisted of 20 normal uncomplicated pregnancies and the study group (n = 30) consisted of preeclampsia (PE), intrauterin growth restriction (IUGR), advanced maternal age (AMA), twins and preterm deliveries...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913562/relationship-between-maternal-hypoglycaemia-and-small-for-gestational-age-infants-according-to-maternal-weight-status-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-two-hospitals
#15
Satoshi Shinohara, Yuzo Uchida, Mitsuo Hirai, Shuji Hirata, Kohta Suzuki
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and low glucose challenge test (GCT) results by maternal weight status has not been examined. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between a low GCT result and small for gestational age (SGA) by maternal weight status. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study in 2 hospitals. SETTING: This study evaluated the obstetric records of women who delivered in a general community hospital and a tertiary perinatal care centre...
December 2, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913136/cytogenetic-analysis-of-the-retained-products-of-conception-after-missed-abortion-following-blastocyst-transfer-a-retrospective-large-scale-single-centre-study
#16
Tomoya Segawa, Tomoko Kuroda, Keiichi Kato, Masako Kuroda, Kenji Omi, Osamu Miyauchi, Yoshiaki Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Okubo, Hisao Osada, Shokichi Teramoto
Cytogenetic analysis of the retained products of conception (POC) is the most effective test for identifying miscarriage causes. However, there has been no large-scale study limited to blastocyst transfer. This study retrospectively reports the findings of 1030 cases in which POC analysis was performed after missed abortion following single blastocyst transfer performed at the Shinbashi Yume Clinic. We identified 19.4% as normal karyotypes and 80.6% as aneuploid. These cases broke down into: 62.3% trisomy; 7...
November 21, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912790/fetal-malformation-in-maternal-toxoplasma-and-rubella-co-infection-in-cameroon-a-case-report
#17
Andreas Ateke Njoh, Sarah Namondo Njoh, Messang Blandine Abizou
BACKGROUND: There has been a recent increase in the number of newborns with brain malformations due to congenital infections, but the impact of these diseases remains largely under ascertained in middle-income and low-income countries. This case report presents a fetal anencephaly following maternal toxoplasma and rubella co-infection in a resource-limited setting and the challenges faced by the patient and the health care provider in the management of the condition. CASE PRESENTATION: A 25-year-old black Cameroonian woman of Bakossi origin, gravida3 para1010, presented with a positive rubella and toxoplasma immunoglobulin G serologic test at 21 weeks of pregnancy; she could not benefit from a fetal morphologic ultrasound partly because there was none at the site of her antenatal clinic and because there were accessibility constraints getting to the nearest referral hospital approximately 100 km away...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912090/advances-in-zika-virus-research-stem-cell-models-challenges-and-opportunities
#18
REVIEW
Guo-Li Ming, Hengli Tang, Hongjun Song
The re-emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) and its suspected link with various disorders in newborns and adults led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. In response, the stem cell field quickly established platforms for modeling ZIKV exposure using human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitors and brain organoids, fetal tissues, and animal models. These efforts provided significant insight into cellular targets, pathogenesis, and underlying biological mechanisms of ZIKV infection as well as platforms for drug testing...
December 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911833/noninvasive-prenatal-testing-to-analyze-the-fetal-genome
#19
Mary E Norton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908909/dtb-select-12-december-2016
#20
(no author information available yet)
Azithromycin of no benefit for asthma attacks ● Risk of heart failure with NSAIDs ● Bisphosphonates and steroid-induced osteoporosis ● Triple therapy for moderate-to-severe COPD: marginal benefits ● Much data on adverse events remains unpublished ● Rising placebo response rates in antidepressant trials a 'myth' ● Prenatal fetal RhD testing recommended.
December 1, 2016: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
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