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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081533/eeg-monitoring-technique-influences-the-management-of-hypoxic-ischemic-seizures-in-neonates-undergoing-therapeutic-hypothermia
#1
Saber Jan, Frances J Northington, Charlamaine M Parkinson, Carl E Stafstrom
Electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring techniques for neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are evolving over time, and the specific type of EEG utilized could influence seizure diagnosis and management. We examined whether the type of EEG performed affected seizure treatment decisions (e.g., the choice and number of antiseizure drugs [ASDs]) in therapeutic hypothermia-treated neonates with HI from 2007 to 2015 in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. During this period, 3 different EEG monitoring protocols were utilized: Period 1 (2007-2009), single, brief conventional EEG (1 h duration) at a variable time during therapeutic hypothermia treatment, i...
January 17, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076384/anti-epileptic-drug-combination-efficacy-in-an-in-vitro-seizure-model-phenytoin-and-valproate-lamotrigine-and-valproate
#2
Kim Det Taing, Terence J O'Brien, David A Williams, Chris R French
In this study, we investigated the relative efficacy of different classes of commonly used anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) with different mechanisms of action, individually and in combination, to suppress epileptiform discharges in an in vitro model. Extracellular field potential were recorded in 450 μm thick transverse hippocampal slices prepared from juvenile Wistar rats, in which "epileptiform discharges" (ED's) were produced with a high-K+ (8.5 mM) bicarbonate-buffered saline solution. Single and dual recordings in stratum pyramidale of CA1 and CA3 regions were performed with 3-5 MΩ glass microelectrodes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074282/unique-findings-of-subependymal-giant-cell-astrocytoma-within-cortical-tubers-in-patients-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-a-histopathological-evaluation
#3
Joel S Katz, Hyman Frankel, Tracy Ma, David Zagzag, Benjamin Liechty, Bruria Ben Zeev, Michal Tzadok, Orrin Devinsky, Howard L Weiner, Jonathan Roth
INTRODUCTION: Tuberous sclerosis is associated with three central nervous system pathologies: cortical/subcortical tubers, subependymal nodules (SENs), and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs). Tubers are associated with epilepsy, which is often medication-resistant and often leads to resective surgery. Recently, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi) have been shown to be effective reducing seizure burden in some patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-related refractory epilepsy...
January 10, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060326/network-analysis-of-foramen-ovale-electrode-recordings-in-drug-resistant-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients
#4
Ancor Sanz-García, Lorena Vega-Zelaya, Jesús Pastor, Cristina V Torres, Rafael G Sola, Guillermo J Ortega
Approximately 30% of epilepsy patients are refractory to antiepileptic drugs. In these cases, surgery is the only alternative to eliminate/control seizures. However, a significant minority of patients continues to exhibit post-operative seizures, even in those cases in which the suspected source of seizures has been correctly localized and resected. The protocol presented here combines a clinical procedure routinely employed during the pre-operative evaluation of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with a novel technique for network analysis...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057660/protocol-for-intraoperative-assessment-of-the-human-cerebrovascular-glycocalyx
#5
R H L Haeren, H Vink, J Staals, M A M J van Zandvoort, J Dings, J J van Overbeeke, G Hoogland, K Rijkers, O E M G Schijns
INTRODUCTION: Adequate functioning of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is important for brain homoeostasis and normal neuronal function. Disruption of the BBB has been described in several neurological diseases. Recent reports suggest that an increased permeability of the BBB also contributes to increased seizure susceptibility in patients with epilepsy. The endothelial glycocalyx is coating the luminal side of the endothelium and can be considered as the first barrier of the BBB. We hypothesise that an altered glycocalyx thickness plays a role in the aetiology of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common type of epilepsy...
January 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051172/therapeutic-hypothermia-for-neonatal-encephalopathy-a-report-from-the-first-3-years-of-the-baby-cooling-registry-of-japan
#6
Kennosuke Tsuda, Takeo Mukai, Sachiko Iwata, Jun Shibasaki, Takuya Tokuhisa, Tomoaki Ioroi, Hiroyuki Sano, Nanae Yutaka, Akihito Takahashi, Akihito Takeuchi, Toshiki Takenouchi, Yuko Araki, Hisanori Sobajima, Masanori Tamura, Shigeharu Hosono, Makoto Nabetani, Osuke Iwata
Therapeutic hypothermia is recommended for moderate and severe neonatal encephalopathy, but is being applied to a wider range of neonates than originally envisaged. To examine the clinical use of therapeutic hypothermia, data collected during the first 3 years (2012-2014) of the Baby Cooling Registry of Japan were analysed. Of 485 cooled neonates, 96.5% were ≥36 weeks gestation and 99.4% weighed ≥1,800 g. Severe acidosis (pH < 7 or base deficit ≥16 mmol/L) was present in 68.9%, and 96.7% required resuscitation for >10 min...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050462/to-study-the-correlation-of-thompson-scoring-in-predicting-early-neonatal-outcome-in-post-asphyxiated-term-neonates
#7
Dalip Kumar Bhagwani, Manisha Sharma, Stanzin Dolker, Sharada Kothapalli
INTRODUCTION: Throughout the world each year, an estimated 23% of the 4 million neonatal deaths and 8% of all deaths in <5 years of age are associated with signs of asphyxia at birth. AIM: To study the role of cord arterial blood gas analysis at birth and serial Thompson score in predicting the early neonatal outcome in post asphyxiated term neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in Department of Paediatrics, in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Hindu Rao Hospital, New Delhi from May 2014 to February...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042998/photosensitivity-in-dravet-syndrome-is-under-recognized-and-related-to-prognosis
#8
Nienke Verbeek, Dorothée Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Merel Wassenaar, Jolien van Campen, Anja Sonsma, W Boudewijn Gunning, Al de Weerd, Nine Knoers, Willy Spetgens, Thea Gutter, Frans Leijten, Eva Brilstra
OBJECTIVE: To detect determinants for photoparoxysmal EEG response (PPR) in SCN1A-related Dravet syndrome (DS). METHODS: Data were studied from nationwide medical histories and EEGs of DS-patients (n=53; 31 males, age 2-19years). Detailed questionnaires on visual stimuli were completed by parents (n=49). RESULTS: PPR was found in 22 patients (42%; median age 1.25yr), and repeatedly in 17%. PPR (17% of 249 intermittent photic stimulation (IPS)-EEGs) occurred more often with optimal IPS protocols (OR 2...
December 6, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034485/the-photosensitivity-model-is-also-a-model-for-focal-partial-seizures
#9
Dorothee Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenite, Pierre Genton, Christian Brandt, Ronald C Reed
The 'Photosensitivity Model' uses a standardized stimulation protocol of repeated intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) over a three-day period, with administration of a single dose of an investigational antiepileptic drug (AED) after a baseline IPS day in photosensitive patients, followed by a third IPS day to determine duration of effect. This 'Photosensitivity Model' has shown its' value in the development of new AEDs. Levetiracetam (LEV), currently a first-line AED in new-onset focal epilepsies, was not effective in classical animal models, but showed dose-dependent efficacy in the human 'Photosensitivity Model'...
December 2, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027373/new-onset-seizure-in-adults-and-adolescents-a-review
#10
Jay R Gavvala, Stephan U Schuele
Importance: Approximately 8% to 10% of the population will experience a seizure during their lifetime. Only about 2% to 3% of patients go on to develop epilepsy. Understanding the underlying etiology leading to an accurate diagnosis is necessary to ensure appropriate treatment and that patients with low risk for recurrence are not treated unnecessarily. Observations: Patients can present with new-onset seizure for a variety of reasons such as acute symptomatic seizures due to acute brain injury or metabolic derangements, or unprovoked seizures that are the initial manifestation of epilepsy...
27, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004630/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-preoperative-planning-in-brain-tumour-surgery
#11
Jonathan C Lau, Suzanne E Kosteniuk, Frank Bihari, Joseph F Megyesi
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is being increasingly used for the preoperative evaluation of patients with brain tumours. METHODS: The study is a retrospective chart review investigating the use of clinical fMRI from 2002 through 2013 in the preoperative evaluation of brain tumour patients. Baseline demographic and clinical data were collected. The specific fMRI protocols used for each patient were recorded. RESULTS: Sixty patients were identified over the 12-year period...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997354/applications-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-children-and-pediatrics
#12
Guadalupe Nathzidy Rivera-Urbina, Michael A Nitsche, Carmelo M Vicario, Andrés Molero-Chamizo
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory noninvasive brain stimulation tool with potential to increase or reduce regional and remote cortical excitability. Numerous studies have shown the ability of this technique to induce neuroplasticity and to modulate cognition and behavior in adults. Clinical studies have also demonstrated the ability of tDCS to induce therapeutic effects in several central nervous system disorders. However, knowledge about its ability to modulate brain functions in children or induce clinical improvements in pediatrics is limited...
December 20, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958617/results-of-the-fontan-operation-with-no-early-mortality-in-248-consecutive-patients
#13
Edward Malec, Christoph Schmidt, Anja Lehner, Katarzyna Januszewska
BACKGROUND: Fontan operation has undergone several modifications and today is the primary way to treat a broad spectrum of congenital heart defects AIM: The purpose of this study is to present the results of treatment of children with a single ventricle operated by the same surgical team and managed according to a uniform strategy. METHODS: In the years 2007-2015, in 248 children aged 3.7 ± 2.6 years and weigh of 14.6 ± 6.1 kg with a single ventricle the Fontan surgery was performed...
December 13, 2016: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955838/risk-factors-for-diagnostic-delay-in-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-among-children-and-adolescents
#14
Kette D Valente, Ruda Alessi, Silvia Vincentiis, Bernardo Dos Santos, Patricia Rzezak
BACKGROUND: This study aims to analyze a series of pediatric patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) to establish the diagnostic gap and possible risk factors for the delayed diagnosis in this age group. METHODS: We evaluated all children with PNES documented by video electroencephalography. None had a previous diagnosis of PNES. In total, we included 53 children (interquartile range: 7 to 17 years; mean age 12.81 years [S.D. 3.15]; 60.4% girls) who underwent a protocol consisting of neurological and psychiatric interviews...
November 9, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955671/pro-epileptogenic-effects-of-viral-like-inflammation-in-both-mature-and-immature-brains
#15
Nina Dupuis, Andrey Mazarati, Béatrice Desnous, Vibol Chhor, Bobbi Fleiss, Tifenn Le Charpentier, Sophie Lebon, Zsolt Csaba, Pierre Gressens, Pascal Dournaud, Stéphane Auvin
BACKGROUND: Infectious encephalitides are most often associated with acute seizures during the infection period and are risk factors for the development of epilepsy at later times. Mechanisms of viral encephalitis-induced epileptogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the contribution of viral encephalitis-associated inflammation to ictogenesis and epileptogenesis using a rapid kindling protocol in rats. In addition, we examined whether minocycline can improve outcomes of viral-like brain inflammation...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924180/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-and-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-in-the-evaluation-of-cerebral-tumors-a-case-report
#16
Ioannis Siasios, Varvara Valotassiou, Eftychia Kapsalaki, Ioannis Tsougos, Panagiotis Georgoulias, Aggeliki Fotiadou, Maria Ioannou, Georgios Koukoulis, Vassilios Dimopoulos, Kostas Fountas
In their daily clinical practice, physicians have to confront diagnostic dilemmas which cannot be resolved by the application of only one imaging technique. In this case report, we present a 66-year-old woman who was admitted to our institution for the surgical resection of a recently diagnosed brain tumor. The patient had a history of epileptic seizures and was hospitalized in the past for anti-phospholipid syndrome related to a non-Hodgkin lymphoma in remission. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed an enhancing right parasagittal lesion with significant edema suggestive of a high grade glioma...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923187/sleep-eeg-patterns-in-infants-with-congenital-zika-virus-syndrome
#17
Maria Durce Costa Gomes Carvalho, Demócrito de Barros Miranda-Filho, Vanessa van der Linden, Paula Fabiana Sobral, Regina Coeli Ferreira Ramos, Maria Ângela Wanderley Rocha, Marli Tenório Cordeiro, Sarah Pinheiro de Alencar, Magda Lahorgue Nunes
OBJECTIVES: To describe sleep EEG patterns of neonates, and infants with microcephaly due to congenital Zika virus (ZikV) syndrome. METHODS: A descriptive case series of EEGs performed in a cohort of neonates with microcephaly monitored from October 2015 to February 2016 at a University Hospital in Northeast Brazil. Infants were investigated following an established protocol that includes EEG, neuroimaging studies, PCR and specific antibodies for ZikV detection...
January 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922474/embracing-a-nurse-driven-alcohol-withdrawal-protocol-through-quality-improvement
#18
John Barrett, Maria Jansen, April Cooper, Matthew Felbinger, Faith Waters
BACKGROUND: Alcohol withdrawal can lead to severe complications including seizures, delirium tremens, and death if not treated appropriately. Nurses are critical to the safety and outcomes of these patients. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this retrospective study was to determine if nursing education on a community hospital's alcohol withdrawal protocol led to improved nursing compliance. METHODS: This is a quality improvement project involving a two-part retrospective review-an initial needs assessment followed by nursing education and a subsequent posteducation retrospective review...
October 2016: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912111/can-ictal-meg-obviate-the-need-for-phase-ii-monitoring-in-people-with-drug-refractory-epilepsy-a-prospective-observational-study
#19
Bhargavi Ramanujam, Kamal Bharti, Vibhin Viswanathan, Ajay Garg, Madhavi Tripathi, Chandrashekhar Bal, P Sarat Chandra, Manjari Tripathi
PURPOSE: To determine if ictal-magnetoencephalography (ictal-MEG) source localization (SL) added information towards delineating the ictal-onset zone (IOZ), whether and how it helped final decision-making in epilepsy-surgery. METHODS: Definite focal clusters on ictal-MEG were available for 32 DRE-patients, data was analyzed (single equivalent current dipole (ECD) model), SL done. Clinical history, long-term video-EEG (VEEG) monitoring, epilepsy-protocol MRI, FDG-PET, ictal-SPECT and interictal-MEG were discussed at the multispeciality Epilepsy Surgery Case-conference (ESC)...
October 31, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911366/a-multimodal-imaging-and-stimulation-based-method-of-evaluating-connectivity-related-brain-excitability-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#20
Mouhsin M Shafi, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Catherine J Chu, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Bernard S Chang
Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) is a technique that identifies connectivity between different brain regions based on correlations over time in the blood-oxygenation level dependent signal. rs-fcMRI has been applied extensively to identify abnormalities in brain connectivity in different neurologic and psychiatric diseases. However, the relationship among rs-fcMRI connectivity abnormalities, brain electrophysiology and disease state is unknown, in part because the causal significance of alterations in functional connectivity in disease pathophysiology has not been established...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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