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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213939/protective-antibodies-against-clostridium-difficile-are-present-in-intravenous-immunoglobulin-and-are-retained-in-humans-following-its-administration
#1
Ola H Negm, Brendon MacKenzie, Mohamed R Hamed, Omar Aj Ahmad, Clifford C Shone, David P Humphreys, K Ravi Acharya, Christine E Loscher, Izabela Marszalowska, Mark Lynch, Mark H Wilcox, Tanya M Monaghan
The prevalence of serum antibodies against C. difficile (CD) toxins A and B in healthy populations have prompted interest in evaluating the therapeutic activity of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in individuals experiencing severe or recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI). Despite some promising case reports, a definitive clinical role for IVIg in CDI remains unclear. Contradictory results may be attributed to a lack of consensus regarding optimal dose, timing of administration and patient selection as well as variability in specific antibody content between commercial preparations...
February 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209056/bulk-heterojunction-morphologies-with-atomistic-resolution-from-coarse-grain-solvent-evaporation-simulations
#2
Riccardo Alessandri, Jaakko J Uusitalo, Alex H De Vries, Remco W A Havenith, Siewert J Marrink
Control over the morphology of the active layer of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells is paramount to achieve high efficiency devices. However, no method currently available can predict morphologies for a novel donor:acceptor blend. An approach which allows to reach relevant length scales, retain chemical specificity, mimic experimental fabrication conditions, and which is suited for high-throughput schemes has been proven challenging to find. Here, we propose a method to generate atom-resolved morphologies of BHJs which conforms to these requirements...
February 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198077/translation-strategies-contradiction-and-the-theory-of-social-representations-why-discussing-needles-may-improve-blood-donor-retention
#3
Gail Moloney, Jane Hayman, Marguerite Gamble, Geoff Smith, Rob Hall
Retaining blood donors is a cost-effective way of ensuring a safe blood supply, yet despite the plethora of research, only 5.1% of the eligible population in Australia donate blood and 40% of these do not make a second donation. We offer an alternative to traditional approaches by conceptualizing blood donation within social representations theory as socially derived symbolic knowledge with a specific focus on cognitive polyphasia and Guimelli's (1998) normative and functional dimensions. An online survey, completed by 703 residents from NSW Australia, comprised a blood donation word association task, Likert-style questions constructed from previous word association data and contextualized blood donation statements...
February 15, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197644/routine-application-of-bloodless-priming-in-neonatal-cardiopulmonary-bypass-a-3-year-experience
#4
Wolfgang Boettcher, Nicodème Sinzobahamvya, Oliver Miera, Matthias Redlin, Frank Dehmel, Mi-Young Cho, Peter Murin, Felix Berger, Joachim Photiadis
A restrictive transfusion strategy led us to routinely try to conduct donor-blood free open-heart surgery even in neonates. The cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit was minimized by priming volumina at 73 ml for the smallest patients with body weight up to 2.5 kg and 85-95 ml for those with body weight of more than 2.5 kg, and by positioning the console as close as possible to operation table. Measures were applied to save blood during the procedure. Transfusion threshold of 8 g/dl hemoglobin was retained...
February 14, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183713/vaccination-targeting-native-receptors-to-enhance-the-function-and-proliferation-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-car-modified-t-cells
#5
Miyuki Tanaka, Haruko Tashiro, Bilal Omer, Natasha Lapteva, Jun Ando, Minhtran Ngo, Birju Mehta, Gianpietro Dotti, Paul R Kinchington, Ann M Leen, Claudia Rossig, Cliona M Rooney
PURPOSE: The multiple mechanisms used by solid tumors to suppress tumor-specific immune responses are a major barrier to the success of adoptively-transferred tumor-specific T-cells. Since viruses induce potent innate and adaptive immune responses, we hypothesized that the immunogenicity of viruses could be harnessed for the treatment of solid tumors if virus-specific T-cells (VSTs) were modified with tumor-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). We tested this hypothesis using VZV-specific T-cells (VZVSTs) expressing a CAR for GD2, a disialoganglioside expressed on neuroblastoma and certain other tumors, since the live-attenuated VZV vaccine could be used for in vivo stimulation...
February 9, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170444/impaired-toll-like-receptor-7-and-9-induced-immune-activation-in-chronic-spinal-cord-injured-patients-contributes-to-immune-dysfunction
#6
Gozde Gucluler, Emre Adiguzel, Bilgi Gungor, Tamer Kahraman, Mayda Gursel, Bilge Yilmaz, Ihsan Gursel
Reduced immune activation or immunosuppression is seen in patients withneurological diseases. Urinary and respiratory infections mainly manifested as septicemia and pneumonia are the most frequent complications following spinal cord injuries and they account for the majority of deaths. The underlying reason of these losses is believed to arise due to impaired immune responses to pathogens. Here, we hypothesized that susceptibility to infections of chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients might be due to impairment in recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns and subsequently declining innate and adaptive immune responses that lead to immune dysfunction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166968/interspecies-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-in-asiatic-cheetah-using-nuclei-derived-from-post-mortem-frozen-tissue-in-absence-of-cryo-protectant-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-matured-domestic-cat-oocytes
#7
F Moulavi, S M Hosseini, N Tanhaie-Vash, S Ostadhosseini, S H Hosseini, M Hajinasrollah, M H Asghari, H Gourabi, A Shahverdi, A D Vosough, M H Nasr-Esfahani
Recent accomplishments in the field of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) hold tremendous promise to prevent rapid loss of animal genetic resources using ex situ conservation technology. Most of SCNT studies use viable cells for nuclear transfer into recipient oocytes. However, preparation of live cells in extreme circumstances, in which post-mortem material of endangered/rare animals is improperly retained frozen, is difficult, if not impossible. This study investigated the possibility of interspecies-SCNT (iSCNT) in Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus), a critically endangered subspecies, using nuclei derived from frozen tissue in absence of cryo-protectant at -20 °C and in vitro matured domestic cat oocytes...
March 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161795/a-novel-bret-based-binding-assay-for-interaction-studies-of-relaxin-family-peptide-receptor-3-with-its-ligands
#8
Jia-Hui Wang, Xiao-Xia Shao, Meng-Jun Hu, Dian Wei, Ya-Li Liu, Zeng-Guang Xu, Zhan-Yun Guo
Relaxin family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3) is an A-class G protein-coupled receptor that is implicated in the regulation of food intake and stress response upon activation by its cognate agonist relaxin-3. To study its interaction with various ligands, we developed a novel bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based binding assay using the brightest NanoLuc as an energy donor and a newly developed cyan-excitable orange fluorescent protein (CyOFP) as an energy acceptor. An engineered CyOFP without intrinsic cysteine residues but with an introduced cysteine at the C-terminus was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and chemically conjugated to the A-chain N-terminus of an easily labeled chimeric R3/I5 peptide via an intermolecular disulfide linkage...
February 4, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150695/characterisation-of-a-divergent-progenitor-cell-sub-populations-in-human-osteoarthritic-cartilage-the-role-of-telomere-erosion-and-replicative-senescence
#9
Christopher R Fellows, Rebecca Williams, Iwan R Davies, Kajal Gohil, Duncan M Baird, John Fairclough, Paul Rooney, Charles W Archer, Ilyas M Khan
In recent years it has become increasingly clear that articular cartilage harbours a viable pool of progenitor cells and interest has focussed on their role during development and disease. Analysis of progenitor numbers using fluorescence-activated sorting techniques has resulted in wide-ranging estimates, which may be the result of context-dependent expression of cell surface markers. We have used a colony-forming assay to reliably determine chondroprogenitor numbers in normal and osteoarthritic cartilage where we observed a 2-fold increase in diseased tissue (P  < 0...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134951/converting-pasteurella-multocida-%C3%AE-2-3-sialyltransferase-1-pmst1-to-a-regioselective-%C3%AE-2-6-sialyltransferase-by-saturation-mutagenesis-and-regioselective-screening
#10
John B McArthur, Hai Yu, Jie Zeng, Xi Chen
A microtiter plate-based screening assay capable of determining the activity and regioselectivity of sialyltransferases was developed. This assay was used to screen two single-site saturation libraries of Pasteurella multocida α2-3-sialyltransferase 1 (PmST1) for α2-6-sialyltransferase activity and total sialyltransferase activity. PmST1 double mutant P34H/M144L was found to be the most effective α2-6-sialyltransferase and displayed 50% reduced donor hydrolysis and 50-fold reduced sialidase activity compared to the wild-type PmST1...
January 30, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125805/characterization-of-an-acellular-scaffold-for-a-tissue-engineering-approach-to-the-nipple-areolar-complex-reconstruction
#11
Nicholas C Pashos, Michelle E Scarritt, Zachary R Eagle, Jeffrey M Gimble, Abigail E Chaffin, Bruce A Bunnell
A significant number of patients undergo mastectomies and breast reconstructions every year using many surgical-based techniques to reconstruct the nipple-areolar complex (NAC). Described herein is a tissue engineering approach that may permit a human NAC onlay graft during breast reconstruction procedures. By applying decellularization, which is the removal of cellular components from tissue, to an intact whole donor NAC, the extracellular matrix (ECM) structure of the NAC is preserved. This creates a biologically derived scaffold for cells to repopulate and regenerate the NAC...
January 27, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103425/efficient-synthesis-of-%C3%AE-galactosyl-oligosaccharides-using-a-mutant-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron-retaining-%C3%AE-galactosidase-btgh97b
#12
Masayuki Okuyama, Kana Matsunaga, Ken-Ichi Watanabe, Keitaro Yamashita, Takayoshi Tagami, Asako Kikuchi, Min Ma, Patcharapa Klahan, Haruhide Mori, Min Yao, Atsuo Kimura
: The preparation of a glycosynthase, a catalytic nucleophile mutant of a glycosidase, is a well-established strategy for the effective synthesis of glycosidic linkages. However, glycosynthases derived from α-glycosidases can give poor yields of desired products because they require generally unstable β-glycosyl fluoride donors. Here, we investigate a transglycosylation catalyzed by a catalytic nucleophile mutant derived from a glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 97 α-galactosidase, using more stable β-galactosyl azide and α-galactosyl fluoride donors...
January 19, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095438/vh1-family-immunoglobulin-repertoire-sequencing-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#13
Maya K Sethi, Felicitas Thol, Michael Stadler, Michael Heuser, Arnold Ganser, Christian Koenecke, Oliver Pabst
After allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), recovery of humoral immunity is essential to protect from life-threatening infections. However, monitoring the humoral immune system after transplantation with standard techniques in the clinical routine is imprecise. Here, we performed sequencing of mononuclear bone marrow cells to characterize the VH1-repertoire of switched B cells of healthy volunteers and patients undergoing HSCT. Analysis of healthy bone marrow donors and patients showed virtually no clonally related sequences between individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091606/long-term-efficient-organic-photovoltaics-based-on-quaternary-bulk-heterojunctions
#14
Minwoo Nam, Minjeong Cha, Hyun Hwi Lee, Kahyun Hur, Kyu-Tae Lee, Jaehong Yoo, Il Ki Han, S Joon Kwon, Doo-Hyun Ko
A major impediment to the commercialization of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is attaining long-term morphological stability of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer. To secure the stability while pursuing optimized performance, multi-component BHJ-based OPVs have been strategically explored. Here we demonstrate the use of quaternary BHJs (q-BHJs) composed of two conjugated polymer donors and two fullerene acceptors as a novel platform to produce high-efficiency and long-term durable OPVs. A q-BHJ OPV (q-OPV) with an experimentally optimized composition exhibits an enhanced efficiency and extended operational lifetime than does the binary reference OPV...
January 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077684/targeting-aurora-kinase-a-and-jak2-prevents-gvhd-while-maintaining-treg-and-antitumor-ctl-function
#15
Brian C Betts, Anandharaman Veerapathran, Joseph Pidala, Hua Yang, Pedro Horna, Kelly Walton, Christopher L Cubitt, Steven Gunawan, Harshani R Lawrence, Nicholas J Lawrence, Said M Sebti, Claudio Anasetti
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a leading cause of nonrelapse mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. T cell costimulation by CD28 contributes to GVHD, but prevention is incomplete when targeting CD28, downstream mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), or Aurora A. Likewise, interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) signaling promotes alloreactivity, yet JAK2 inhibition does not eliminate GVHD. We provide evidence that blocking Aurora A and JAK2 in human T cells is synergistic in vitro, prevents xenogeneic GVHD, and maintains antitumor responses by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs)...
January 11, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077653/characterizing-hiv-1-splicing-using-next-generation-sequencing
#16
Ann Emery, Shuntai Zhou, Elizabeth Pollom, Ronald Swanstrom
: Full-length HIV-1 RNA serves as the genome or as an mRNA, or this RNA undergoes splicing using four donors and ten acceptors to create over 50 physiologically relevant transcripts in two size classes (1.8 kb and 4 kb). We developed an assay using Primer ID-tagged deep sequencing to quantify HIV-1 splicing. Using the NL4-3 lab strain we found that A5 (env/nef) is the most commonly used acceptor (about 50%) with A3 (tat) the least used (about 3%). Two small exons are made when a splice to acceptor A1 or A2 is followed by activation of donor D2 or D3, and the high-level use of D2 and D3 dramatically reduces the amount of vif and vpr transcripts...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067900/donor-cd19-car-t-cells-exert-potent-graft-versus-lymphoma-activity-with-diminished-graft-versus-host-activity
#17
Arnab Ghosh, Melody Smith, Scott E James, Marco L Davila, Enrico Velardi, Kimon V Argyropoulos, Gertrude Gunset, Fabiana Perna, Fabiana M Kreines, Emily R Levy, Sophie Lieberman, Hillary V Jay, Andrea Z Tuckett, Johannes L Zakrzewski, Lisa Tan, Lauren F Young, Kate Takvorian, Jarrod A Dudakov, Robert R Jenq, Alan M Hanash, Ana Carolina F Motta, George F Murphy, Chen Liu, Andrea Schietinger, Michel Sadelain, Marcel R M van den Brink
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potentially curative therapy for hematological malignancies. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and relapse after allo-HSCT remain major impediments to the success of allo-HSCT. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) direct tumor cell recognition of adoptively transferred T cells. CD19 is an attractive CAR target, which is expressed in most B cell malignancies, as well as in healthy B cells. Clinical trials using autologous CD19-targeted T cells have shown remarkable promise in various B cell malignancies...
February 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060070/enhancing-dmek-success-by-identifying-optimal-levels-of-trypan-blue-dye-application-to-donor-corneal-tissue
#18
Parag A Majmudar, Lauren Johnson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the correct concentration and duration of application of trypan blue dye to Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) donor corneal tissue before transplant to enhance visibility while minimizing damage to the tissue. METHODS: Corneas were precut for DMEK using an 8-mm punch, and each was stained with either 0.06% or 0.15% trypan blue for a duration of 1, 3, or 5 minutes. After staining, each tissue was placed in balanced salt solution and observed to determine how quickly the stain faded from the tissue using a grading system...
February 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053099/hcmv-specific-cd4-t-cells-are-poly-functional-and-can-respond-to-hcmv-infected-dendritic-cells-in-vitro
#19
Sarah E Jackson, George X Sedikides, Gavin M Mason, Georgina Okecha, Mark R Wills
: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and periodic re-activation is generally well controlled by the HCMV-specific T cell response in healthy people. While the CD8+ T cell response to HCMV has been extensively studied, the HCMV-specific CD4+ T cell effector response is not as well understood, especially in the context of direct interactions with HCMV infected cells. We screened the IFNγ and IL-10 response to 6 HCMV peptide pools (selected as the most frequently responded to in our previous studies: pp65, pp71, IE1, IE2, gB and US3) in 84 donors, aged 23 - 74 years...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051311/versatile-self-adapting-boronic-acids-for-h-bond-recognition-from-discrete-to-polymeric-supramolecules
#20
Irene Georgiou, Simon Kervyn, Alexandre Rossignon, Federica De Leo, Johan Wouters, Gilles Bruylants, Davide Bonifazi
By taking advantage of the peculiar dynamic covalent reactivity of boronic acids to form tetraboronate derivatives, interest has risen to use the aryl derivatives in materials science and supramolecular chemistry, nevertheless their ability to form H-bonded complexes has been only marginally touched. Herein we report the first solution and solid-state binding studies of first double H-bonded DD•AA-type complexes of a series of aromatic boronic acids that adopt a synsyn conformation with suitable complementary H-bonding acceptor partners...
January 4, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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