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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790483/the-effect-of-changing-one-s-country-of-residence-on-the-decision-to-become-an-organ-donor-the-experience-of-religious-immigrant-women-living-in-sweden
#1
Ferid Krupić, Sahmir Šadić, Svemir Čustović, Mahir Jašarević, Mirsad Fazlić, Kristian Samuelsson
Aim To explore and elucidate women's knowledge of and willingness to take part in organ donation, and to explore if their opinions were changed by coming to Sweden. Methods The study was designed as a qualitative study using data from interviews with women from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Croatia and Kosovo. The inclusion criteria were women who were immigrants in Sweden and have lived in Sweden for more than 10 years. Five groups including forty-five women were invited to participate in the study and 39 agreed...
August 1, 2018: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787860/tissue-transplantation-in-planarians-a-useful-tool-for-molecular-analysis-of-pattern-formation
#2
REVIEW
Jose Ignacio Rojo-Laguna, Sergi Garcia-Cabot, Emili Saló
Freshwater planarians are well known for their remarkable plasticity and regenerative capabilities. Most studies of planarian regeneration have specifically examined regeneration after transverse or longitudinal sectioning or during homeostasis in intact adults. However, tissue transplantation, first performed over a century ago, constitutes another important tool in the study of regeneration in planarians, and can be easily performed given this species' extraordinary healing capacity and its lack of a circulatory system...
May 19, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786562/application-of-hepatocyte-like-cells-to-enhance-hepatic-safety-risk-assessment-in-drug-discovery
#3
REVIEW
Dominic P Williams
Hepatic stress and injury from drugs continues to be a major concern within the pharmaceutical industry, leading to preclinical and clinical attrition precautionary warnings and post-market withdrawal of drugs. There is a requirement for more predictive and mechanistically accurate models to aid risk assessment. Primary human hepatocytes, subject to isolation stress, cryopreservation, donor-to-donor variation and a relatively short period of functional capability in two-dimensional cultures, are not suitable for high-throughput screening procedures...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777958/sssupramolecular-poly-acrylic-acid-f127-hydrogel-with-hydration-controlled-nitric-oxide-release-for-enhancing-wound-healing
#4
Mathilde Champeau, Valéria Póvoa, Lucas Militão, Flávia Cabrini, Guilherme F Picheth, Florian Meneau, Carlos P Jara, Eliana P de Araujo, Marcelo G de Oliveira
Topical nitric oxide (NO) delivery has been shown to accelerate wound healing. However, delivering NO to wounds at appropriate rates and doses requires new biomaterial-based strategies. Here, we describe the development of supramolecular interpolymer complex hydrogels comprising PEO-PPO-PEO (F127) micelles embedded in a poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) matrix, with S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) molecules dissolved in the hydrophilic domain. We show that PAA:F127/GSNO hydrogels start releasing NO upon hydration at rates controlled by their rates of water absorption...
May 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776435/fecal-aliquot-straw-technique-fast-allows-for-easy-and-reproducible-subsampling-assessing-interpersonal-variation-in-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-accumulation
#5
Kymberleigh A Romano, Kimberly A Dill-McFarland, Kazuyuki Kasahara, Robert L Kerby, Eugenio I Vivas, Daniel Amador-Noguez, Pamela Herd, Federico E Rey
BACKGROUND: Convenient, reproducible, and rapid preservation of unique biological specimens is pivotal to their use in microbiome analyses. As an increasing number of human studies incorporate the gut microbiome in their design, there is a high demand for streamlined sample collection and storage methods that are amenable to different settings and experimental needs. While several commercial kits address collection/shipping needs for sequence-based studies, these methods do not preserve samples properly for studies that require viable microbes...
May 18, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764765/easy-reuse-of-magnetic-cross-linked-enzyme-aggregates-of-lipase-b-from-candida-antarctica-to-obtain-biodiesel-from-chlorella-vulgaris-lipids
#6
Enrique Angulo Picó, Carmen López, Álvaro Cruz-Izquierdo, Mercedes Munarriz, Francisco Javier Iruretagoyena, Juan Luis Serra, María Jesús Llama
In this work, magnetic cross-linked enzyme aggregates (mCLEAs) of CALB (lipase B from Candida antarctica) were prepared and characterized. Moreover, a method for an easy, sustainable and economic extraction of lipids from nitrogen-starved cells of Chlorella vulgaris var L3 was developed. Then, the extracted lipids (oils and free fatty acids, FFAs) were converted to biodiesel using mCLEAs and chemical acid catalysis. Among several lipid extraction methods, saponification was selected given the amount of wet microalgal biomass it can process per unit of time, its low market value, and because it allows for the use of less toxic solvents...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750674/evaluating-plutonium-intake-and-radiation-dose-following-extensive-chelation-treatment
#7
Sara Dumit, Maia Avtandilashvili, Sergei Y Tolmachev
A voluntary partial-body donor (U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries Case 0785) was accidentally exposed to Pu via inhalation and wounds. This individual underwent medical treatment including wound excision and extensive chelation treatment with calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and calcium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Approximately 2.2 kBq of Pu was measured in the wound site 44 y after the accident. Major soft tissues and selected bones were collected at autopsy and radiochemically analyzed for Pu, Pu, and Am...
May 4, 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746938/microbial-taxonomic-and-metabolic-alterations-during-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-to-treat-clostridium-difficile-infection
#8
Lee Kellingray, Gwénaëlle Le Gall, Marianne Defernez, Ian L P Beales, Ngozi Franslem-Elumogo, Arjan Narbad
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine changes to the microbiota composition and metabolic profiles of seven patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI), following treatment with faecal microbiota transplant (FMT). METHODS: 16S rDNA sequencing and 1 H NMR were performed on faecal samples from the patients (pre-, post-FMT, and follow-up) and the associated donor samples. Sparse partial-least-square analysis was used to identify correlations between the two datasets...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740477/determination-of-oocyte-manipulation-zygote-manipulation-and-genome-reprogramming-effects-on-the-transcriptomes-of-bovine-blastocysts
#9
Byungkuk Min, Jung S Park, Yong-Kook Kang
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (scNT) embryos suffer from damage caused by micro-operation (manipulation) and inefficient genome reprograming that hinder their normal development at different levels and in distinct ways. These two effects are inseparable in the nature of the scNT embryo, although methods to separately measure them are needed to improve scNT technology and evaluate incoming reprogramming tools. As an attempt to meet these demands, we made bovine sham nuclear-transfer (shNT) blastocysts, special embryos made with a standard nuclear-transfer procedure at the zygote stage, while retaining an intact genome...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720402/structural-characterization-of-the-p-1-intermediate-state-of-the-p-cluster-of-nitrogenase
#10
Stephen M Keable, Oleg A Zadvornyy, Lewis E Johnson, Bojana Ginovska, Andrew J Rasmussen, Karamatullah Danyal, Brian J Eilers, Gregory A Prussia, Axl X LeVan, Simone Raugei, Lance C Seefeldt, John W Peters
Nitrogenase is the enzyme that reduces atmospheric dinitrogen (N2 ) to ammonia (NH3 ) in biological systems. It catalyzes a series of single-electron transfers from the donor iron protein (Fe protein) to the molybdenum-iron protein (MoFe protein) that contains the iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) sites where N2 is reduced to NH3 The [8Fe-7S] P-cluster in the MoFe protein functions in nitrogenase catalysis as an intermediate electron carrier between the external electron donor, the Fe protein, and the FeMo-co sites of the MoFe protein...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712865/mechanism-for-survival-of-homozygous-nonsense-mutations-in-the-tumor-suppressor-gene-brca1
#11
Aaron Seo, Orna Steinberg-Shemer, Sule Unal, Silvia Casadei, Tom Walsh, Fatma Gumruk, Stavit Shalev, Akiko Shimamura, Nurten Ayse Akarsu, Hannah Tamary, Mary-Claire King
BRCA1 is essential for repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination, and hence for survival. Complete loss of its function is lethal during early embryonic development. Patients who are compound heterozygous for BRCA1 truncating mutations and missense alleles that retain some DNA repair capacity may survive, albeit with very high risk of early onset breast or ovarian cancer and features of Fanconi anemia. However, a mechanism enabling survival of patients homozygous for BRCA1 truncating mutations has not been described...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700172/the-early-expansion-of-anergic-nkg2apos-cd56dim-cd16neg-natural-killer-cells-represents-a-therapeutic-target-in-haploidentical-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#12
Alessandra Roberto, Clara Di Vito, Elisa Zaghi, Emilia Maria Cristina Mazza, Arianna Capucetti, Michela Calvi, Paolo Tentorio, Veronica Zanon, Barbara Sarina, Jacopo Mariotti, Stefania Bramanti, Elena Tenedini, Enrico Tagliafico, Silvio Bicciato, Armando Santoro, Mario Roederer, Emanuela Marcenaro, Luca Castagna, Enrico Lugli, Domenico Mavilio
Natural Killer cells are the first lymphocyte population to reconstitute early after non myelo-ablative and T cell-replete haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with post-transplant infusion of cyclophosphamide. The present study characterizes the transient and predominant expansion starting from the 2nd week after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation of a donor-derived unconventional subset of NKp46neg-low/CD56dim/CD16neg natural killer cells expressing remarkable high levels of CD94/NKG2A...
April 26, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698689/nitric-oxide-induces-epidermal-stem-cell-de-adhesion-by-targeting-integrin-%C3%AE-1-and-talin-via-the-cgmp-signalling-pathway
#13
Rixing Zhan, Fan Wang, Ying Wu, Ying Wang, Wei Qian, Menglong Liu, Tengfei Liu, Weifeng He, Hui Ren, Gaoxing Luo
OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a critical molecule in wound healing, but the mechanism underlying its activity is not well defined. Here, we explored the effect of NO on the de-adhesion of epidermal stem cells (ESCs) and the mechanism involved in this process. METHODS: The effects of NO on isolated human and mouse ESCs cultured in the presence of different concentrations of the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) were evaluated in cell de-adhesion assays mediated by integrin β and collagen IV...
April 23, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698437/predicting-anti-rhd-titers-in-donors-boostering-response-and-decline-rates-are-personal
#14
Anneke S de Vos, Ellen C E van der Schoot, Dimitris Rizopoulos, Mart P Janssen
BACKGROUND: Anti-RhD immunised donors provide anti-RhD immunoglobulins used for the prevention of rhesus disease. These donors are periodically hyper-immunised (boostered) to retain a high titer level of anti-RhD. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We analysed anti-RhD donor records from 1998 to 2016, consisting of 30,116 anti-RhD titers from 755 donors, encompassing 3,372 booster events. Various models were fit to these data to allow describing the anti-RhD titers over time...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683658/enhanced-biosynthesis-performance-of-heterologous-proteins-in-cho-k1-cells-using-crispr-cas9
#15
Wenpeng Wang, Wenyun Zheng, Fengzhi Hu, Xiujuan He, Dong Wu, Wenliang Zhang, Haipeng Liu, Xingyuan Ma
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the famous expression system for industrial production of recombinant proteins, such as therapeutic antibodies. However, there retained still bottlenecks in protein quality and weakness in expression efficiency because of the intrinsic genetic properties of the cell. Here we have enhanced biosynthesis performance of heterologous proteins in CHO-K1 cell using CRISPR-Cas9 by editing the genome precisely with two genes for improving ER microenvironment and reinforcing anti-apoptotic ability...
April 23, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681516/super-obese-patient-derived-ipsc-hypothalamic-neurons-exhibit-obesogenic-signatures-and-hormone-responses
#16
Uthra Rajamani, Andrew R Gross, Brooke E Hjelm, Adolfo Sequeira, Marquis P Vawter, Jie Tang, Vineela Gangalapudi, Yizhou Wang, Allen M Andres, Roberta A Gottlieb, Dhruv Sareen
The hypothalamus contains neurons that integrate hunger and satiety endocrine signals from the periphery and are implicated in the pathophysiology of obesity. The limited availability of human hypothalamic neurons hampers our understanding of obesity disease mechanisms. To address this, we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from multiple normal body mass index (BMI; BMI ≤ 25) subjects and super-obese (OBS) donors (BMI ≥ 50) with polygenic coding variants in obesity-associated genes...
April 6, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675450/engineered-human-gastrointestinal-cultures-to-study-the-microbiome-and-infectious-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Sarah E Blutt, Sue E Crawford, Sasirekha Ramani, Winnie Y Zou, Mary K Estes
New models to study the intestine are key to understanding intestinal diseases and developing novel treatments. Intestinal organ-like culture systems (organoids and enteroids) have substantially advanced the study of the human gastrointestinal tract. Stem cell-derived cultures produce self-organizing structures that contain the multiple differentiated intestinal epithelial cell types including enterocytes, goblet, Paneth, and enteroendocrine cells. Understanding host-microbial interactions is one area in which these cultures are expediting major advancements...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674492/11beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-1-human-tissue-distribution-selective-inhibitor-and-role-in-doxorubicin-metabolism
#18
Xin Yang, Wenyi Hua, Sangwoo Ryu, Phillip Yates, Cheng Chang, Hui Zhang, Li Di
11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) is mainly distributed in the human liver with no detectable levels in the intestine or kidney based on a newly developed proteomic approach. 11β-HSD1 is mostly membrane bound and retained in the liver microsomal faction. Inter-individual variability of 11β-HSD1 is relatively low with about a three-fold difference. A significant correlation was not observed between various demographic variables (ethnicity, gender, age, weight, smoking, and alcohol use) and 11β-HSD1 protein expression or activity based on data from thirty-one donors...
April 19, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673061/decellularization-and-characterization-of-a-whole-intervertebral-disc-xenograft-scaffold
#19
Austin Hensley, Jess Rames, Victor Casler, Christopher Rood, Joshua Walters, Christopher Fernandez, Sanjitpal Gill, Jeremy Mercuri
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a multi-factor process that results in the physical destruction of the nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF). This compromises IVD function and causes significant disability and economic burden. Strategies to replace the entire composite structure of the IVD are limited and most approaches do not recapitulate the heterogenous biochemical composition, micro-architecture or mechanical properties of the native tissue. Our central hypothesis was that donor IVDs which resemble the size and biochemistry of human lumbar IVDs could be successfully decellularized while retaining the tissue's structure and function with the long-term goal of creating a composite scaffold for tissue engineering the human IVD...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665293/multi-responsive-supramolecular-gels-based-on-charge-transfer-interactions
#20
Chen Li, Chengshuo Shen, Jiucheng Nie, Huibin Qiu
We report the co-assembly of aromatic donor (D) and acceptor (A) molecules into purple sponge-like supramolecular gels through susceptible charge transfer interactions with the aid of solvophobic interactions. The gel retained intact with the addition of up to 23% (v/v) of nonpolar good solvents, such as toluene and xylene, but dissociated in the presence of < 2% (v/v) of polar solvents, such as tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, and alcohols, with highly distinguishable changes of color. Notably, the gel disappeared in 1 min and the solution turned blue when 0...
April 17, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
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