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Filip B J L Stillaert, Casper Sommeling, Salvatore D'Arpa, David Creytens, Koenraad Van Landuyt, Herman Depypere, Rudy Van den Broecke, Stan Monstrey, Phillip N Blondeel, Wayne A Morrison
BACKGROUND: Breast reconstruction involves the use of autologous tissues or implants. Occasionally, microsurgical reconstruction is not an option because of insufficient donor tissues. Fat grafting has become increasingly popular in breast surgery. The challenge with this technique is how to reconstruct a stable and living "scaffold" that resembles a breast. METHODS: Breast reconstruction (n = 7) was performed using intratissular expansion with serial deflation-lipofilling sessions...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Anirban Basu, Gopinatha Suresh Kumar
Interaction of proflavine with hemoglobin (Hgb) was studied employing spectroscopy, calorimetry, and atomic force microscopy. The equilibrium constant was found to be of the order 10(4)M(-1). The quenching of Hgb fluorescence by proflavine was due to the complex formation. Calculation of the molecular distance (r) between the donor (β-Trp37 of Hgb) and acceptor (proflavine) suggested that energy can be efficiently transferred from the β-Trp37 residue at the α1β2 interface of the protein to the dye. Proflavine induced significant secondary structural changes in Hgb...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Aart Mookhoek, Kapil Krishnan, Sam Chitsaz, Heide Kuang, Liang Ge, Paul H Schoof, Ad J J C Bogers, Johanna J M Takkenberg, Elaine E Tseng
BACKGROUND: Progressive autograft dilatation after a Ross operation suggests that remodeling does not effectively reproduce native aortic root biomechanics. In the first of this two-part series, we compared mechanical properties of explanted autografts to pulmonary roots at pulmonary pressures. The goal of this study was to compare mechanical properties of explanted autografts to native aortic roots at systemic pressures. METHODS: Autograft specimens were obtained from patients undergoing reoperation after Ross operation...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Margaret M Brosnahan, Emily J Silvela, Jessica Crumb, Donald C Miller, Hollis N Erb, Douglas F Antczak
Invasive trophoblast from Day-34 horse conceptuses survives in extra-uterine sites in allogeneic recipients that are immunologically naïve to donor major histocompatibility complex class I antigens. The ectopic trophoblast retains its in utero characteristics, including similar lifespan, physiologic effect of its secreted product (equine chorionic gonadotrophin) upon the recipient's ovaries, and induction of host immune responses. Immunologic memory has not been considered previously in this experimental system...
October 19, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Charles A Mkony, Ephata E Kaaya, Alex J Goodell, Sarah B Macfarlane
BACKGROUND: Faced with one of the lowest physician-to-population ratios in the world, the Government of Tanzania is urging its medical schools to train more physicians. The annual number of medical students admitted across the country rose from 55 in the 1990s to 1,680 approved places for the 2015/16 academic year. These escalating numbers strain existing faculty. OBJECTIVE: To describe the availability of faculty in medical schools in Tanzania. DESIGN: We identified faculty lists published on the Internet by five Tanzanian medical schools for the 2011/12 academic year and analyzed the appointment status, rank, discipline, and qualifications of faculty members...
2016: Global Health Action
Hideki Kumagai, Koji Yokoyama, Tomoyuki Imagawa, Shun Inoue, Janyerkye Tulyeu, Mamoru Tanaka, Takanori Yamagata
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a treatment designed to correct gut dysbiosis by administration of feces from a healthy volunteer. It is still unclear whether FMT for children with ulcerative colitis (UC) is effective or hazardous. Here we describe a young patient to have received FMT for UC. A three-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital with severe active UC, and treated with aminosalicylates and various immunosuppressive drugs. As remission was not achieved, we decided to try FMT before colectomy...
September 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Jonna Jalanka, Eero Mattila, Hanne Jouhten, Jorn Hartman, Willem M de Vos, Perttu Arkkila, Reetta Satokari
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI). It restores the disrupted intestinal microbiota and subsequently suppresses C. difficile. The long-term stability of the intestinal microbiota and the recovery of mucosal microbiota, both of which have not been previously studied, are assessed herein. Further, the specific bacteria behind the treatment efficacy are also investigated. METHODS: We performed a high-throughput microbiota profiling using a phylogenetic microarray analysis of 131 faecal and mucosal samples from 14 rCDI patients pre- and post-FMT during a 1-year follow-up and 23 samples from the three universal donors over the same period...
October 11, 2016: BMC Medicine
Takatsugu Miyazaki, Atsushi Nishikawa, Takashi Tonozuka
Glycoside hydrolases are divided into two groups, known as inverting and retaining enzymes, based on their hydrolytic mechanisms. Glycoside hydrolase family 63 (GH63) is composed of inverting α-glycosidases, which act mainly on α-glucosides. We previously found that Escherichia coli GH63 enzyme, YgjK, can hydrolyze 2-O-α-d-glucosyl-d-galactose. Two constructed glycosynthase mutants, D324N and E727A, which catalyze the transfer of a β-glucosyl fluoride donor to galactose, lactose, and melibiose. Here, we determined the crystal structures of D324N and E727A soaked with a mixture of glucose and lactose at 1...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
Tianyi Wang, Janice H Lai, Fan Yang
Cell-based therapies offer a great promise for repairing cartilage. Previous strategies often involve using a single cell population such as stem cells or chondrocytes. Mixed cell population may offer an alternative strategy for cartilage regeneration while overcoming donor scarcity. We have recently reported that adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) can catalyze neocartilage formation by neonatal chondrocytes (NChons) when mixed co-cultured in 3D hydrogels in vitro. However, it remains unknown how the biochemical and mechanical cues of hydrogels modulate cartilage formation by mixed cell populations <i>in vivo</i>...
September 27, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Ben Ma, Jing-Yue Yang, Wen-Jie Song, Rui Ding, Zhuo-Chao Zhang, Hong-Chen Ji, Xuan Zhang, Jian-Lin Wang, Xi-Sheng Yang, Kai-Shan Tao, Ke-Feng Dou, Xiao Li
Allograft tolerance is the ultimate goal in the field of transplantation immunology. Immature dendritic cells (imDCs) play an important role in establishing tolerance but have limitations, including potential for maturation, short lifespan in vivo and short storage times in vitro. However, exosomes (generally 30-100 nm) from imDCs (imDex) retain many source cell properties and may overcome these limitations. In previous reports, imDex prolonged the survival time of heart or intestine allografts. However, tolerance or long-term survival was not achieved unless immune suppressants were used...
2016: Scientific Reports
Z Zhou, M Vailati-Riboni, E Trevisi, J K Drackley, D N Luchini, J J Loor
The onset of lactation in dairy cows is characterized by high output of methylated compounds in milk when sources of methyl group are in short supply. Methionine and choline (CHOL) are key methyl donors and their availability during this time may be limiting for milk production, hepatic lipid metabolism, and immune function. Supplementing rumen-protected Met and CHOL may improve overall performance and health of transition cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental rumen-protected Met and CHOL on performance and health of transition cows...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Shachar Raz, Michal Stark, Yehuda G Assaraf
Mammalians are devoid of autonomous biosynthesis of folates and hence must obtain them from the diet. Reduced folate cofactors are B9-vitamins which play a key role as donors of one-carbon units in the biosynthesis of purine nucleotides, thymidylate and amino acids as well as in a multitude of methylation reactions including DNA, RNA, histone and non-histone proteins, phospholipids, as well as intermediate metabolites. The products of these S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methylations are involved in the regulation of key biological processes including transcription, translation and intracellular signaling...
September 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
Samuel C R Pallapati, Binu Prathap Thomas, George A Anderson
PURPOSE: Benign aggressive expansile osteolytic lesions such as giant cell tumors and aneurysmal bone cysts involving the metacarpal head pose problems in management. Unacceptably high rates of recurrence are reported after curettage and bone grafting. An en bloc excision of such tumors ideally requires osteoarticular replacement of the excised metacarpal heads to retain mobility and function. We used nonvascularized metatarsal head and shaft harvested from the foot to replace the metacarpal defect after en bloc resection to retain movement and function of metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Hand Surgery
Ahmed Saad, Xiang-Yang Zhu, Sandra Herrmann, LaTonya Hickson, Hui Tang, Allan B Dietz, Andre J van Wijnen, Lilach Lerman, Stephen Textor
BACKGROUND: Adipose-derived MSC (AMSCs) possess angiogenic and immunomodulatory properties that may modulate kidney regeneration. Whether these properties are retained in older patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease is poorly understood. Hypoxic conditions are known to modify properties and growth characteristics of AMSCs. We tested the hypothesis that AMSCs from older patients with atherosclerotic renovascular disease (RVD) differ from normal kidney donors, and whether hypoxia changes their functional and molecular properties to promote angiogenesis...
2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Jennifer J Palmer, Alice Gilbert, Michelle Choy, Karl Blanchet
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the contributions of faith-based organisations (FBOs) to health systems in Africa. In the specialist area of eye health, international and domestic Christian FBOs have been important contributors as service providers and donors, but they are also commonly critiqued as having developed eye health systems parallel to government structures which are unsustainable. METHODS: In this study, we use a health systems approach (quarterly interviews, a participatory sustainability analysis exercise and a social network analysis) to describe the strategies used by eye care practitioners in four hospitals of north-west Tanzania to navigate the government, church mission and donor rules that govern eye services delivery there...
2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Olaf R P Bininda-Emonds, Claus Hinz, Wilko H Ahlrichs
Increasing evidence suggests that bdelloid rotifers regularly undergo horizontal gene transfer, apparently as a surrogate mechanism of genetic exchange in the absence of true sexual reproduction, in part because of their ability to withstand desiccation. We provide empirical support for this latter hypothesis using the bdelloid Philodina roseola, which we demonstrate to readily internalize environmental DNA in contrast to a representative monogonont rotifer (Brachionus rubens), which, like other monogononts, is facultative sexual and cannot withstand desiccation...
September 6, 2016: Life
Vincent Lavoué, Cécile Vigneau, Solène Duros, Karim Boudjema, Jean Levêque, Pascal Piver, Yves Aubard, Tristan Gauthier
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate and compare the pros and cons of using living donors or brain-dead donors in uterus transplantation programs, 2 years after the first worldwide live birth after uterus transplantation. METHODS: The Medline database and the Central Cochrane Library were used to locate uterine transplantation studies carried out in human or non-human primates. All types of articles (case reports, original studies, meta-analyses, reviews) in English or French were considered for inclusion...
September 8, 2016: Transplantation
Manisha Shrivastava, Nehal Shah, Seema Navaid, Kalpana Agarwal, Gourav Sharma
CONTEXT: Blood donor selection criteria based on science and regulatory rules influence donor as well recipient safety and demographics. AIM: To evaluate and analyze the blood donor deferral pattern and its causes among blood donors in a tertiary care hospital blood bank and to review its influence on blood safety. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Hospital based blood bank, retrospective analysis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The data available as donor deferral record over a period of 13 years from 2001 to 2013 was analyzed...
July 2016: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
Tomoyuki Akita, Junko Tanaka, Masayuki Ohisa, Aya Sugiyama, Kazuo Nishida, Shingo Inoue, Takuma Shirasaka
BACKGROUND: Simulation studies were performed to predict the future supply and demand for blood donations, and future shortfalls. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using data from all donations in 2006 to 2009, the Markov model was applied to estimate future blood donations until 2050. Based on data concerning the actual use of blood products, the number of blood products needed was estimated based on future population projections. RESULTS: We estimated that the number of blood donations increased from 5,020,000 in 2008 to 5,260,000 in 2012, but will decrease to 4,770,000 units by 2025...
September 5, 2016: Transfusion
Elisabeth Anne Obara, Jens Hannibal, Steffen Heegaard, Jan Fahrenkrug
PURPOSE: Multiple studies have shown overwhelming evidence supporting the impairment of melanopsin function due to glaucoma. However, few studies have been carried out in humans analyzing the histology of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) in retinas with glaucoma. The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern of expression of mRGCs relative to RGCs in the normal retina and retinas harboring varying stages of glaucoma. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded human donor eyes with glaucoma (n = 11) and age-matched controls (n = 10) were obtained from Department of Pathology at Rigshospital (Copenhagen, Denmark) for detection of RNA binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) and melanopsin by immunohistochemistry...
September 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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