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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334530/morphology-and-doping-engineering-of-sn-doped-hematite-nanowire-photoanodes
#1
Mingyang Li, Yi Yang, Yichuan Ling, Weitao Qiu, Fuxin Wang, Tianyu Liu, Yu Song, Xiao-Xia Liu, Ping-Ping Fang, Yexiang Tong, Yat Li
High temperature activation has been commonly used to boost the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of hematite nanowires for water oxidation, by inducing Sn diffusion from fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate into hematite. Yet, hematite nanowires thermally annealed at high temperature suffer from two major drawbacks that negatively affect their performance. First, the structural deformation reduces light absorption capability of nanowire. Second, this "passive" doping method leads to non-uniform distribution of Sn dopant in nanowire and limits the Sn doping concentration...
March 23, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334205/tetrahymena-phagocytic-vesicles-as-ecological-micro-niches-of-phage-transfer
#2
Iqbal Aijaz, Gerald B Koudelka
The microbial communities in natural environments such as soil, pond water, or animal rumens are comprised of a diverse mixture of bacteria and protozoa including ciliates or flagellates. In such microbiomes, a major source of bacterial mortality is grazing by phagocytic protists. Many protists are omnivorous heterotrophs, feeding on a range of different bacterial species. Due to this indiscriminate feeding, different bacterial species can assemble together in the same phagocytic vesicles where can they potentially exchange genetic material...
March 3, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319197/the-hiv-care-cascade-japanese-perspectives
#3
Aikichi Iwamoto, Rikizo Taira, Yoshiyuki Yokomaku, Tomohiko Koibuchi, Mahbubur Rahman, Yoko Izumi, Kenji Tadokoro
Japan has been known as a low HIV-prevalence country with a concentrated epidemic among high-risk groups. However, it has not been determined whether Japan meets the 90-90-90 goals set by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)/World Health Organization (WHO). Moreover, to date, the HIV care cascade has not been examined. We estimated the total number of diagnosed people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) (n = 22,840) based on legal reports to the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare by subtracting the number of foreigners who left Japan (n = 2,273) and deaths (n = 2,321) from the cumulative diagnosis report (n = 27,434)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315377/patient-derived-xenografts-a-platform-for-accelerating-translational-research-in-prostate-cancer
#4
Alastair H Davies, Yuzhuo Wang, Amina Zoubeidi
Recently, there has been renewed interest in the development and characterization of patient-derived tumour xenograft (PDX) models. Numerous PDX models have been established for prostate cancer and, importantly, retain the principal molecular, genetic, and histological characteristics of the donor tumour. As such, these models provide significant improvements over standard cell line xenograft models for biological studies, preclinical drug development, and personalized medicine strategies. This review summarizes the current state of the art in this field, illustrating the opportunities and limitations of PDX models in translational prostate cancer research...
March 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306398/returning-results-let-s-be-honest
#5
Bernice S Elger, Eva De Clercq
Biobank research has the potential to return results that could have beneficial and even life-saving consequences for participants. This possibility raises some important questions, not only about the ethical duty to return results within a research setting, but also about participants' right to refuse results and researchers' responsibility to respect that choice. This article argues in favor of adopting a return-of-results policy that limits participants' ability to refuse clinically relevant and actionable results...
March 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300406/enzymatic-synthesis-of-a-novel-kaempferol-3-o-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranosyl-1%C3%A2-4-o-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranoside-using-cyclodextrin-glucanotransferase-and-its-inhibitory-effects-on-aldose-reductase-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#6
Woo-Jae Choung, Seung Hwan Hwang, Dam-Seul Ko, Set Byeol Kim, Seo Hyun Kim, Sung Ho Jeon, Hee-Don Choi, Soon Sung Lim, Jae-Hoon Shim
Kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (astragalin, AS), a major flavonoid that exists in various plants, exerts anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the low water solubility of AS limits its use. In this study, we used cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) with maltose (G2) as a donor molecule to enzymatically modify AS to improve its water solubility and physiochemical properties. We isolated the glycosylated astragalin (G1-AS) and identified the structure of G1-AS as kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-α-D-glucopyranoside, where one glucose residue was transferred to AS...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293817/cd4-memory-t-cells-retain-surface-expression-of-cd31-independently-of-thymic-function-in-patients-with-lymphoproliferative-disorders-following-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#7
Egor V Batorov, Marina A Tikhonova, Irina V Kryuchkova, Vera V Sergeevicheva, Svetlana A Sizikova, Galina Y Ushakova, Dariya S Batorova, Andrey V Gilevich, Alexander A Ostanin, Ekaterina Y Shevela, Elena R Chernykh
High-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (AHSCT) causes severe and long-lasting immunodeficiency in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. The thymus begins to restore the T-cell repertoire approximately from the sixth month post-transplant. We assessed the dynamics of post-transplant recovery of CD4(+)CD45RA(+)CD31(+) T cells, "recent thymic emigrants" (RTEs), and a poorly described subtype of CD4(+)CD45RA(-)CD31(+) T cells in 90 patients with lymphoproliferative disorders following high-dose chemotherapy with AHSCT...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292264/establishment-of-patient-derived-gastric-cancer-xenografts-a-useful-tool-for-preclinical-evaluation-of-targeted-therapies-involving-alterations-in-her-2-met-and-fgfr2-signaling-pathways
#8
Haiyong Wang, Jun Lu, Jian Tang, Shitu Chen, Kuifeng He, Xiaoxia Jiang, Weiqin Jiang, Lisong Teng
BACKGROUND: Targeted therapies are emerging treatment options for gastric cancer (GC). Patient-derived tumor xenograft(PDX) models of GC closely retain the features of the original clinical cancer, offering a powerful tool for preclinical drug efficacy testing. This study aimed to establish PDX GC models, and explore therapeutics targeting Her2, MET(cMet), and FGFR2, which may assist doctor to select the proper target therapy for selected patients. METHODS: GC tissues from 32 patients were collected and implanted into immuno-deficient mice...
March 14, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287148/behavior-of-dna-lacking-mitochondria-in-entamoeba-histolytica-revealed-by-organelle-transplant
#9
Makoto Kazama, Sanae Ogiwara, Takashi Makiuchi, Kazuhiro Yoshida, Kumiko Nakada-Tsukui, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Hiroshi Tachibana
The anaerobic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica has mitosomes that are mitochondria lacking some canonical functions and organelle DNA. Mitosomes play an important role in the life cycle of the parasite. The distribution of proteins in mitosomes is not uniform, and how mitosomes are maintained and retained is unknown. To answer these questions, we developed a transplant method for mitosomes with hemagglutinin-tagged protein into recipient cells containing mitosomes with Myc-tagged protein. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the two protein tags colocalized in single mitosomes in some recipient cells...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280376/single-donor-islet-transplantation-in-type-1-diabetes-patient-selection-and-special-considerations
#10
REVIEW
Jacob A Tatum, Max O Meneveau, Kenneth L Brayman
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disorder of the endocrine pancreas that currently affects millions of people in the United States. Although the disease can be managed with exogenous insulin administration, the ultimate cure for the condition lies in restoring a patient's ability to produce their own insulin. Islet cell allotransplantation provides a means of endogenous insulin production. Though far from perfected, islet transplants are now a proven treatment for type 1 diabetics. However, proper patient selection is critical for achieving optimal outcomes...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279220/short-course-rapamycin-treatment-enables-engraftment-of-immunogenic-gene-engineered-bone-marrow-under-low-dose-irradiation-to-permit-long-term-immunological-tolerance
#11
Kunal H Bhatt, Rajeev Rudraraju, Jeremy F Brooks, Ji-Won Jung, Ryan Galea, James W Wells, Raymond J Steptoe
BACKGROUND: Application of genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells is increasingly mooted as a clinically relevant approach to protein replacement therapy, immune tolerance induction or conditions where both outcomes may be helpful. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC)-mediated gene therapy often requires highly toxic pretransfer recipient conditioning to provide a 'niche' so that transferred HSPCs can engraft effectively and to prevent immune rejection of neoantigen-expressing engineered HSPCs...
March 9, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277649/development-of-liver-decellularized-extracellular-matrix-bioink-for-3d-cell-printing-based-liver-tissue-engineering
#12
Hyungseok Lee, Wonil Han, Hyeonji Kim, Dong-Heon Ha, Jinah Jang, Byoung Soo Kim, Dong-Woo Cho
The liver is an important organ and plays major roles in the human body. Due to the lack of liver donors after liver failure and drug-induced liver injury, much research has focused on developing liver alternatives and liver in vitro models for transplantation and drug screening. Although numerous studies have been conducted, these systems cannot faithfully mimic the complexity of the liver. Recently, three-dimensional (3D) cell printing technology has emerged as one of a number of innovative technologies that may help to overcome this limitation...
March 9, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270638/a-haemocompatible-and-scalable-nanoporous-adsorbent-monolith-synthesised-using-a-novel-lignin-binder-route-to-augment-the-adsorption-of-poorly-removed-uraemic-toxins-in-haemodialysis
#13
Susan R Sandeman, Yishan Zheng, Ganesh Ingavle, Carol Howell, Sergey Mikhalovsky, Kolitha Basnayake, Owen Boyd, Andrew Davenport, Nigel Beaton, Nathan Davies
Nanoporous adsorbents are promising materials to augment the efficacy of haemodialysis for the treatment of end stage renal disease where mortality rates remain unacceptably high despite improvements in membrane technology. Complications are linked in part to inefficient removal of protein bound and high molecular weight uremic toxins including key marker molecules albumin bound indoxyl sulphate (IS) and p-cresyl sulphate (PCS) and large inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6. The following study describes the assessment of a nanoporous activated carbon monolith produced using a novel binder synthesis route for scale up as an in line device to augment haemodialysis through adsorption of these toxins...
March 8, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242779/activated-t-lymphocytes-are-essential-drivers-of-pathological-remodeling-in-ischemic-heart-failure
#14
Shyam S Bansal, Mohamed Ameen Ismahil, Mehak Goel, Bindiya Patel, Tariq Hamid, Gregg Rokosh, Sumanth D Prabhu
BACKGROUND: Inappropriately sustained inflammation is a hallmark of chronic ischemic heart failure (HF); however, the pathophysiological role of T lymphocytes is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Permanent coronary ligation was performed in adult C57BL/6 mice. When compared with sham-operated mice, mice with HF (8 weeks after ligation) exhibited the following features: (1) significant (P<0.05) expansion of circulating CD3(+)CD8(+) cytotoxic and CD3(+)CD4(+) helper (Th) T lymphocytes, together with increased Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T-cell (Treg) CD4(+) subsets; (2) significant expansion of CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells in failing myocardium, with increased Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg CD4(+) subsets, marked reduction of the Th1/Th2 ratio, augmentation of the Th17/Treg ratio, and upregulation of Th2 cytokines; and (3) significantly increased Th1, Th2, Th17 cells, and Tregs, in the spleen and mediastinal lymph nodes, with expansion of splenic antigen-experienced effector and memory CD4(+) T cells...
March 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241418/the-effect-of-simulated-flash-heat-pasteurization-on-immune-components-of-human-milk
#15
Brodie Daniels, Stefan Schmidt, Tracy King, Kiersten Israel-Ballard, Kimberly Amundson Mansen, Anna Coutsoudis
A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH) method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10). Donor milk samples (N = 50) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized...
February 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213939/protective-antibodies-against-clostridium-difficile-are-present-in-intravenous-immunoglobulin-and-are-retained-in-humans-following-its-administration
#16
Ola H Negm, Brendon MacKenzie, Mohamed R Hamed, Omar Aj Ahmad, Clifford C Shone, David P Humphreys, K Ravi Acharya, Christine E Loscher, Izabela Marszalowska, Mark Lynch, Mark H Wilcox, Tanya M Monaghan
The prevalence of serum antibodies against C. difficile (CD) toxins A and B in healthy populations have prompted interest in evaluating the therapeutic activity of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in individuals experiencing severe or recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI). Despite some promising case reports, a definitive clinical role for IVIg in CDI remains unclear. Contradictory results may be attributed to a lack of consensus regarding optimal dose, timing of administration and patient selection as well as variability in specific antibody content between commercial preparations...
February 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209056/bulk-heterojunction-morphologies-with-atomistic-resolution-from-coarse-grain-solvent-evaporation-simulations
#17
Riccardo Alessandri, Jaakko J Uusitalo, Alex H de Vries, Remco W A Havenith, Siewert J Marrink
Control over the morphology of the active layer of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells is paramount to achieve high-efficiency devices. However, no method currently available can predict morphologies for a novel donor-acceptor blend. An approach which allows reaching relevant length scales, retaining chemical specificity, and mimicking experimental fabrication conditions, and which is suited for high-throughput schemes has been proven challenging to find. Here, we propose a method to generate atom-resolved morphologies of BHJs which conforms to these requirements...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198077/translation-strategies-contradiction-and-the-theory-of-social-representations-why-discussing-needles-may-improve-blood-donor-retention
#18
Gail Moloney, Jane Hayman, Marguerite Gamble, Geoff Smith, Rob Hall
Retaining blood donors is a cost-effective way of ensuring a safe blood supply, yet despite the plethora of research, only 5.1% of the eligible population in Australia donate blood and 40% of these do not make a second donation. We offer an alternative to traditional approaches by conceptualizing blood donation within social representations theory as socially derived symbolic knowledge with a specific focus on cognitive polyphasia and Guimelli's (1998) normative and functional dimensions. An online survey, completed by 703 residents from NSW Australia, comprised a blood donation word association task, Likert-style questions constructed from previous word association data and contextualized blood donation statements...
February 15, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197644/routine-application-of-bloodless-priming-in-neonatal-cardiopulmonary-bypass-a-3-year-experience
#19
Wolfgang Boettcher, Nicodème Sinzobahamvya, Oliver Miera, Matthias Redlin, Frank Dehmel, Mi-Young Cho, Peter Murin, Felix Berger, Joachim Photiadis
A restrictive transfusion strategy led us to routinely try to conduct donor-blood free open-heart surgery even in neonates. The cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit was minimized by priming volumina at 73 ml for the smallest patients with body weight up to 2.5 kg and 85-95 ml for those with body weight of more than 2.5 kg, and by positioning the console as close as possible to operation table. Measures were applied to save blood during the procedure. Transfusion threshold of 8 g/dl hemoglobin was retained...
February 14, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183713/vaccination-targeting-native-receptors-to-enhance-the-function-and-proliferation-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-car-modified-t-cells
#20
Miyuki Tanaka, Haruko Tashiro, Bilal Omer, Natasha Lapteva, Jun Ando, Minhtran Ngo, Birju Mehta, Gianpietro Dotti, Paul R Kinchington, Ann M Leen, Claudia Rossig, Cliona M Rooney
PURPOSE: The multiple mechanisms used by solid tumors to suppress tumor-specific immune responses are a major barrier to the success of adoptively-transferred tumor-specific T-cells. Since viruses induce potent innate and adaptive immune responses, we hypothesized that the immunogenicity of viruses could be harnessed for the treatment of solid tumors if virus-specific T-cells (VSTs) were modified with tumor-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). We tested this hypothesis using VZV-specific T-cells (VZVSTs) expressing a CAR for GD2, a disialoganglioside expressed on neuroblastoma and certain other tumors, since the live-attenuated VZV vaccine could be used for in vivo stimulation...
February 9, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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