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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526793/genomic-analysis-of-calderihabitans-maritimus-kkc1-a-thermophilic-hydrogenogenic-carboxydotrophic-bacterium-isolated-from-marine-sediment
#1
Kimiho Omae, Yasuko Yoneda, Yuto Fukuyama, Takashi Yoshida, Yoshihiko Sako
Calderihabitans maritimus KKC1 is a thermophilic hydrogenogenic carboxydotroph isolated from a submerged marine caldera. Here, we describe the de novo sequencing and feature analysis of the C. maritimus KKC1 genome. Genome-based phylogenetic analysis confirmed that C. maritimus KKC1 was most closely related to the genus Moorella, which includes well-studied acetogenic members. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that, like Moorella, C. maritimus KKC1 retained both the CO2-reducing Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and energy-converting hydrogenase-based module activated by reduced ferredoxin, but lacked the HydABC and NfnAB electron bifurcating enzymes and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase required for ferredoxin reduction during acetogenic growth...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525753/the-u6-snrna-m-6-a-methyltransferase-mettl16-regulates-sam-synthetase-intron-retention
#2
Kathryn E Pendleton, Beibei Chen, Kuanqing Liu, Olga V Hunter, Yang Xie, Benjamin P Tu, Nicholas K Conrad
Maintenance of proper levels of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is critical for a wide variety of biological processes. We demonstrate that the N(6)-adenosine methyltransferase METTL16 regulates expression of human MAT2A, which encodes the SAM synthetase expressed in most cells. Upon SAM depletion by methionine starvation, cells induce MAT2A expression by enhanced splicing of a retained intron. Induction requires METTL16 and its methylation substrate, a vertebrate conserved hairpin (hp1) in the MAT2A 3' UTR...
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520412/identification-of-the-ferredoxin-binding-site-of-a-ferredoxin-dependent-cyanobacterial-nitrate-reductase
#3
Anurag P Srivastava, Emily P Hardy, James P Allen, Brian J Vaccaro, Michael K Johnson, David B Knaff
An in silico model for the 1:1 ferredoxin (Fd)/nitrate reductase (NR) complex, using the known structure of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Fd and the in silico model of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 NR, is used to map the interaction sites that define the interface between Fd and NR. To test the electrostatic interactions predicted by the model complex, five positively charged NR amino acids Arg43, Arg46, Arg197, Lys201 and Lys614; and a negatively charged amino acid, Glu219, were altered using site-directed mutagenesis and characterized by activity measurements, metal analysis and EPR studies...
May 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505164/human-decellularized-bone-scaffolds-from-aged-donors-show-improved-osteoinductive-capacity-compared-to-young-donor-bone
#4
Christopher A Smith, Tim N Board, Paul Rooney, Mark J Eagle, Stephen M Richardson, Judith A Hoyland
To improve the safe use of allograft bone, decellularization techniques may be utilized to produce acellular scaffolds. Such scaffolds should retain their innate biological and biomechanical capacity and support mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) osteogenic differentiation. However, as allograft bone is derived from a wide age-range, this study aimed to determine whether donor age impacts on the ability an osteoinductive, acellular scaffold produced from human bone to promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503150/dental-pulp-cells-isolated-from-teeth-with-superficial-caries-retain-an-inflammatory-phenotype-and-display-an-enhanced-matrix-mineralization-potential
#5
Hanaa Alkharobi, James Beattie, Josie Meade, Deirdre Devine, Reem El-Gendy
We have isolated dental pulp cells (DPCs) from three healthy (hDPCs) and three carious (cDPCs) donors and shown that compared to hDPCs cells isolated from superficial carious lesions show higher clonogenic potential; show an equivalent proportion of cells with putative stem cell surface markers; show enhanced matrix mineralization capability; have enhanced angiogenic marker expression and retain the inflammatory phenotype in vitro characteristic of superficial caries lesions in vivo. Our findings suggest that cDPCs may be used for further investigation of the cross talk between inflammatory, angiogenic and mineralization pathways in repair of carious pulp...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498863/notch-ligands-regulate-the-muscle-stem-like-state-ex-vivo-but-are-not-sufficient-for-retaining-regenerative-capacity
#6
Hiroshi Sakai, Sumiaki Fukuda, Miki Nakamura, Akiyoshi Uezumi, Yu-Taro Noguchi, Takahiko Sato, Mitsuhiro Morita, Harumoto Yamada, Kunihiro Tsuchida, Shahragim Tajbakhsh, So-Ichiro Fukada
Myogenic stem cells are a promising avenue for the treatment of muscular disorders. Freshly isolated muscle stem cells have a remarkable engraftment ability in vivo, but their cell number is limited. Current conventional culture conditions do not allow muscle stem cells to expand in vitro with their bona fide engraftment efficiency, requiring the improvement of culture procedures for achieving successful cell-therapy for muscle disorders. Here we expanded mouse muscle stem cells and human myoblasts with Notch ligands, DLL1, DLL4, and JAG1 to activate Notch signaling in vitro and to investigate whether these cells could retain their engraftment efficiency...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487525/highly-efficient-solid-state-near-infrared-organic-light-emitting-diodes-incorporating-a-d-a-dyes-based-on-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-unsubstituted-bodipy-moieties
#7
Andrea Zampetti, Alessandro Minotto, Benedetta Maria Squeo, Vasilis G Gregoriou, Sybille Allard, Ullrich Scherf, Christos L Chochos, Franco Cacialli
We take advantage of a recent breakthrough in the synthesis of α,β-unfunctionalised 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) moieties, which we symmetrically conjugate with oligothienyls in an unexpectedly stable form, and produce a "metal-free" A-D-A (acceptor-donor-acceptor) oligomer emitting in the near-infrared (NIR) thanks to delocalisation of the BODIPY low-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) over the oligothienyl moieties, as confirmed by density functional theory (DFT). We are able to retain a PL efficiency of 20% in the solid state (vs...
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468955/hyper-reactive-cloned-mice-generated-by-direct-nuclear-transfer-of-antigen-specific-cd4-t-cells
#8
Osamu Kaminuma, Kazufumi Katayama, Kimiko Inoue, Mayumi Saeki, Tomoe Nishimura, Noriko Kitamura, Yusuke Shimo, Soichi Tofukuji, Satoru Ishida, Narumi Ogonuki, Satoshi Kamimura, Mami Oikawa, Shigeki Katoh, Akio Mori, Michitaka Shichijo, Takachika Hiroi, Atsuo Ogura
T-cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic mice have been employed for evaluating antigen-response mechanisms, but their non-endogenous TCR might induce immune response differently than the physiologically expressed TCR Nuclear transfer cloning produces animals that retain the donor genotype in all tissues including germline and immune systems. Taking advantage of this feature, we generated cloned mice that carry endogenously rearranged TCR genes from antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells. We show that T cells of the cloned mice display distinct developmental pattern and antigen reactivity because of their endogenously pre-rearranged TCRα (rTα) and TCRβ (rTβ) alleles...
May 2, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464938/quiescence-of-human-muscle-stem-cells-is-favored-by-culture-on-natural-biopolymeric-films
#9
Claire Monge, Nicholas DiStasio, Thomas Rossi, Muriel Sébastien, Hiroshi Sakai, Benoit Kalman, Thomas Boudou, Shahragim Tajbakhsh, Isabelle Marty, Anne Bigot, Vincent Mouly, Catherine Picart
BACKGROUND: Satellite cells are quiescent resident muscle stem cells that present an important potential to regenerate damaged tissue. However, this potential is diminished once they are removed from their niche environment in vivo, prohibiting the long-term study and genetic investigation of these cells. This study therefore aimed to provide a novel biomaterial platform for the in-vitro culture of human satellite cells that maintains their stem-like quiescent state, an important step for cell therapeutic studies...
May 2, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462843/covalent-inhibitors-of-lgtc-a-blueprint-for-the-discovery-of-non-substrate-like-inhibitors-for-bacterial-glycosyltransferases
#10
Yong Xu, Ruth Smith, Mirella Vivoli, Masaki Ema, Niina Goos, Sebastian Gehrke, Nicholas J Harmer, Gerd K Wagner
Non-substrate-like inhibitors of glycosyltransferases are sought after as chemical tools and potential lead compounds for medicinal chemistry, chemical biology and drug discovery. Here, we describe the discovery of a novel small molecular inhibitor chemotype for LgtC, a retaining α-1,4-galactosyltransferase involved in bacterial lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis. The new inhibitors, which are structurally unrelated to both the donor and acceptor of LgtC, have low micromolar inhibitory activity, comparable to the best substrate-based inhibitors...
April 11, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458964/free-style-deepithelialized-propeller-flaps-an-ideal-local-flap-to-obliterate-wounds-with-dead-space
#11
Asli Datli, HyunSuk Suh, Young Chul Kim, Doon Hoon Choi, Joon Pio Jp Hong
BACKGROUND: The reconstruction of the posterior trunk, especially with large dead spaces, remains challenging. Regional muscle flaps may lack adequate volume and reach. The purpose of this report was to evaluate the efficacy of deepithelialized free-style perforator-based propeller flaps to obliterate defects with large dead space. METHODS: A total of 7 patients with defects on the posterior trunk with large dead spaces were evaluated. After complete debridement or resection, all flaps were designed on a single perforator adjacent to the defect, deepithelialized, and then rotated in a propeller fashion...
March 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452709/the-use-of-polydioxanone-plates-for-endoscopic-skull-base-repair
#12
Fahad Al-Asousi, Christopher Okpaleke, Anali Dadgostar, Amin Javer
BACKGROUND: Many reconstructive techniques and materials have been reported for repair of skull base defects after sinonasal tumor excision, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, and coverage of denuded bone. Synthetic materials have been developed for endoscopic skull base repair to avoid donor-site morbidity. Polydioxanone plate is a bioabsorbable implant designed for nasal septal reconstruction and has the ability to retain strength for at least 10 weeks and absorbs in 6 months. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the use of polydioxanone plates in endoscopic skull base defect and CSF leak repair, and to describe our experience with the surgical technique and postoperative management...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451167/homochiral-oligomers-with-highly-flexible-backbones-form-stable-h-bonded-duplexes
#13
Diego Núñez-Villanueva, Christopher A Hunter
Two homochiral building blocks featuring a protected thiol, an alkene and a H-bond recognition unit (phenol or phosphine oxide) have been prepared. Iterative photochemical thiol-ene coupling reactions were used to synthesize oligomers containing 1-4 phosphine oxide and 1-4 phenol recognition sites. Length-complementary H-bond donor and H-bond acceptor oligomers were found to form stable duplexes in toluene. NMR titrations and thermal denaturation experiments show that the association constant and the enthalpy of duplex formation increase significantly for every additional H-bonding unit added to the chain...
January 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446664/analysis-of-competing-hiv-1-splice-donor-sites-uncovers-a-tight-cluster-of-splicing-regulatory-elements-within-exon-2-2b
#14
Anna-Lena Brillen, Lara Walotka, Frank Hillebrand, Lisa Müller, Marek Widera, Stephan Theiss, Heiner Schaal
The HIV-1 accessory protein Vif is essential for viral replication by counteracting the host restriction factor APOBEC3G (A3G), and balanced levels of both proteins are required for efficient viral replication. Non-coding exons 2/2b contain the Vif start codon between their alternatively used splice donors 2 and 2b (D2 and D2b). For the vif mRNA, intron 1 must be removed, while intron 2 must be retained. Thus, splice acceptor 1 (A1) must be activated by U1 snRNP binding to either D2 or D2b, while splicing at D2 or D2b must be prevented...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443134/characterization-of-x-chromosome-gene-expression-in-bovine-blastocysts-derived-by-in-vitro-fertilization-and-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer
#15
Byungkuk Min, Jung Sun Park, Kyuheum Jeon, Yong-Kook Kang
To better understand X-chromosome reactivation (XCR) during early development, we analyzed transcriptomic data obtained from bovine male and female blastocysts derived by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) or somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We found that X-linked genes were upregulated by almost two-fold in female compared with male IVF blastocysts. The upregulation of X-linked genes in female IVFs indicated a transcriptional dimorphism between the sexes, because the mean autosomal gene expression levels were relatively constant, regardless of sex...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433154/non-immunogenic-porous-and-antibacterial-chitosan-and-antheraea-mylitta-silk-sericin-hydrogels-as-potential-dermal-substitute
#16
Sunaina Sapru, Ananta K Ghosh, Subhas C Kundu
Limitation of existing grafts including restricted donor site, risks of immune reactions, infectious diseases and high cost alarms the growing need of natural, cost effective and functional graft as the dermal substitute. We fabricate stable (>6 weeks) and porous (57.23-75.22μm) yet flexible (in variable pH) matrices using Antheraea mylitta sericin crosslinked with well known biocompatible polysaccharide chitosan by natural crosslinker (genipin) without using any harsh chemical. The fabricated matrices are characterized in terms of chemical modifications (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), crystallinity (X-ray diffraction), swelling, degradability and thermal stability...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424683/novel-strategy-to-expand-super-charged-nk-cells-with-significant-potential-to-lyse-and-differentiate-cancer-stem-cells-differences-in-nk-expansion-and-function-between-healthy-and-cancer-patients
#17
Kawaljit Kaur, Jessica Cook, So-Hyun Park, Paytsar Topchyan, Anna Kozlowska, Nick Ohanian, Changge Fang, Ichiro Nishimura, Anahid Jewett
Natural killer (NK) cells are known to target cancer stem cells and undifferentiated tumors. In this paper, we provide a novel strategy for expanding large numbers of super-charged NK cells with significant potential to lyse and differentiate cancer stem cells and demonstrate the differences in the dynamics of NK cell expansion between healthy donors and cancer patients. Decline in cytotoxicity and lower interferon (IFN)-γ secretion by osteoclast (OC)-expanded NK cells from cancer patients correlates with faster expansion of residual contaminating T cells within purified NK cells, whereas healthy donors' OCs continue expanding super-charged NK cells while limiting T cell expansion for up to 60 days...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414143/the-use-of-hemoglobin-vesicles-for-delivering-medicinal-gas-for-the-treatment-of-intractable-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Kazuaki Taguchi, Keishi Yamasaki, Hiromi Sakai, Toru Maruyama, Masaki Otagiri
Bioactive gaseous molecules, such as oxygen (O2) and carbon monoxide (CO), are essential elements for most living organisms to maintain their homeostasis and biological activities. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that such molecules can be used in clinics as a medical gas in the treatment of various intractable disorders. Recent developments in hemoglobin-encapsulated liposomes, namely, Hemoglobin-vesicles (HbV), possess great potential for retaining O2 and CO, and could lead to strategies for the development of novel pharmacological agents as medical gas donors...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402654/control-of-ligand-pka-values-tunes-the-electrocatalytic-dihydrogen-evolution-mechanism-in-a-redox-active-aluminum-iii-complex
#19
Tobias J Sherbow, James C Fettinger, Louise A Berben
Redox-active ligands bring electron- and proton-transfer reactions to main-group coordination chemistry. In this Forum Article, we demonstrate how ligand pKa values can be used in the design of a reaction mechanism for a ligand-based electron- and proton-transfer pathway, where the ligand retains a negative charge and enables dihydrogen evolution. A bis(pyrazolyl)pyridine ligand, (iPr)Pz2P, reacts with 2 equiv of AlCl3 to afford [((iPr)Pz2P)AlCl2(THF)][AlCl4] (1). A reaction involving two-electron reduction and single-ligand protonation of 1 affords [((iPr)HPz2P(-))AlCl2] (2), where each of the electron- and proton-transfer events is ligand-centered...
April 12, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402390/hybridization-drives-evolution-of-apomicts-in-rubus-subgenus-rubus-evidence-from-microsatellite-markers
#20
Petra Šarhanová, Timothy F Sharbel, Michal Sochor, Radim J Vašut, Martin Dancák, Bohumil Trávnícek
Background and Aims: Rubus subgenus Rubus is a group of mostly apomictic and polyploid species with a complicated taxonomy and history of ongoing hybridization. The only polyploid series with prevailing sexuality is the series Glandulosi , although the apomictic series Discolores and Radula also retain a high degree of sexuality, which is influenced by environmental conditions and/or pollen donors. The aim of this study is to detect sources of genetic variability, determine the origin of apomictic taxa and validate microsatellite markers by cloning and sequencing...
April 11, 2017: Annals of Botany
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