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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769441/unique-features-and-clinical-importance-of-acute-alloreactive-immune-responses
#1
Charlotte F Inman, Suzy A Eldershaw, Joanne E Croudace, Nathaniel J Davies, Archana Sharma-Oates, Tanuja Rai, Hayden Pearce, Mirjana Sirovica, Y L Tracey Chan, Kriti Verma, Jianmin Zuo, Sandeep Nagra, Francesca Kinsella, Jane Nunnick, Rasoul Amel-Kashipaz, Charles Craddock, Ram Malladi, Paul Moss
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) can cure some patients with hematopoietic malignancy, but this relies on the development of a donor T cell alloreactive immune response. T cell activity in the first 2 weeks after allo-SCT is crucial in determining outcome, despite the clinical effects of the early alloreactive immune response often not appearing until later. However, the effect of the allogeneic environment on T cells is difficult to study at this time point due to the effects of profound lymphopenia...
May 17, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762669/ethics-of-oocyte-banking-for-third-party-assisted-reproduction-a-systematic-review
#2
E M Kool, A M E Bos, R van der Graaf, B C J M Fauser, A L Bredenoord
BACKGROUND: The demand for donor oocytes has increased dramatically over the years. Today people in need of ART with the use of donor oocytes can appeal to commercial or public donor oocyte banks. The introduction of oocyte banks has shed a new light on the practice of ART using donor oocytes. The establishment and maintenance of oocyte banks should be sensitive to the ethical considerations. However, it is currently unclear which ethical aspects have to be taken into account. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this article is to identify the ethical aspects of establishing and maintaining oocyte banks for third-party ART...
May 14, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751094/the-interest-of-women-with-mayer-rokitansky-k%C3%A3-ster-hauser-syndrome-and-laparoscopic-vecchietti-neovagina-in-uterus-transplantation
#3
Roman Chmel, Marta Novackova, Zlatko Pastor, Jiri Fronek
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess a group of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKH) women with surgically created neovaginas in the interest of uterus transplantation (UTx) and to recruit the first group of applicants for a uterus transplant trial. DESIGN: and Setting: This is an original prospective study using semistructured interviews. PARTICIPANTS: A study group of 50 MRKH syndrome women with Vecchietti neovaginas was recruited by letter of invitation...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750366/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-maternal-choline-supplementation-in-heavy-drinking-pregnant-women-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#4
Sandra W Jacobson, R Colin Carter, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Marjanne Senekal, Nadine M Lindinger, Neil C Dodge, Steven H Zeisel, Christopher P Duggan, Joseph L Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Choline, an essential nutrient, serves as a methyl-group donor for DNA methylation and is a constituent of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and a precursor to major components of cell membranes. Findings from animal studies suggest that choline supplementation during pregnancy may mitigate adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on growth and neurocognitive function. We conducted a randomized, double-blind exploratory trial to examine feasibility and acceptability of a choline supplementation intervention during pregnancy...
May 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749611/proteomic-definition-of-human-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-determines-their-unique-molecular-effector-phenotype
#5
Björn Bulitta, Werner Zuschratter, Isabel Bernal, Dunja Bruder, Frank Klawonn, Martin von Bergen, Henrikus Stephanus Paulus Garritsen, Lothar Jänsch
Mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) constitute the most abundant anti-bacterial CD8+ T cell population in humans. MR1/TCR-activated MAIT cells were reported to organize cytotoxic and innate-like responses but knowledge about their molecular effector phenotype is still fragmentary. Here, we have examined the functional inventory of human MAIT cells (CD3+Vα7.2+CD161+) in comparison with those from conventional non-MAIT CD8+ T cells (cCD8+ ) and NK cells. Quantitative mass spectrometry characterized 5500 proteins of primary MAIT cells and identified 160 and 135 proteins that discriminate them from cCD8+ T cells and NK cells donor-independently...
May 11, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737230/the-nitric-oxide-donor-sin-1-produced-panic-like-behaviour-and-fear-induced-antinociception-are-modulated-by-nmda-receptors-in-the-anterior-hypothalamus
#6
Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
BACKGROUND: An excitatory imbalance in the hypothalamus of rodents caused by local chemical stimulation elicits fear-related defensive reactions such as escape and freezing. In addition, these panic attack-like defensive reactions induced by hypothalamic neurons may cause antinociception. However, there is a shortage of studies showing the participation of the anterior hypothalamic nucleus in these adaptive defensive mechanisms. Nitric oxide (NO) donors have been shown to evoke fear-related defensive responses when microinjected into paralimbic and limbic structures, and this excitatory neuromodulation can recruit the glutamatergic system...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734352/role-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-2-and-9-toll-like-receptor-4-and-platelet-leukocyte-aggregate-formation-in-sepsis-associated-thrombocytopenia
#7
Caroline M Larkin, Nadhim Kamil Hante, Eamon P Breen, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski, Simon Eisele, Marek W Radomski, Thomas A Ryan, Maria-Jose Santos-Martinez
BACKGROUND: The development of thrombocytopenia in sepsis is a poor prognostic indicator associated with a significantly increased mortality risk. Mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain to be clearly elucidated. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes that regulate the turnover of the extra-cellular matrix. MMP-2 is recognised as a platelet agonist with MMP-9 proposed as an inhibitor of platelet activation. The existence of MMP-9 in platelets is a subject of debate. There is limited evidence thus far to suggest that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and platelet-leukocyte aggregate (PLA) formation may be implicated in the development of sepsis-associated thrombocytopenia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734294/multiplexed-precision-genome-editing-with-trackable-genomic-barcodes-in-yeast
#8
Kevin R Roy, Justin D Smith, Sibylle C Vonesch, Gen Lin, Chelsea Szu Tu, Alex R Lederer, Angela Chu, Sundari Suresh, Michelle Nguyen, Joe Horecka, Ashutosh Tripathi, Wallace T Burnett, Maddison A Morgan, Julia Schulz, Kevin M Orsley, Wu Wei, Raeka S Aiyar, Ronald W Davis, Vytas A Bankaitis, James E Haber, Marc L Salit, Robert P St Onge, Lars M Steinmetz
Our understanding of how genotype controls phenotype is limited by the scale at which we can precisely alter the genome and assess the phenotypic consequences of each perturbation. Here we describe a CRISPR-Cas9-based method for multiplexed accurate genome editing with short, trackable, integrated cellular barcodes (MAGESTIC) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. MAGESTIC uses array-synthesized guide-donor oligos for plasmid-based high-throughput editing and features genomic barcode integration to prevent plasmid barcode loss and to enable robust phenotyping...
May 7, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733733/characteristics-of-likely-precision-medicine-initiative-participants-drawn-from-a-large-blood-donor-population
#9
Cinnamon S Bloss, Justin Stoler, Cynthia E Schairer, Sara B Rosenthal, Cynthia Cheung, Holly M Rus, Jessica L Block, Jiue-An Jay Yang, Doug Morton, Helen Bixenman, David Wellis
A goal of the Precision Medicine Initiative All of Us Research Program (AoURP) is recruitment of participants who reflect the diversity of the US. Recruitment from among blood bank donors, which may better reflect the demographic makeup of local communities, is one proposed strategy. We evaluated this strategy by analyzing the results of a survey of San Diego Blood Bank donors conducted in November 2015. Whites were more likely than nonwhites to respond to the survey (7.1 percent versus 3.9 percent). However, race was not a significant predictor of interest in participating in precision medicine research...
May 2018: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732735/tissue-engineering-at-the-blood-contacting-surface-a-review-of-challenges-and-strategies-in-vascular-graft-development
#10
REVIEW
Daniel Radke, Wenkai Jia, Dhavan Sharma, Kemin Fena, Guifang Wang, Jeremy Goldman, Feng Zhao
Tissue engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) are beginning to achieve clinical success and hold promise as a source of grafting material when donor grafts are unsuitable or unavailable. Significant technological advances have generated small-diameter TEVGs that are mechanically stable and promote functional remodeling by regenerating host cells. However, developing a biocompatible blood-contacting surface remains a major challenge. The TEVG luminal surface must avoid negative inflammatory responses and thrombogenesis immediately upon implantation and promote endothelialization...
May 7, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724252/synthetic-versus-autologous-reconstruction-syn-var-of-the-medial-patellofemoral-ligament-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Adam Tucker, Sam McMahon, Bronwyn McArdle, Bridgeen Rutherford, Danny Acton
BACKGROUND: Recurrent patellar instability incidence is 5.8/100,000 population, and recurrent dislocations are reported in the range of 15-80%. Recurrent instability is multifactorial and can be associated with disorder of limb alignment, osseous development, congruity of the patella in the trochlea and soft tissue static and dynamic constraints. The multifactorial aetiology makes management challenging, and a lack studies in a heterogeneous population with robust clinical outcomes compounds this further...
May 3, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723174/-it-s-hard-to-ask-examining-the-factors-influencing-decision-making-among-end-stage-renal-disease-patients-considering-approaching-family-and-friends-for-a-kidney
#12
Merryn A Jones, Jon Cornwall
AIM: People needing kidney transplants in New Zealand can receive organs from deceased donors or from a living kidney donor. This project explored issues surrounding donor recruitment, examining the lived experience of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in order to facilitate improved donor recruitment for ESRD patients. METHOD: A qualitative study comprising interviews of ESRD patients in Hawke's Bay, focusing on the factors surrounding approaching family and friends for a kidney...
May 4, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713456/diverse-expression-of-tnf-%C3%AE-and-ccl27-in-serum-and-blister-of-stevens-johnson-syndrome-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis
#13
Fang Wang, Yanting Ye, Ze-Yu Luo, Qian Gao, Di-Qing Luo, Xingqi Zhang
Background: The pathogenesis of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is not fully understood. Our previous study reported that chemokine CCL27 was overexpressed in serum of SJS/TEN patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the levels of CCL27 and TNF-α in serum and blister fluid from patients with SJS/TEN during the acute stage or resolution phase. Methods: A total of 27 patients with SJS/TEN and 39 healthy donors were recruited to the study...
2018: Clinical and Translational Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704381/study-on-abo-and-rhd-blood-grouping-comparison-between-conventional-tile-method-and-a-new-solid-phase-method-intec-blood-grouping-test-kit
#14
R Yousuf, S A Abdul Ghani, N Abdul Khalid, C F Leong
INTRODUCTION: 'InTec Blood Grouping Test kit' using solid-phase technology is a new method which may be used at outdoor blood donation site or at bed side as an alternative to the conventional tile method in view of its stability at room temperature and fulfilled the criteria as point of care test. This study aimed to compare the efficiency of this solid phase method (InTec Blood Grouping Test Kit) with the conventional tile method in determining the ABO and RhD blood group of healthy donors...
April 2018: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697805/single-cell-analysis-of-ca2-i-signalling-in-sub-fertile-men-characteristics-and-relation-to-fertilization-outcome
#15
Mark C Kelly, Sean G Brown, Sarah M Costello, Mythili Ramalingam, Ellen Drew, Stephen J Publicover, Christopher L R Barratt, Sarah Martins Da Silva
STUDY QUESTION: What are the characteristics of progesterone-induced (CatSper-mediated) single cell [Ca2+]i signals in spermatozoa from sub-fertile men and how do they relate to fertilizing ability? SUMMARY ANSWER: Single cell analysis of progesterone-induced (CatSper-mediated) [Ca2+]i showed that reduced progesterone-sensitivity is a common feature of sperm from sub-fertile patients and is correlated with fertilization rate. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Stimulation with progesterone is a widely used method for assessing [Ca2+]i mobilization by activation of CatSper in human spermatozoa...
April 25, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696367/the-distribution-of-hla-haplotypes-in-the-ethnic-groups-that-make-up-the-brazilian-bone-marrow-volunteer-donor-registry-redome
#16
Michael Halagan, Danielli Cristina Oliveira, Martin Maiers, Raquel A Fabreti-Oliveira, Maria Elisa Hue Moraes, Jeane Eliete Laguila Visentainer, Noemi Farah Pereira, Matilde Romero, Juliana Fernandes Cardoso, Luís Cristóvão Porto
The Registries of Bone Marrow Donors around the world include more than 30 million volunteer donors from 57 different countries, and were responsible for over 17,000 hematopoietic stem cell transplants in 2016. The Brazilian Bone Marrow Volunteer Donor Registry (REDOME) was established in 1993 and is the third largest registry in the world with more than 4.3 million donors. We characterized HLA allele and haplotypes frequencies from REDOME comparing them with the donor self-reported race group classification...
April 26, 2018: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685812/the-cf-canada-sick-kids-program-in-individual-cf-therapy-a-resource-for-the-advancement-of-personalized-medicine-in-cf
#17
Paul D W Eckford, Jacqueline McCormack, Lise Munsie, Gengming He, Sanja Stanojevic, Sergio L Pereira, Karen Ho, Julie Avolio, Claire Bartlett, Jin Ye Yang, Amy P Wong, Leigh Wellhauser, Ling Jun Huan, Jia Xin Jiang, Hong Ouyang, Kai Du, Michelle Klingel, Lianna Kyriakopoulou, Tanja Gonska, Theo J Moraes, Lisa J Strug, Janet Rossant, Felix Ratjen, Christine E Bear
BACKGROUND: Therapies targeting certain CFTR mutants have been approved, yet variations in clinical response highlight the need for in-vitro and genetic tools that predict patient-specific clinical outcomes. Toward this goal, the CF Canada-Sick Kids Program in Individual CF Therapy (CFIT) is generating a "first of its kind", comprehensive resource containing patient-specific cell cultures and data from 100 CF individuals that will enable modeling of therapeutic responses. METHODS: The CFIT program is generating: 1) nasal cells from drug naïve patients suitable for culture and the study of drug responses in vitro, 2) matched gene expression data obtained by sequencing the RNA from the primary nasal tissue, 3) whole genome sequencing of blood derived DNA from each of the 100 participants, 4) induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from each participant's blood sample, 5) CRISPR-edited isogenic control iPSC lines and 6) prospective clinical data from patients treated with CF modulators...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684652/generosity-and-compliance-recruitment-work-and-the-pathways-to-participation-in-bone-marrow-donation
#18
Kushan Dasgupta
This study examines challenges involved in recruiting bone marrow donors. Data comes from participant observation with a recruitment organization in the United States. Findings reveal that recruiters try to express bone marrow donation with common "gift of life" messaging, which emphasizes a singular event involving generosity. Potential recruits, however, respond by focusing on pain and time commitments. These concerns draw attention to the many stages and requirements involved in bone marrow donation and make issues of compliance salient...
April 12, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674329/regional-variability-in-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-practices-a-survey-of-the-southern-ontario-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-movement
#19
Susy S Hota, Salman Surangiwala, Aimee S Paterson, Bryan Coburn, Susan M Poutanen
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, but little guidance exists for implementation of FMT programs. The objective of this study is to describe the program characteristics and protocols of 9 planned or operating FMT programs in the Southern Ontario Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (SOFT) Movement, to help guide future FMT program implementation. METHODS: A 59-item survey was administered electronically to clinical leads of the SOFT Movement on June 2, 2016...
April 18, 2018: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670338/preference-for-anonymity-in-sperm-donation-for-artificial-insemination-an-experience-from-low-resource-settings-in-nigeria
#20
Euzebus Chinonye Ezugwu, George U Eleje, Chukwuemeka A Iyoke, Sunday G Mba, Henry C Nnaji, Chukwunonso I Enechukwu, Peter O Nkwo
Objective: Anonymous sperm donation is a common practice in Nigeria with its associated legal and ethical challenges. This study aimed to investigate infertile couples' opinions about issues of sperm donor anonymity and to determine factors that might influence their preferences. Methods: A cross-sectional, multicentered, questionnaire-based study was conducted among infertile couples attending infertility clinics in three tertiary hospitals in the south-eastern region of Nigeria over a period of 6 months...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
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