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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319044/fibroblastic-niches-prime-t-cell-alloimmunity-through-delta-like-notch-ligands
#1
Jooho Chung, Christen L Ebens, Eric Perkey, Vedran Radojcic, Ute Koch, Leonardo Scarpellino, Alexander Tong, Frederick Allen, Sherri Wood, Jiane Feng, Ann Friedman, David Granadier, Ivy T Tran, Qian Chai, Lucas Onder, Minhong Yan, Pavan Reddy, Bruce R Blazar, Alex Y Huang, Todd V Brennan, D Keith Bishop, Burkhard Ludewig, Christian W Siebel, Freddy Radtke, Sanjiv A Luther, Ivan Maillard
Alloimmune T cell responses induce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a serious complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). Although Notch signaling mediated by Delta-like 1/4 (DLL1/4) Notch ligands has emerged as a major regulator of GVHD pathogenesis, little is known about the timing of essential Notch signals and the cellular source of Notch ligands after allo-BMT. Here, we have shown that critical DLL1/4-mediated Notch signals are delivered to donor T cells during a short 48-hour window after transplantation in a mouse allo-BMT model...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316432/blood-transfusion-safety-current-status-and-challenges-in-nigeria
#2
REVIEW
John C Aneke, Chide E Okocha
The attainment of blood transfusion safety in Nigeria (and probably the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa) remains an uphill task due to a number of factors, ranging from shortage of blood, poor implementation of blood transfusion guidelines, infrastructural deficits to high prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs), particularly hepatitis and human immune deficiency viruses. We reviewed available data on blood transfusion practices and safety in Nigeria using the PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, and African Index Medicus search engines, through a combination of word and phrases relevant to the subject...
January 2017: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270810/a-novel-model-on-dst-induced-transplantation-tolerance-by-the-transfer-of-self-specific-donor-ttregs-to-a-haplotype-matched-organ-recipient
#3
Angelica Maria Mohr Gregoriussen, Henrik Georg Bohr
Donor-specific blood transfusion (DST) can lead to significant prolongation of allograft survival in experimental animal models and sometimes human recipients of solid organs. The mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effect on graft survival have been a topic of research and debate for decades and are not yet fully elucidated. Once we discover how the details of the mechanisms involved are linked, we could be within reach of a procedure making it possible to establish donor-specific tolerance with minimal or no immunosuppressive medication...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270168/towards-a-cardiac-allocation-score-a-retrospective-calculation-for-73-patients-from-a-german-transplant-center
#4
Sebastian Claes, Michael Berchtold-Herz, Qian Zhou, Georg Trummer, Matthias Bock, Andreas Zirlik, Friedhelm Beyersdorf, Christoph Bode, Sebastian Grundmann
BACKGROUND: Due to a growing discrepancy between the transplant waiting list and decreasing numbers of available donor hearts, cardiac transplantation rates in Germany have been declining in the past years. Currently, patients on the waiting list are prioritized by medical urgency and waiting time and therefore a majority of all cardiac transplants is performed in very ill patients. Recently, a different allocation algorithm was proposed that included predicted post-transplant survival as a parameter for organ allocation...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264968/tim-3-is-a-marker-of-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-dysfunction-during-hiv-infection-and-is-associated-with-the-recruitment-of-irf7-and-p85-into-lysosomes-and-with-the-submembrane-displacement-of-tlr9
#5
Jordan Ari Schwartz, Kiera L Clayton, Shariq Mujib, Hongliang Zhang, A K M Nur-Ur Rahman, Jun Liu, Feng Yun Yue, Erika Benko, Colin Kovacs, Mario A Ostrowski
In chronic diseases, such as HIV infection, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are rendered dysfunctional, as measured by their decreased capacity to produce IFN-α. In this study, we identified elevated levels of T cell Ig and mucin-domain containing molecule-3 (Tim-3)-expressing pDCs in the blood of HIV-infected donors. The frequency of Tim-3-expressing pDCs correlated inversely with CD4 T cell counts and positively with HIV viral loads. A lower frequency of pDCs expressing Tim-3 produced IFN-α or TNF-α in response to the TLR7 agonists imiquimod and Sendai virus and to the TLR9 agonist CpG...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261276/dietary-intake-is-associated-with-respiratory-health-outcomes-and-dna-methylation-in-children-with-asthma
#6
L Montrose, T J Ward, E O Semmens, Y H Cho, B Brown, C W Noonan
BACKGROUND: Asthma is an increasingly common chronic disease among children, and data point toward a complex mechanism involving genetic, environmental and epigenetic factors. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA hypo- or hyper-methylation have been shown to occur in response to environmental exposures including dietary nutrients. METHODS: Within the context of the asthma randomized trial of indoor wood smoke (ARTIS) study, we investigated relationships between diet, asthma health measures, and DNA methylation...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258869/comparative-skin-evaluation-after-split-thickness-skin%C3%A2-grafts-using-2-different-acellular-dermal-matrices%C3%A2-to-cover-composite-forearm-defects
#7
Myung Chul Lee, Yong Jun Jang, In Sik Yun, Dae Hyun Lew, Won Jai Lee
PURPOSE: The combination of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and split-thickness skin graft (STSG) has been widely adopted to overcome functional and cosmetic limitations of conventional STSG. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of this combination using 2 types of ADM: cadaveric acellular dermal matrix (CDM) and bovine acellular dermal matrix (BDM). METHODS: We recruited 72 patients undergoing autologous STSG to cover radial forearm free flap donor sites. They were included in 1 of 3 therapeutic groups: group 1, STSG using CDM (n = 29); group 2, STSG using BDM (n = 20); and group 3, STSG only (n = 23)...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252573/influence-of-feeding-type-on-gut-microbiome-development-in-hospitalized-preterm-infants
#8
Xiaomei Cong, Michelle Judge, Wanli Xu, Ana Diallo, Susan Janton, Elizabeth A Brownell, Kendra Maas, Joerg Graf
BACKGROUND: Premature infants have a high risk for dysbiosis of the gut microbiome. Mother's own milk (MOM) has been found to favorably alter gut microbiome composition in infants born at term. Evidence about the influence of feeding type on gut microbial colonization of preterm infants is limited. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of feeding types on gut microbial colonization of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: Thirty-three stable preterm infants were recruited at birth and followed up for the first 30 days of life...
March 2017: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244065/breastfeeding-education-and-support-for-women-with-twins-or-higher-order-multiples
#9
REVIEW
Heather M Whitford, Selina K Wallis, Therese Dowswell, Helen M West, Mary J Renfrew
BACKGROUND: There are rising rates of multiple births worldwide with associated higher rates of complications and more hospital care, often due to prematurity. While there is strong evidence about the risks of not breastfeeding, rates of breastfeeding in women who have given birth to more than one infant are lower than with singleton births. Breastfeeding more than one infant can be more challenging because of difficulties associated with the birth or prematurity. The extra demands on the mother of frequent suckling, coordinating the needs of more than one infant or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit can lead to delayed initiation or early cessation...
February 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239644/hla-dq-%C3%AE-1-alleles-associated-with-epstein-barr-virus-ebv-infectivity-and-ebv-gp42-binding-to-cells
#10
Qingxue Li, Wei Bu, Erin Gabriel, Fiona Aguilar, Yo Hoshino, Hiroko Miyadera, Christoph Hess, Ronald L Hornung, Amitava Roy, Jeffrey I Cohen
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects B cells and ~95% of adults are infected. EBV glycoprotein gp42 is essential for entry of virus into B cells. EBV gp42 binds to the β1 chain of HLA-DQ, -DR, and -DP on B cells, and uses these molecules for infection. To investigate if certain HLA-DQ alleles are associated with EBV seronegativity, we recruited ~3,300 healthy adult blood donors, identified 106 EBV-seronegative individuals, and randomly selected a control group of EBV-seropositive donors from the donor pool. A larger than expected proportion of EBV-seronegative subjects were HLA-DQ β1 *04/*05 and *06/*06, and to a lesser extent, *02/*03, compared with the control group, while a larger than expected portion of EBV-seropositive persons were HLA-DQ β1 *02/*02...
February 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237630/-18-f-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-pet-informs-neutrophil-accumulation-and-activation-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury
#11
Rosana S Rodrigues, Fernando A Bozza, Christopher J Hanrahan, Li-Ming Wang, Qi Wu, John M Hoffman, Guy A Zimmerman, Kathryn A Morton
INTRODUCTION: Molecular imaging of the earliest events related to the development of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) could facilitate therapeutic development and patient management. We previously reported that (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET identifies ALI/ARDS prior to radiographic abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to establish the time courses of (18)F-FDG uptake, edema and neutrophil recruitment in an endotoxin-induced acute lung injury model and to examine molecular events required for (14)C-2DG uptake in activated neutrophils...
January 17, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229830/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-formation-in-patients-with-eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-association-with-eosinophilic-inflammation
#12
Joanna Natorska, Michał Ząbczyk, Jakub Siudut, Piotr Krawiec, Lucyna Mastalerz, Anetta Undas
OBJECTIVES: Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is associated with an inflammation and the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). Thus, we investigated the impact of ANCAs and eosinophilic inflammation on neutrophil activation and extracellular traps (NETs) formation. METHODS: We recruited 29 patients in the remission of EGPA (17 ANCA-negative and 12 ANCA-positive, including 7 p-ANCA-positive and 5 c-ANCA-positive patients). Healthy donors' neutrophils were stimulated with EGPA patients' serum...
February 9, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225830/ex-vivo-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-from-donors-on-suppressive-art-can-lead-to-sustained-production-of-infectious-hiv-1-from-a-subset-of-infected-cells
#13
John K Bui, Elias K Halvas, Elizabeth Fyne, Michele D Sobolewski, Dianna Koontz, Wei Shao, Brian Luke, Feiyu F Hong, Mary F Kearney, John W Mellors
The fate of HIV-infected cells after reversal of proviral latency is not well characterized. Simonetti, et al. recently showed that CD4+ T-cells containing intact proviruses can clonally expand in vivo and produce low-level infectious viremia. We hypothesized that reversal of HIV latency by activation of CD4+ T-cells can lead to the expansion of a subset of virus-producing cells rather than their elimination. We established an ex vivo cell culture system involving stimulation of CD4+ T-cells from donors on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) with PMA/ionomycin (day 1-7), followed by rest (day 7-21), and then repeat stimulation (day 21-28), always in the presence of high concentrations of raltegravir and efavirenz to effectively block new cycles of viral replication...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218010/changes-in-hematological-indices-and-lymphocyte-subsets-in-response-to-whole-blood-donation-in-healthy-male-donors
#14
Anwar Borai, Callum Livingstone, Enaam Alsobhi, Abeer Al Sofyani, Dalal Balgoon, Anwar Farzal, Mohammed Almohammadi, Abdulafattah Al-Amri, Suhad Bahijri, Daad Alrowaili, Wafaa Bassiuni, Ayman Saleh, Norah Alrowaili, Mohamed Abdelaal
Whole blood donation has immunomodulatory effects, and most of these have been observed at short intervals following blood donation. This study aimed to investigate the impact of whole blood donation on lymphocyte subsets over a typical inter-donation interval. Healthy male subjects were recruited to study changes in complete blood count (CBC) (n = 42) and lymphocyte subsets (n = 16) before and at four intervals up to 106 days following blood donation. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to compare quantitative variables between different visits...
April 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214180/a-successful-experience-of-the-iranian-blood-transfusion-organization-in-improving-accessibility-and-affordability-of-plasma-derived-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Azita Chegini, Seyed Ardeshir Torab, Ali Akbar Pourfatollah
Plasma is the liquid part of blood. It is estimated 21.6 million liters of plasma collect from Whole blood annually. From these plasma, 4.2 million liters transfuse, 8.1 million liters fractionate, 9.3 million liters waste. Nowadays, blood products and PDM (plasma derived medicine) consider as essential medicine in modern health care and transfusion medicine. Iranian blood transfusion organization as a non-profit organization was established in 1974 in order to centralize all blood transfusion activities from donor recruitment to distribution of blood components to hospitals...
February 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209201/understanding-the-performance-of-community-health-volunteers-involved-in-the-delivery-of-health-programmes-in-underserved-areas-a-realist-synthesis
#16
REVIEW
Gaëlle Vareilles, Jeanine Pommier, Bruno Marchal, Sumit Kane
BACKGROUND: The recruitment of community health volunteers (CHVs) to support the delivery of health programmes is an established approach in underserved areas and in particular where there are health inequalities due to the scarcity of trained human resources. However, there is a dearth of evidence about what works to improve CHVs' performance. This review aimed to synthesise existing literature to explain why, how and under which circumstances intervention approaches to improve the performance of CHVs are more likely to be successful...
February 16, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208861/recovery-of-platelet-count-among-apheresis-platelet-donors
#17
Ravindra Prasad Thokala, Krishnamoorthy Radhakrishnan, Ashwin Anandan, Vinod Kumar Panicker
INTRODUCTION: Increase in awareness regarding use of single donor platelets and the availability of technology has resulted in increased platelet pheresis procedures. The interval between two succesive plateletpheresis donations is much less compared to whole blood donations. Plateletpheresis procedures are associated with short term and long term adverse events. The effect of plateletpheresis on haematopoietic system remains significant. AIM: To study the recovery of platelet count to baseline in plateletpheresis donors...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205236/trends-in-us-minority-red-blood-cell-unit-donations
#18
Mark H Yazer, Meghan Delaney, Marc Germain, Matthew S Karafin, Merlyn Sayers, Ralph Vassallo, Alyssa Ziman, Beth Shaz
BACKGROUND: To provide the appropriately diverse blood supply necessary to support alloimmunized and chronically transfused patients, minority donation recruitment programs have been implemented. This study investigated temporal changes in minority red blood cell (RBC) donation patterns in the United States. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Data on donor race and ethnicity from 2006 through 2015, including the number of unique donors, collections, RBCs successfully donated, and average annual number of RBC donations per donor (donor fraction), were collected from eight US blood collectors...
February 16, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201997/the-association-between-interleukin-19-concentration-and-diabetic-nephropathy
#19
Li Li, Xu-Gan Jiang, Juan-Yu Hu, ZHeng-Qing Yu, Jian-Yong Xu, Fan Liu, Guang-Chun Zhao, Lei Zhang, Hui-Ming Gu, Si-Jing Zhang, Jin Meng
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-19 (IL-19) is a newly discovered cytokine belonging to the Interleukin-10(IL-10) family. IL-19 have indispensable functions in many inflammatory processes and also can induce the angiogenic potential of endothelial cells. The purpose of present study was to investigate the relation of serum interleukin-19 (IL-19) levels with diabetic nephropathy (DN). METHODS: Two hundred study groups of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (109 males and 91 females) were recruited, included normoalbuminuria(n = 102), microalbuminuria(n = 72) and macroalbuminuria(n = 26) ...
February 15, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198771/correlation-between-facial-nerve-axonal-load-and-age-and-its-relevance-to-facial-reanimation
#20
Austin Hembd, Purushottam Nagarkar, Justin Perez, Andrew Gassman, Philip Tolley, Joan Reisch, Charles L White, Shai Rozen
PURPOSE: Two-stage facial reanimation procedures with a cross-facial nerve graft often have unsatisfactory results in the older patient. Although the cause of result variability is likely multifactorial, some studies suggest that increased donor nerve axonal load improves function of a free muscle transfer after a cross-facial nerve graft. This study attempts to characterize the relationship between age and facial nerve axonal load. METHODS: 63 fresh, cadaveric heads were dissected to expose the facial nerve...
February 13, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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