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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101345/%C3%AE-cell-function-prior-to-liver-transplantation-contributes-to-post-operative-diabetes
#1
Tatsuki Ichikawa, Naota Taura, Hisamitsu Miyaaki, Satoshi Miuma, Hidetaka Shibata, Takuya Honda, Masaaki Hidaka, Akihiko Soyama, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Susumu Eguchi, Kazuhiko Nakao
Liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus (DM) are closely associated. The present study aimed to determine whether liver transplantation (LT) may prevent/cure DM in patients with cirrhosis and whether the degree of glucose tolerance prior to transplantation is associated with the onset of DM after transplantation. Seventy-three patients who received a living donor LT at Nagasaki University Hospital (Nagasaki, Japan) between November 2005 and December 2012 were recruited. Among them, patients were considered diabetic if they had been prescribed diabetes medications or had impaired glucose tolerance, as evidenced by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092668/upregulation-of-ret-induces-perineurial-invasion-of-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#2
M Amit, S Na'ara, L Leider-Trejo, Y Binenbaum, N Kulish, E Fridman, A Shabtai-Orbach, R J Wong, Z Gil
Tumor spread along nerves, a phenomenon known as perineurial invasion, is common in various cancers including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Neural invasion is associated with poor outcome, yet its mechanism remains unclear. Using the transgenic Pdx-1-Cre/KrasG12D /p53R172H (KPC) mouse model, we investigated the mechanism of neural invasion in PDAC. To detect tissue-specific factors that influence neural invasion by cancer cells, we characterized the perineurial microenvironment using a series of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) experiments in transgenic mice expressing single mutations in the Cx3cr1, GDNF and CCR2 genes...
January 16, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087668/the-threshold-of-protection-from-liver-stage-malaria-relies-on-a-fine-balance-between-the-number-of-infected-hepatocytes-and-effector-cd8-t-cells-present-in-the-liver
#3
Alexandra J Spencer, Rhea J Longley, Anita Gola, Marta Ulaszewska, Teresa Lambe, Adrian V S Hill
Since the demonstration of sterile protection afforded by injection of irradiated sporozoites, CD8(+) T cells have been shown to play a significant role in protection from liver-stage malaria. This is, however, dependent on the presence of an extremely high number of circulating effector cells, thought to be necessary to scan, locate, and kill infected hepatocytes in the short time that parasites are present in the liver. We used an adoptive transfer model to elucidate the kinetics of the effector CD8(+) T cell response in the liver following Plasmodium berghei sporozoite challenge...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075446/nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibition-is-associated-with-opn-mmp%C3%A2-9-downregulation-in-cutaneous-melanoma
#4
Claudio Guarneri, Valentina Bevelacqua, Jerry Polesel, Luca Falzone, Patrizia S Cannavò, Demetrios A Spandidos, Grazia Malaponte, Massimo Libra
The development of cutaneous melanoma is influenced by genetic factors, including BRAF mutations and environmental factors, such as ultraviolet exposure. Its progression has been also associated with the involvement of several tumour microenvironmental molecules. Among these, nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) has been indicated as a key player of osteopontin (OPN) and matrix metalloproteinase‑9 (MMP‑9) activation. However, whether NF‑κB plays a role in the development and progression of melanoma in association with the OPN/MMP‑9 axis according to the BRAFV600E mutation status has not been investigated in detail to date...
February 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067783/stem-cell-transplantation-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-current-options-and-opportunities
#5
REVIEW
Liangfu Jiang, Salazar Jones, Xiaofeng Jia
Peripheral nerve regeneration is a complicated process highlighted by Wallerian degeneration, axonal sprouting, and remyelination. Schwann cells play an integral role in multiple facets of nerve regeneration but obtaining Schwann cells for cell-based therapy is limited by the invasive nature of harvesting and donor site morbidity. Stem cell transplantation for peripheral nerve regeneration offers an alternative cell-based therapy with several regenerative benefits. Stem cells have the potential to differentiate into Schwann-like cells that recruit macrophages for removal of cellular debris...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062916/low-dose-anti-thymocyte-globulin-reduce-severe-acute-and-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#6
Osamu Imataki, Kensuke Matsumoto, Makiko Uemura
BACKGROUND: Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) administered at 5-10 mg/kg can prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We sought to investigate the potential for lower doses of ATG to decrease non-relapse mortality (NRM). METHODS: We consecutively compared the outcomes of patients with hematological diseases who received allogeneic stem cell transplants from allogeneic related or unrelated donors before February 2010 and were not administered ATG (reference arm), with those administered 2...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050376/a-retrospective-analysis-of-apheresis-donor-deferral-and-adverse-reactions-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-india
#7
Disha Arora, Ketan Garg, Ankit Kaushik, Richa Sharma, D S Rawat, A K Mandal
INTRODUCTION: With increasing demand of platelet component each day, blood bank plays a pivotal role in ensuring supply of safe blood as and when required. Plateletpheresis procedure is a relatively simple, safe and important adjunct to blood bank inventory. However, recruitment of healthy blood donors is a challenge that the health industry is facing today. AIM: To determine the reasons and rates of apheresis donor deferral along with investigation of adverse reactions encountered during the procedure...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039304/allergen-valency-dose-and-fc%C3%AE%C2%B5ri-occupancy-set-thresholds-for-secretory-responses-to-pen-a-1-and-motivate-design-of-hypoallergens
#8
Avanika Mahajan, Lama A Youssef, Cédric Cleyrat, Rachel Grattan, Shayna R Lucero, Christopher P Mattison, M Frank Erasmus, Bruna Jacobson, Lydia Tapia, William S Hlavacek, Mark Schuyler, Bridget S Wilson
Ag-mediated crosslinking of IgE-FcεRI complexes activates mast cells and basophils, initiating the allergic response. Of 34 donors recruited having self-reported shrimp allergy, only 35% had significant levels of shrimp-specific IgE in serum and measurable basophil secretory responses to rPen a 1 (shrimp tropomyosin). We report that degranulation is linked to the number of FcεRI occupied with allergen-specific IgE, as well as the dose and valency of Pen a 1. Using clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat-based gene editing, human RBL(rαKO) cells were created that exclusively express the human FcεRIα subunit...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031370/binding-of-the-methyl-donor-sam-to-mers-cov-2-o-methyltransferase-nsp16-promotes-the-recruitment-of-the-allosteric-activator-nsp10
#9
Wahiba Aouadi, Alexandre Blanjoie, Jean-Jacques Vasseur, Françoise Debart, Bruno Canard, Etienne Decroly
: The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) non-structural protein 16 (nsp16) is an S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent 2' -O-methyltransferase (MTase) that is thought to methylate the ribose 2' -OH of the first transcribed nucleotide (N1) of viral RNA cap structures. This 2' -O MTase activity is regulated by nsp10. The 2' -O methylation prevents virus detection by cell innate immunity mechanisms and viral translation inhibition by the interferon-stimulated IFIT-1 protein...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028295/current-trends-of-seroprevalence-of-transfusion-transmitted-infections-in-pakistani-%C3%AE-thalassaemic-patients
#10
S Sultan, S M Irfan, M Siddiqui, S M H Zaidi
BACKGROUND: Though regular blood transfusion improves the survival, it carries the unavoidable risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) in β-thalassaemic patients. Owing to the lack of uniformity in blood screening practices in Pakistan, TTI is still a major challenge. OBJECTIVES: To study the current trends of TTI in regularly transfused β-thalassaemics and their correlation with age, number of transfusions, hematological and biochemical markers. METHODS: We carried out a prospective case-control study...
December 2016: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027590/hepatitis-b-reactivation-in-occult-viral-carriers-undergoing-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-prospective-study
#11
Wai-Kay Seto, Thomas Sau-Yan Chan, Yu-Yan Hwang, Danny Ka-Ho Wong, James Fung, Kevin Sze-Hang Liu, Harinder Gill, Yuk-Fai Lam, Eric H Y Lau, Ka-Shing Cheung, Albert K W Lie, Ching-Lung Lai, Yok-Lam Kwong, Man-Fung Yuen
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative, antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) positive patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have not been prospectively studied. HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc positive patients with undetectable HBV DNA undergoing allogeneic HSCT were prospectively monitored every 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was HBV reactivation, defined as detectable HBV DNA (≥10 IU/mL). Secondary endpoints included overall survival, HBsAg-positivity, and changes in liver biochemistry and antibody to HBsAg levels...
December 27, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027081/altered-expression-of-toll-like-receptors-in-human-oral-epithelium-in-oral-lichenoid-reactions
#12
Abdelhakim Salem, Rabeia Mustafa, Dyah Listyarifah, Ahmed Al-Samadi, Goncalo Barreto, Dan Nordström, Kari K Eklund
Oral lichenoid reactions (OLRs) are chronic inflammatory lesions induced by contact with allergens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are members of pattern-recognition receptor superfamily. Once activated, TLRs induce production of cytokines and chemokines, thus leading to inflammatory reaction in host tissue. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential role of TLRs in the initiation and perpetuation of OLRs, in which TLRs induce innate immune responses mounted against allergens. TLRs, 1 through 10, were mapped in tissue samples obtained from healthy donors and OLR patients using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunostaining, and image analyses...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011613/spinal-arachnoiditis-as-a-complication-of-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-in-non-hiv-previously-healthy-adults
#13
Anil A Panackal, Mika Komori, Peter Kosa, Omar Khan, Dima A Hammoud, Lindsey B Rosen, Sarah K Browne, Yen-Chih Lin, Elena Romm, Charu Ramaprasad, Bettina C Fries, John E Bennett, Bibiana Bielekova, Peter R Williamson
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus can cause meningoencephalitis (CM) among previously healthy non-HIV adults. Spinal arachnoiditis is under-recognized, since diagnosis is difficult with concomitant central nervous system (CNS) pathology. METHODS: We describe 6 cases of spinal arachnoiditis among 26 consecutively recruited CM patients with normal CD4 counts who achieved microbiologic control. We performed detailed neurological exams, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunophenotyping and biomarker analysis before and after adjunctive immunomodulatory intervention with high dose pulse corticosteroids, affording causal inference into pathophysiology...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003943/envisioning-and-leading-organizational-transformation-one-organ-procurement-organization-s-journey
#14
Jeffrey P Orlowski
BACKGROUND:  In 2012, one organ procurement organization (OPO) welcomed a new President and Chief Executive Officer (CEO). This OPO, LifeShare Transplant Donor Services of Oklahoma (LifeShare), had just celebrated its 25th anniversary in 2011. While LifeShare was well-established chronologically, growth in organ donors and organs transplanted from these donors had occurred at a much slower rate during the collaborative era and afterward (2003-2011) than the donor/transplant growth the United States (US), as a whole, had experienced...
November 15, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001218/benznidazole-therapy-for-chagas-disease-in-asymptomatic-trypanosoma-cruzi-seropositive-former-blood-donors-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-different-treatment-regimens
#15
André Pires Antunes, Antônio Luiz Pinho Ribeiro, Ester Cerdeira Sabino, Marise Fagundes Silveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Ana Cristina de Carvalho Botelho
INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease currently affects 5.7 million people in Latin America and is emerging in non-endemic countries. There is no consensus concerning the efficacy of trypanocidal therapy for patients with the chronic form of the disease. We evaluated cardiac function and sociodemographic, clinical, and serologic characteristics of a group of asymptomatic Trypanosoma cruzi-seropositive former blood donors, and compared the effects of benznidazole treatment applied for different lengths of time...
November 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999757/ccl22-specific-t-cells-modulating-the-immunosuppressive-tumor-microenvironment
#16
Evelina Martinenaite, Shamaila Munir Ahmad, Morten Hansen, Özcan Met, Marie Wulff Westergaard, Stine Kiaer Larsen, Tobias Wirenfeldt Klausen, Marco Donia, Inge Marie Svane, Mads Hald Andersen
Tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating macrophages produce the chemokine CCL22, which attracts regulatory T cells (Tregs) into the tumor microenvironment, decreasing anticancer immunity. Here, we investigated the possibility of targeting CCL22-expressing cells by activating specific T cells. We analyzed the CCL22 protein signal sequence, identifying a human leukocyte antigen A2- (HLA-A2-) restricted peptide epitope, which we then used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) to expand populations of CCL22-specific T cells in vitro...
2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987503/-association-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-rs6983267-with-ulcerative-colitis-and-colorectal-cancer
#17
Y X Liu, X S Yang, W Fu, H W Yao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of rs6983267 polymorphism with risk of sporadic colorectal cancer; to compare the distribution of rs6983267 polymorphism between ulcerative colitis and general population. METHODS: 186 patients with sporadic colorectal cancer, 129 patients with ulcerative colitis and 189 healthy donors were recruited in the case-control study. Peripheral venous blood was obtained, and genomic DNA was extracted. All samples were genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry techniques...
December 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984397/donor-screening-experience-for-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-patients-with-recurrent-c-difficile-infection
#18
Raseen Tariq, Renee Weatherly, Patricia Kammer, Darrell S Pardi, Sahil Khanna
GOALS: To evaluate our experience with stool donor recruitment, screening, retention, and donor perception for fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). BACKGROUND: Multiply recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is being increasingly managed with FMT from donor stools. However, donor selection and recruitment is challenging due to lack of standard evidence-based guidelines, donor exclusion criteria, frequency of screening and donor commitment. METHODS: Data on donors screened using institutional guidelines with history, blood and stool testing and their perspectives on donation were analyzed...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976451/arteriogenesis-in-murine-adipose-tissue-is-contingent-on-cd68-cd206-macrophages
#19
Scott A Seaman, Yiqi Cao, Chris A Campbell, Shayn M Peirce
OBJECTIVE: The surgical transfer of skin, fat, and/or muscle from a donor site to a recipient site within the same patient, is a widely performed procedure in reconstructive surgeries. A surgical pre-treatment strategy that is intended to increase perfusion in the flap, termed "flap delay", is a commonly employed technique by plastic surgeons prior to flap transplantation. Here, we explored whether CD68(+) /CD206(+) macrophages are required for arteriogenesis within the flap by performing gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies in a previously published flap delay murine model...
December 15, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956810/hepatitis-e-virus-western-cape-south-africa
#20
Richie G Madden, Sebastian Wallace, Mark Sonderup, Stephen Korsman, Tawanda Chivese, Bronwyn Gavine, Aniefiok Edem, Roxy Govender, Nathan English, Christy Kaiyamo, Odelia Lutchman, Annemiek A van der Eijk, Suzan D Pas, Glynn W Webb, Joanne Palmer, Elizabeth Goddard, Sean Wasserman, Harry R Dalton, C Wendy Spearman
AIM: To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS: Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross Children's Hospital and their affiliated teaching hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa, were sampled. Healthy adults attending blood donor clinics were also recruited. Patients with known liver disease were excluded and all major ethnic/race groups were included to broadly represent local demographics...
November 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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