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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213776/the-importance-of-drug-induced-sedation-endoscopy-d-i-s-e-techniques-in-surgical-decision-making-conventional-versus-target-controlled-infusion-techniques-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-study-and-a-retrospective-surgical-outcomes-analysis
#1
Andrea De Vito, Vanni Agnoletti, Gianluca Zani, Ruggero Massimo Corso, Giovanni D'Agostino, Elisabetta Firinu, Chiara Marchi, Ying-Shuo Hsu, Stefano Maitan, Claudio Vicini
Drug-Induced Sedation Endoscopy (DISE) consists of the direct observation of the upper airways during sedative-induced sleep, allowing the identification of the sites of pharyngeal collapse, which is the main pathological event in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The Authors have compared Target Controlled Infusion (TCI) sedation endoscopy (TCI-DISE) technique to conventional DISE (CDISE), performed by a manual bolus injection of sedative agent, to recreate accurately and safely snoring and apnea patterns comparable to natural sleep...
February 17, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212463/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-an-inhaled-selective-glucocorticoid-receptor-modulator-azd5423-in-copd-patients-phase-ii-study-results
#2
Piotr Kuna, Magnus Aurivillius, Carin Jorup, Susanne Prothon, Ziad Taib, Staffan Edsbäcker
AZD5423 is a novel, inhaled, selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator (SGRM), which in an allergen challenge model in asthmatics improved lung function and airway hyper-reactivity. In the current trial, AZD5423 was for the first time tested in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this double-blind, randomised and parallel group study, we examined airway and systemic effects of two doses of AZD5423, inhaled via Turbuhaler for 12 weeks, in 353 symptomatic COPD patients (average pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at screening was 50-52% of predicted normal)...
February 17, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212451/relationship-between-pre-anesthetic-and-intra-anesthetic-airway-resistance-in-patients-undergoing-general-anesthesia-a-prospective-observational-study
#3
Takamitsu Ikeda, Kanji Uchida, Yasuhiro Yamauchi, Takahide Nagase, Koji Oba, Yoshitsugu Yamada
Surgery patients in Japan undergo routine spirometry testing prior to general anesthesia. The use of a flow sensor during general anesthesia has recently become common. However, it is not certain whether the information derived from flow-volume curves is being adequately used for mechanical ventilation management during general anesthesia. So far, there have been no attempts to calculate airway resistance using flow-volume curves. Therefore, we performed a prospective, observational study to investigate the relationship between pre-anesthetic and intra-anesthetic airway resistance in patients scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212153/new-therapies-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-exacerbations-of-bronchiectasis
#4
Hani Abo-Leyah, James D Chalmers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exacerbations of bronchiectasis have a major impact on quality of life, healthcare costs, and long-term risk of complications. Preventing exacerbations is one of the major goals of treatment. Bronchiectasis is increasingly recognized and the impact of bronchiectasis exacerbations on daily clinical practice is also increasing. RECENT FINDINGS: Preventing bronchiectasis exacerbations are dependent on appropriate risk assessment, identifying the patients at highest risk to rationally target preventive therapies...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210808/change-in-oxygen-consumption-following-inhalation-of-albuterol-in-comparison-with-levalbuterol-in-healthy-adult-volunteers
#5
Manpreet K Virk, Justin Hotz, Robinder G Khemani, Christopher J L Newth, Patrick A Ross
BACKGROUND: Albuterol is the most commonly used β agonist to treat reversible lower airway obstruction. Albuterol contains a racemic mixture of two enantiomers. Levalbuterol contains the single R form enantiomer. Levalbuterol is frequently prescribed to limit cardiovascular toxicity. OBJECTIVE: We examined changes in oxygen consumption (V'O2) and heart rate (HR) following administration of albuterol and levalbuterol. METHODS: This is a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, controlled study of healthy adult volunteers...
February 16, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210329/respiratory-illness-in-children-with-disability-a-serious-problem
#6
REVIEW
Marijke Proesmans
KEY POINTS: Children with neurocognitive impairment often present with chronic or recurrent respiratory problems.The respiratory problems have an important impact on quality of life and life expectancy.The underlying causes are multiple: risk of aspiration, insufficient cough, upper airway obstruction and progressive kyphoscoliosis.There is often a complex interplay between these known risk factors.The diagnostic and therapeutic approach should be multidisciplinary. EDUCATIONAL AIMS: To provide data on the prevalence of respiratory problems in children with disability and to increase awareness on this topic...
December 2016: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210319/physiology-of-respiratory-disturbances-in-muscular-dystrophies
#7
Antonella Lo Mauro, Andrea Aliverti
: Muscular dystrophy is a group of inherited myopathies characterised by progressive skeletal muscle wasting, including of the respiratory muscles. Respiratory failure, i.e. when the respiratory system fails in its gas exchange functions, is a common feature in muscular dystrophy, being the main cause of death, and it is a consequence of lung failure, pump failure or a combination of the two. The former is due to recurrent aspiration, the latter to progressive weakness of respiratory muscles and an increase in the load against which they must contract...
December 2016: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209420/-importance-of-the-emotional-dimension-when-providing-information-to-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#8
J Bros, C Poulet, C Deschaux, M Charavel
INTRODUCTION: To promote adaptation to treatment with continuous positive airway pressure, an information document was developed for people starting their treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. METHODS: Seven patients with obstructive sleep apnea took part in a focus group. This allowed the identification both of useful information and the best way that this information could be presented. RESULTS: The key specific information objectives and the best emotional register to use were as follows: (1) develop awareness about the physiological mechanisms and consequences that can occur from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, using formulations arousing fear, (2) enable the recognition of the symptoms, risk factors and chronicity of this syndrome, (3) reassure and motivate the patient about treatment with continuous positive airway pressure...
February 13, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208214/pathogenesis-of-enuresis-towards-a-new-understanding
#9
REVIEW
Tryggve Nevéus
Enuresis was historically viewed as a primarily psychiatric disorder, but this understanding has changed dramatically since the end of the last century, when it became clear that somatic factors, such as nocturnal polyuria as a result of vasopressin deficiency, nocturnal detrusor overactivity and high arousal thresholds, all play a crucial role in enuresis pathogenesis. It has also become clear that enuresis is inherited in the majority of cases, although the correlation between genotype and enuretic phenotype is not straightforward...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208178/lingual-tonsillectomy-for-treatment-of-pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-meta-analysis
#10
Kun-Tai Kang, Peter J Koltai, Chia-Hsuan Lee, Ming-Tzer Lin, Wei-Chung Hsu
Importance: Evidence indicates correlations between lingual tonsil hypertrophy and pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, to our knowledge, a meta-analysis of surgical outcomes for lingual tonsillectomy in children with OSA has not been conducted. Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic outcomes of lingual tonsillectomy for treatment of pediatric OSA. Data Sources: The study protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42015027053). PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Reviews databases were searched independently by 2 authors for relevant articles published by September 2016...
February 16, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207995/impact-of-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-during-drug-induced-sleep-endoscopy
#11
Carlos Torre, Stanley Yung-Chuan Liu, Clete A Kushida, Vladimir Nekhendzy, Leh-Kiong Huon, Robson Capasso
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the study was to understand the differential impact of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) on the location, degree, and pattern of airway collapse in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) patients utilizing Drug Induced Sleep Endoscopy (DISE). STUDY DESIGN: Non-randomized trial. SETTING: University Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS: 15 consecutive OSA patients undergoing DISE. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The patterns of airway collapse were videorecorded at baseline and under differential application of nasal CPAP (nCPAP) at 5,10, and 15 cm H2 O...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207927/attenuated-airway-hyperresponsiveness-and-mucus-secretion-in-hdm-exposed-igf1r-deficient-mice
#12
S Piñeiro-Hermida, J A Gregory, I P López, R Torrens, C Ruíz-Martínez, M Adner, J G Pichel
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic lung disease characterized by airflow obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation. IGFs have been reported to play a role in asthma but little is known about how the Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) affects asthma pathobiology. METHODS: Female Igf1r-deficient and control mice were intranasally challenged with house dust mite (HDM) extract or PBS five days per week for four weeks. Lung function measurements, and bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), serum and lungs were collected on day 28 for further cellular, histological and molecular analysis...
February 16, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207796/post-extubation-stridor-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-bronchiolitis-is-there-a-role-for-prophylactic-dexamethasone
#13
Esther S Veldhoen, Charlotte A Smulders, Teus H Kappen, Job C Calis, Job van Woensel, Paulien A M Raymakers-Janssen, Louis J Bont, Marije P Hennus
AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of reintubation due to upper airway obstruction in a homogeneous group of ventilated infants with Respiratory Syncytial Virus bronchiolitis. Our secondary objective was to determine whether prophylactic administration of dexamethasone prior to extubation was associated with decreased risk of reintubation. METHODS: This retrospective observational study in two Pediatric Intensive Care Units in 2 university hospitals in The Netherlands included two hundred patients younger than 13 months admitted with respiratory insufficiency caused by Respiratory Syncytial Virus bronchiolitis, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206886/guideline-for-monitoring-and-management-of-pediatric-patients-before-during-and-after-sedation-for-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-procedures-update-2016
#14
(no author information available yet)
The safe sedation of children for procedures requires a systematic approach that includes the following: no administration of sedating medication without the safety net of medical/dental supervision, careful presedation evaluation for underlying medical or surgical conditions that would place the child at increased risk from sedating medications, appropriate fasting for elective procedures and a balance between the depth of sedation and risk for those who are unable to fast because of the urgent nature of the procedure, a focused airway examination for large (kissing) tonsils or anatomic airway abnormalities that might increase thepotential for airway obstruction, a clear understanding of the medication's pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects and drug interactions, appropriate training and skills in airway management to allow rescue of the patient, age- and size-appropriate equipment for airway management and venous access, appropriate medications and reversal agents, sufficient numbers of staff to both carry out the procedure and monitor the patient, appropriate physiologic monitoring during and after the procedure, a properly equipped and staffed recovery area, recovery to the presedation level of consciousness before discharge from medical/dental supervision, and appropriate discharge instructions...
October 15, 2016: Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205598/lyn-regulates-mucus-secretion-and-muc5ac-via-the-stat6-signaling-pathway-during-allergic-airway-inflammation
#15
Xiaoyun Wang, Yin Li, Deyu Luo, Xing Wang, Yun Zhang, Zhigang Liu, Nanshan Zhong, Min Wu, Guoping Li
Hypersecretion of mucus is an important component of airway remodeling and contributes to the mucus plugs and airflow obstruction associated with severe asthma phenotypes. Lyn has been shown to down-regulate allergen-induced airway inflammation. However, the role of Lyn in mucin gene expression remains unresolved. In this study, we first demonstrate that Lyn overexpression decreased the mucus hypersecretion and levels of the muc5ac transcript in mice exposed to ovalbumin (OVA). Lyn overexpression also decreased the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the levels of IL-13 and IL-4 in OVA-challenged airways...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204920/a-review-of-congenital-lung-malformations-with-a-simplified-classification-system-for-clinical-and-research-use
#16
REVIEW
Michael Seear, Jennifer Townsend, Amy Hoepker, Douglas Jamieson, Deborah McFadden, Patrick Daigneault, William Glomb
PURPOSE: Congenital lung abnormalities are rare malformations increasingly detected early by prenatal ultrasound. Whether management of these frequently asymptomatic lesions should be surgical or conservative is an unresolved issue. The necessary prospective studies are limited by the absence of a widely accepted practical classification system. Our aim was to develop a simple, clinically relevant system for classifying and studying congenital lung abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We based our proposed grouping on a detailed analysis of clinical, radiological, and histological data from well-documented cases, plus an extensive review of the literature...
February 15, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204876/continuous-positive-airway-pressure-adherence-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-symptomatic-bph
#17
Ramesh V V S Metta, Awais Zaka, Vincent C Lee, M Jeffery Mador
Purpose To determine the short-term and long-term adherence rates with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in sleep apnea patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) compared to matched controls. Methods A case-control retrospective analysis was performed in a veterans affairs hospital. All symptomatic patients with BPH (n = 107) ever started on CPAP therapy between 2006 and 2012 were compared with controls matched for severity of sleep apnea (AHI). Adherence measures were obtained at the third and twelfth month visits...
February 16, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203766/vision-guided-placement-of-supraglottic-airway-device-prevents-airway-obstruction-a-prospective-audit
#18
A A J Van Zundert, S P Gatt, C M Kumar, T C R V Van Zundert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203745/spontaneous-respiration-using-intravenous-anaesthesia-and-hi-flow-nasal-oxygen-strive-hi-maintains-oxygenation-and-airway-patency-during-management-of-the-obstructed-airway-an-observational-study
#19
A W G Booth, K Vidhani, P K Lee, C-M Thomsett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203170/primary-ewing-s-sarcoma-of-the-sinonasal-tract-a-case-report
#20
Tomoharu Suzuki, Ryuji Yasumatsu, Torahiko Nakashima, Shuji Arita, Hidetaka Yamamoto, Takashi Nakagawa
A 23-year-old male presented with a 3-month history of left purulent rhinorrhea, progressive nasal obstruction, and intermittent epistaxis. A fiberoptic examination revealed a large vascular polypoid mass completely filling the left nasal cavity. CT and MRI scans showed a large hypervascular mass involving the left nasal airway, maxillary antrum, and the anterior ethmoid cells. There was no bony erosion or contiguous spread, and the remaining sinuses, orbit, and cranial fossa were uninvolved. The patient underwent complete removal of the mass via an external lateral rhinotomy approach...
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
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