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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245072/phloretin-attenuates-mucus-hypersecretion-and-airway-inflammation-induced-by-cigarette-smoke
#1
Hao Wang, Ting Yang, Tao Wang, Nanya Hao, Yongchun Shen, Yanqiu Wu, Zhicheng Yuan, Lei Chen, Fuqiang Wen
BACKGROUNDS: Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced airway mucus hypersecretion and inflammation are the prominent features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As an anti-inflammatory flavonoid, phloretin was found to be involved in various inflammatory disorders such as sepsis. In this study, the effects of phloretin on CS-induced airway mucin secretion and inflammation were investigated in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Phloretin dissolved in 1% DMSO was daily injected intraperitoneally to mice, which were then exposed to CS for four weeks...
December 12, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243273/long-term-use-of-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-therapy-in-coronary-artery-disease-patients-with-nonsleepy-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#2
Faith S Luyster, Patrick J Strollo, Erik Thunström, Yüksel Peker
BACKGROUND: Excessive daytime sleepiness is a frequent symptom of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and has been proposed as a motivator for adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. However, excessive daytime sleepiness is absent in many patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and concomitant OSA. We evaluated long-term use of CPAP and predictors of CPAP use in nonsleepy and sleepy OSA patients from a CAD cohort. HYPOTHESIS: Long-term CPAP use is lower in CAD patients with nonsleepy OSA vs sleepy OSA...
December 14, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243157/why-is-a-prone-sleeping-position-dangerous-for-certain-infants
#3
Roger W Byard, Fiona Bright, Robert Vink
The prone (face down) sleeping position is known to be associated with a significantly increased risk of sudden and unexpected death in infancy (sudden infant death syndrome or SIDS), however, the reasons for this are unclear. Suggested mechanisms have involved suffocation from occlusion of the external airways by soft bedding/pillows or from flattening of the nose with backward displacement of the tongue, rebreathing of carbon dioxide, blunting of arousal responses with decreased cardiac responses to auditory stimulation, diaphragmatic splinting or fatigue, lowering of vasomotor tone with tachycardia, nasopharyngeal bacterial overgrowth, overheating, alteration of sleep patterns, compromise of cerebral blood flow and upper airway obstruction from distortion of nasal cartilages...
December 14, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242911/comparison-of-airflow-between-spreader-grafts-and-butterfly-grafts-using-computational-flow-dynamics-in-a-cadaveric-model
#4
Bryan M Brandon, Grace K Austin, Gita Fleischman, Saikat Basu, Julia S Kimbell, William W Shockley, J Madison Clark
Importance: Nasal valve compromise is a major cause of nasal obstruction, and multiple methods have been developed to address it. Objective: To compare nasal airflow resistance, airflow partitioning, and mucosal cooling (heat flux) before and after 2 surgical interventions, butterfly and spreader graft placement, used to treat nasal valve compromise. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cadaveric tissue study, 4 fresh cadaveric heads underwent both spreader graft and butterfly graft surgical procedures in alternating sequence in March 2016...
December 14, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242030/large-retropharyngeal-haematoma-airway-management-with-airtraq%C3%A2-laryngoscope
#5
M D Mira, M I Valldeperas, A Socias, H Sarasíbar, J L Aguilar Sánchez
Retropharyngeal haematoma is a life-threatening clinical situation that can lead to a potential obstruction of the upper airway and requires rapid diagnosis. Clinicaly, it can be presented in different ways, depending on its size and growing speed. The first measure is to protect and manage the airway: in most cases this is a difficult airway situation. A retropharyngeal haematoma can be formed due to a previous traumatic history, with or without associated cervical fracture. Treatment of the haematoma is conservative in most cases, with close monitoring until it is reabsorbed in 3-4 weeks, although they can sometimes require surgical evacuation...
December 11, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241015/airway-epithelial-progenitors-and-the-natural-history-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#6
Renat Shaykhiev
n/a.
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240514/menopausal-asthma-much-ado-about-nothing-an-observational-study
#7
Katarzyna Bialek-Gosk, Marta Maskey-Warzechowska, Rafal Krenke, Marta Dabrowska, Magdalena Paplinska-Goryca, Patrycja Nejman-Gryz, Joanna Domagala-Kulawik, Tadeusz Przybylowski, Ryszarda Chazan
OBJECTIVE: Menopausal asthma is considered a distinct asthma phenotype. Our aim was to identify potential specific features of asthma in postmenopausal women in a cohort of Polish females. METHODS: Asthma severity and control, pulmonary function, exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), peripheral blood and induced sputum (IS) differential cell count were compared in three groups: women with premenopausal asthma (group 1), menopausal women with pre-existing asthma (group 2A) and menopausal women with asthma onset in the perimenopausal or menopausal period (group 2B)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238992/an-innovative-solution-for-t-tube-obstruction-the-tracheostomy-customized-stent-combination
#8
Ravindra M Mehta, Abhinav Singla, Rajani S Bhat, Rasika Rao, Ritesh Agarwal
The Montgomery T-tube (MTT) is a useful tool for post-tracheostomy tracheal stenosis. However, MTTs can get blocked. We present a case series of life-threatening MTT blockage, wherein a split-function option was implemented, which was a customized silicone Dumon stent above the tracheostomy to maintain both airway and phonation. This tracheostomy-customized stent combination serves the same function as an MTT, with a greater margin of safety due to the easy suctioning capacity of the tracheostomy. With a fenestrated tracheostomy and stent above, speech is effectively preserved...
December 14, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238683/flexible-laryngoscopy-in-management-of-congenital-stridor
#9
Prasanna Kumar Saravanam, Vinoth Manimaran
The incidence of congenital stridor is on rise due to improved neonate and infant survival rate. The gold standard investigation for evaluation of stridor is rigid laryngotracheobronchoscopy, but this is invasive and requires general anesthesia. Flexible fibreoptic laryngoscopy, a relatively simple and less invasive procedure can be done under topical anaesthesia for evaluation of stridor. In this study, we have presented our experience of flexible laryngoscopy in children with congenital stridor, their results and management...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238576/a-case-of-legionella-pneumonia-caused-by-home-use-of-continuous-positive-airway-pressure
#10
Ruby Schnirman, Nasifa Nur, Alice Bonitati, Gerardo Carino
A 67-year-old woman with morbid obesity and severe obstructive sleep apnea presented to the emergency department with 2 days of productive cough, fever, shortness of breath and loose stools. A chest x-ray showed extensive bilateral infiltrates, and she was quickly intubated for acute hypoxic respiratory failure. A urine legionella antigen test was positive, and she was admitted to the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of severe legionella pneumonia. She improved over the next week with a course of levofloxacin...
2017: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237658/emergency-salpingectomy-for-ruptured-ectopic-pregnancy-in-patient-with-melnick-needles-syndrome-a-rare-otopalatodigital-syndrome
#11
Mark Zachary Johnson, Cormac Francis Mullins, Declan Keane, Ingrid Browne
Melnick-Needles syndrome (M-NS) is a rare genetic disorder which primarily affects skeletal developments. M-NS may also affect the cardiorespiratory and renal systems. A 35 kg patient presented complaining of abdominal pain. Following a positive pregnancy test and ultrasound examination, she was diagnosed with a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. She had a significant background history of M-NS, obstructive sleep apnoea (with narrow gauge tracheostomy in situ), obstructive lung disease and scoliosis. She received fluid resuscitation, and the case was managed using an open salpingectomy and clot evacuation under combined spinal/epidural anaesthesia...
December 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237457/the-role-of-src-erk1-2-kinases-in-inspiratory-resistive-breathing-induced-acute-lung-injury-and-inflammation
#12
Dimitrios Toumpanakis, Vyronia Vassilakopoulou, Ioanna Sigala, Panagiotis Zacharatos, Ioanna Vraila, Vassiliki Karavana, Stamatios Theocharis, Theodoros Vassilakopoulos
BACKGROUND: Inspiratory resistive breathing (IRB), a hallmark of obstructive airway diseases, is associated with large negative intrathoracic pressures, due to strenuous contractions of the inspiratory muscles. IRB is shown to induce lung injury in previously healthy animals. Src is a multifunctional kinase that is activated in the lung by mechanical stress. ERK1/2 kinase is a downstream target of Src. We hypothesized that Src is activated in the lung during IRB, mediates ERK1/2 activation and IRB-induced lung injury...
December 13, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234869/a-controlled-trial-of-inhaled-bronchodilators-in-familial-dysautonomia
#13
Bat-El Bar-Aluma, Ori Efrati, Horacio Kaufmann, Jose-Alberto Palma, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann
BACKGROUND: Chronic lung disease is a leading cause of premature death in patients with familial dysautonomia (FD). A significant number of patients have obstructive airway disease, yet it is not known whether this is pharmacologically reversible. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial comparing the beta 2 agonist albuterol with the muscarinic blocker ipratropium bromide in patients homozygous for the IKBKAP founder mutation...
December 12, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233518/nasal-patency-and-otorhinolaryngologic-orofacial-features-in-children
#14
Jovana de Moura Milanesi, Luana Cristina Berwig, Luiz Henrique Schuch, Rodrigo Agne Ritzel, Ana Maria Toniolo da Silva, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues Corrêa
INTRODUCTION: Nasal obstruction is a common symptom in childhood, related to rhinitis and pharyngeal tonsil hypertrophy. In the presence of nasal obstruction, nasal patency may be reduced, and nasal breathing is replaced by mouth breathing. Orofacial and otorhinolaryngologic changes are related to this breathing mode. Objective evaluation of upper airways may be obtained through nasal patency measurement. OBJECTIVE: To compare nasal patency and otorhinolaryngologic-orofacial features in children...
November 21, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233151/suppression-of-ptpn6-exacerbates-aluminum-oxide-nanoparticle-induced-copd-like-lesions-in-mice-through-activation-of-stat-pathway
#15
Xiaobo Li, Hongbao Yang, Shenshen Wu, Qingtao Meng, Hao Sun, Runze Lu, Jian Cui, Yuxin Zheng, Wen Chen, Rong Zhang, Michael Aschner, Rui Chen
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nanoparticles can deposit in the deep lung where they interact with pulmonary cells. Despite numerous studies on pulmonary nanotoxicity, detailed molecular mechanisms of specific nanomaterial-induced lung injury have yet to be identified. RESULTS: Using whole-body dynamic inhalation model, we studied the interactions between aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) and the pulmonary system in vivo. We found that seven-day-exposure to Al2O3 NPs resulted in emphysema and small airway remodeling in murine lungs, accompanied by enhanced inflammation and apoptosis...
December 12, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233147/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-are-downregulated-by-glucocorticosteroids-in-lungs-in-an-equine-model-of-asthma
#16
Amandine Vargas, Roxane Boivin, Patricia Cano, Yoana Murcia, Isabelle Bazin, Jean-Pierre Lavoie
BACKGROUND: Severe neutrophilic asthma is poorly responsive to glucocorticosteroids (GC). Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) within the lungs have been associated with the severity of airway obstruction and inflammation in asthma, and were found to be unaffected by GC in vitro. As IL-17 is overexpressed in neutrophilic asthma and contributes to steroid insensitivity in different cell types, we hypothesized that NETs formation in asthmatic airways would be resistant to GC through an IL-17 mediated pathway...
December 12, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232460/travel-with-cpap-machines-how-frequent-and-what-are-the-problems
#17
Richard Bodington, Owen Johnson, Pippa Carveth-Johnson, Shoaib Faruqi
Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome is a common condition for which continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) is the standard treatment. The condition affects a population of which a substantial proportion will be travelling. Methods: We use a questionnaire survey of CPAP users to gain understanding regarding the behaviours, attitudes and problems surrounding travel with CPAP machines during travel and while abroad. All CPAP patients on our database at a UK district general hospital reviewed over a period of 4 years were sent a postal questionnaire...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230286/asthma-mimic-case-report-and-literature-review-of-vocal-cord-nodule-associated-with-wheezing
#18
Muhammad Kashif, Tushi Singh, Ahsan Aslam, Misbahuddin Khaja
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, usually characterized by chronic airway inflammation. Various clinical conditions can mimic asthma, such as foreign body aspiration, subglottic stenosis, congestive heart failure, diffuse panbronchiolitis, aortic arch anomalies, reactive airway dysfunction syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, retrosternal goiter, vocal cord tumors, other airway tumors, and vocal cord dysfunction. Upper airway obstruction can be a life-threatening emergency. Here, we present the case of a 58-year-old female with recurrent hospital visits for wheezing and exacerbations of asthma, who was later found to have a vocal cord nodule confirmed to be squamous cell carcinoma, which was mimicking like asthma...
2017: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229474/accuracy-of-a-new-algorithm-to-identify-asthma-copd-overlap-aco-patients-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-airway-disease
#19
Luis Pérez de Llano, Borja G Cosío, Marc Miravitlles, Vicente Plaza
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize the clinical, functional and inflammatory features of patients diagnosed diagnosed with ACO according to a new algorithm and to compare them with those of other chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD) categories (asthma and COPD). METHODS: ACO was diagnosed in a cohort of COAD patients in those patients with COPD who were either diagnosed with current asthma or showed significant blood eosinophilia (≥300cells/μl) and/or a very positive bronchodilator response (>400ml and >15% in FEV1)...
December 8, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229347/post-operative-stridor-and-acute-respiratory-failure-after-parkinson-s-disease-deep-brain-stimulator-placement-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#20
Mi Wang, Wael Saasouh, Thomas Botsford, Allen Keebler, Andrew Zura, Michael S Benninger, Rafi Avitsian
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain is commonly thought of as a motion disorder, but it can have significant effect on the respiratory system. Respiratory failure is the most common cause of death in these patients, but it can also affect laryngeal function causing dysphonia, dysphagia, and dysarthric speech.. Acute upper airway obstruction is a very rare finding in PD, especially in the perioperative settings...
December 8, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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