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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441807/alterations-of-igf-1-complement-c3-and-superoxide-dismutase-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea-hypopnea-syndrome
#1
Xiao Wang, Yufeng Wang, Zechuan Cai, Xiaoxia Lu, Zhenxing Li, Yun Chen, Guoliang Zu, Taoping Li
AIM: To evaluate various biomarkers of metabolism, immunity and inflammation in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). MATERIALS & METHODS: After overnight polysomnography, blood was collected from 292 OSAHS patients or healthy volunteers. Serum content of inflammatory, immune, metabolic biomarkers were investigated. In addition, the effects of 1-month continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) were studied in moderate/severe OSAHS. RESULTS: C3, serum total complement activity, superoxide dismutase, uric acid were significantly higher in moderate/severe OSAHS than that in no/mild OSAHS...
February 14, 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440942/mandibular-positioning-techniques-to-improve-sleep-quality-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-current-perspectives
#2
REVIEW
Sofie Wilkens Knappe, Liselotte Sonnesen
The purpose of this article is to review 1) mandibular advancement device (MAD) - indication, treatment success, and side effects; 2) maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) surgery of the jaws - indication, treatment success, and side effects; and 3) current perspectives. Both MAD and MMA are administered to increase the upper airway volume and reduce the collapsibility of the upper airway. MAD is noninvasive and is indicated as a first-stage treatment in adult patients with mild-to-moderate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and in patients with severe OSA unable to adhere to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440885/annexin-a1-is-elevated-in-patients-with-copd-and-affects-lung-fibroblast-function
#3
Tianwen Lai, Yanyu Li, Zongjiong Mai, Xiaoxia Wen, Yingying Lv, Zhanqing Xie, Quanchao Lv, Min Chen, Dong Wu, Bin Wu
Purpose: Fibrosis in peripheral airways is responsible for airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Annexin A1 modulates several key biological events during inflammation. However, little is known about its role in airway fibrosis in COPD. We investigated whether levels of Annexin A1 were upregulated in patients with COPD, and whether it promoted airway fibrosis. Methods: We quantified serum Annexin A1 levels in never-smokers (n=12), smokers without COPD (n=11), and smokers with COPD (n=22)...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438939/at-rvd1-repairs-mouse-lung-after-cigarette-smoke-induced-emphysema-via-downregulation-of-oxidative-stress-by-nrf2-keap1-pathway
#4
Sara Vergel Posso, Nicolas Quesnot, João Alfredo Moraes, Lycia Brito-Gitirana, Emanuel Kennedy-Feitosa, Marina Valente Barroso, Luís Cristóvão Porto, Manuella Lanzetti, Samuel Santos Valença
Long-term exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) results in alveolar parenchyma destruction due to chronic inflammatory response and the imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants, and proteases and antiproteases. Emphysema is the main symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Current treatment focuses on relieving respiratory symptoms, and inflammation resolution failure is an important pathophysiological element of the disease. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) synthesized endogenously during resolution processes demonstrated beneficial effects in murine models of airway inflammation...
February 10, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437466/gene-promoter-hypermethylation-detected-in-sputum-predicts-fev1-decline-and-all-cause-mortality-in-smokers
#5
Shuguang Leng, Brenda Diergaarde, Maria A Picchi, David O Wilson, Frank D Gilliland, Jian-Min Yuan, Jill M Siegfried, Steven A Belinsky
RATIONALE: Gene promoter hypermethylation detected in sputum assesses the extent of field cancerization and predicts lung cancer (LC) risk in ever smokers. A rapid decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is a major driver for development of airway obstruction. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of methylation of 12 genes on FEV1 decline and of FEV1 decline on subsequent LC incidence using two independent, longitudinal cohorts (i.e., Lovelace Smokers cohort [LSC] and Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study [PLuSS])...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433716/percutaneous-dilational-tracheostomy
#6
REVIEW
Andrew D Lerner, Lonny Yarmus
Tracheostomy tubes can be inserted surgically or percutaneously via percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT). Tracheostomy is performed for upper airway obstruction, though more often to allow prolonged mechanical ventilation in place of endotracheal tubes. Preparation, performance, and postoperative management for PDT are best provided by a multidisciplinary team. Although PDT is a safe procedure in the hands of experienced operators, both early and late complications can arise. Caution must also be taken during early tracheostomy tube exchange given that immaturity of the stomal tract can risk loss of the airway...
March 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432712/expiratory-flow-limitation-during-mechanical-ventilation
#7
REVIEW
Detajin Junhasavasdikul, Irene Telias, Domenico Luca Grieco, Lu Chen, Cinta Millan Gutierrez, Thomas Piraino, Laurent Brochard
Expiratory flow limitation (EFL) is present when the flow cannot rise despite an increase of the expiratory driving pressure. The mechanisms of EFL are debated but are thought to be related to the collapsibility of small airways. In mechanically ventilated patients, EFL can exist during tidal ventilation, representing an extreme situation where lung volume cannot decrease whatever the expiratory driving forces. It is a key factor for the generation of auto- or intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP or PEEPi) and requires specific management such as positioning and adjustment of external PEEP...
February 9, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431404/hoarseness-in-adults
#8
Steven A House, Eric L Fisher
Hoarseness is a common presentation in primary care practices. Combined with other voice-related changes, it falls under the umbrella diagnosis of dysphonia. Hoarseness has a number of causes, ranging from simple inflammatory processes to less common psychiatric disorders to more serious systemic, neurologic, or cancerous conditions. Medication-induced hoarseness is common and should be considered. The initial evaluation begins with a targeted history and physical examination, while also looking for signs of potential systemic etiologies...
December 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430409/a-novel-and-modified-technique-in-the-prone-position-for-radiotherapy-processes-in-children
#9
Ozkan Onal, Emine Aslanlar, Cansu Ciftci, Merih Onal, Jale Bengi Celik
The i-gel has a thick airway tube and occasionally, achieving the airway can be difficult because of obstruction in the prone position. The authors aimed at solving this problem and used a modified i-gel airway in the prone position for radiotherapy processes in children.
August 2017: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429553/intubation-in-two-patients-with-difficult-airway-management-and-tracheal-stenosis-after-tracheostomy-in-thoracic-surgery
#10
M Granell Gil, P Solís Albamonte, C Córdova Hernández, I Cobo, R Guijarro, J A de Andrés Ibañez
Lung isolation in thoracic surgery is a challenge, this is even more complex in the presence of unknown tracheal stenosis (TS). We report two cases of unknown TS and its airway management. TS appears most frequently after long term intubation close to the endotracheal tube cuff or in the stoma of tracheostomy that appears as a consequence of the granulation tissue after the surgical opening of the trachea. Clinical history, physical examination, difficult intubating predictors and imaging tests (CT scans) are crucial, however most of tracheal stenosis may be unnoticed and symptoms depend on the degree of obstruction...
February 8, 2018: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429028/molecules-of-damage-associated-patterns-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-and-serum-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#11
Beata Brajer-Luftmann, Agata Nowicka, Mariusz Kaczmarek, Magdalena Wyrzykiewicz, Senan Yasar, Tomasz Piorunek, Marcin Grabicki, Magdalena Kostrzewska, Jan Sikora, Halina Batura-Gabryel
Chronic exposure to detrimental environmental factors may induce immunogenic cell death of structural airway cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) is a family of heterogeneous molecules released from injured or dead cells, which activate innate and adaptive immune responses on binding to the pattern recognition receptors on cells. This study seeks to define the content of DAMPs in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum of COPD patients, and the possible association of these molecules with clinical disease features...
February 11, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428733/mice-overexpressing-latent-matrix-metalloproteinase-2-develop-lung-emphysema-after-short-term-exposure-to-cigarette-smoke-extract
#12
Masahiro Onishi, Tetsu Kobayashi, Corina N D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Hajime Fujimoto, Ayshwarya-Lakshmi Chelakkot-Govindalayathil, Yoshinori Takahashi, Taro Yasuma, Kota Nishihama, Masaaki Toda, Yoshiyuki Takei, Osamu Taguchi, Esteban C Gabazza
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the major growing cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, and it is going to become the third most common cause of death by 2020. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is pathologically characterized by lung emphysema and small airway inflammation. Animal models are very important to get insights into the disease pathogenesis but current models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease take a long time to develop. The need of a new model is compelling. In the present study we focus on the role of matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypothesized that lung overexpression of latent matrix metalloproteinases-2 would allow the development of emphysema after short-term exposure to cigarette smoke extract inhalation...
February 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428567/clinical-features-of-fatal-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-that-is-complicated-by-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#13
Xiancheng Chen, Zhuxi Yu, Yajun Qian, Danjiang Dong, Yingying Hao, Ning Liu, Qin Gu
INTRODUCTION: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) has been prevalent in parts of Asia during recent years. However, SFTS with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is rare, and it is important to understand its clinical features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total four cases of SFTS with IPA are reviewed and detailing the disease progression, treatment options, and prognosis were summarized and analyzed. RESULTS: The patients with SFTS-associated IPA first presented with fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and multiple organ failure...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428326/a-modified-definition-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-home-sleep-apnea-testing-after-stroke-or-transient-ischemic-attack
#14
Namita Patel, Afsaneh Raissi, Sara Elias, Maneesha Kamra, Tetyana Kendzerska, Brian J Murray, Mark I Boulos
BACKGROUND: Home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) underestimates obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity. Overnight oxygen desaturation has been shown to be a strong predictor of incident stroke, and may be helpful in determining which patients with lower apnea-hypopnea indices (AHIs) should be offered treatment. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether a modified definition for OSA that uses oxygen desaturation (i.e., AHI 5-14.9 per hour and lowest O2 desaturation ≤88%), as compared to an AHI ≥ 15 per hour, would impact: (1) changes in Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores post-continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) initiation; (2) CPAP compliance rates; and (3) the accuracy of automated versus manual scoring of HSAT...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427987/advances-and-evolving-concepts-in-allergic-asthma
#15
Hui-Ying Tung, Evan Li, Cameron Landers, An Nguyen, Farrah Kheradmand, J Morgan Knight, David B Corry
Allergic asthma is a heterogeneous disorder that defies a unanimously acceptable definition, but is generally recognized through its highly characteristic clinical expression of dyspnea and cough accompanied by clinical data that document reversible or exaggerated airway constriction and obstruction. The generally rising prevalence of asthma in highly industrialized societies despite significant therapeutic advances suggests that the fundamental cause(s) of asthma remain poorly understood. Detailed analyses of both the indoor (built) and outdoor environments continue to support the concept that not only inhaled particulates, especially carbon-based particulate pollution, pollens, and fungal elements, but also many noxious gases and chemicals, especially biologically derived byproducts such as proteinases, are essential to asthma pathogenesis...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427967/pleiotropic-effects-of-hypoglycemic-agents-implications-in-asthma-and-copd
#16
REVIEW
Paola Rogliani, Josuel Ora, Nicola Di Daniele, Davide Lauro
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex multifactorial disease due to the interaction between environmental noxae and genetic predisposition. Furthermore, an increased association between DM, especially Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and the onset of pulmonary function impairment with a bronchial hyperresponsiveness has been documented. DM is a risk factor for accelerated decline in FEV1 and the development of asthma and COPD. The increased blood glucose concentrations along with higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation can influence the pulmonary function and, since hypoglycemic drugs can act on these different defects we can hypothesize their direct effect on obstructive pulmonary diseases...
February 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427221/use-of-inhaled-corticosteroids-and-the-risk-of-lung-cancer-the-hunt-study
#17
Kirsti Sørli, Stine Marie Thorvaldsen, Peter Hatlen
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a central role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer carcinogenesis. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) reduce inflammation. This study has investigated whether ICS use is associated with a lower risk of lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2 Survey, 1995-1997) were merged with The Cancer Registry of Norway and Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. From a total of 65,215 participants, those with chronic airway inflammation, defined by FEV1% < 70 and/or chronic cough and expectorate phlegm, were included (N = 4136)...
February 9, 2018: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426026/lung-health-in-era-of-climate-change-and-dust-storms
#18
REVIEW
Michael D Schweitzer, Andrew S Calzadilla, Oriana Salamo, Arash Sharifi, Naresh Kumar, Gregory Holt, Michael Campos, Mehdi Mirsaeidi
Dust storms are strong winds which lead to particle exposure over extensive areas. These storms influence air quality on both a local and global scale which lead to both short and long-term effects. The frequency of dust storms has been on the rise during the last decade. Forecasts suggest that their incidence will increase as a response to the effects of climate change and anthropogenic activities. Elderly people, young children, and individuals with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases are at the greatest risk for health effects of dust storms...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425754/does-the-medical-comorbidity-profile-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-patients-treated-with-maxillomandibular-advancement-differ-from-that-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-patients-managed-nonsurgically
#19
Richard Ngo, Elaina Pullano, Zachary S Peacock, Edward T Lahey, Meredith August
PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients with retrognathia and measurable anatomic airway determinants may represent a subset of OSA patients and have distinct comorbidity profiles. Our aim was to compare the medical comorbidities of OSA patients managed surgically with maxillomandibular advancement with those of nonsurgical patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional retrospective study, patients for both cohorts were identified through the Massachusetts General Hospital oral and maxillofacial surgery data registry and the Massachusetts General Hospital Research Patient Data Registry...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425382/the-beneficial-effect-of-weight-reduction-on-adverse-cardiovascular-outcomes-following-bariatric-surgery-is-attenuated-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#20
Ahmed Dalmar, Maharaj Singh, Bennet Pandey, Christopher Stoming, Zoe Heis, Khawaja Afzal Ammar, M Fuad Jan, Indrajit Choudhuri, Thomas Y Chua, Jasbir Sra, A Jamil Tajik, Arshad Jahangir
Weight loss after bariatric surgery is associated with reduction in adverse cardiovascular outcomes; however, the impact of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on reduction of cardiovascular outcomes after bariatric surgery in morbidly obese patients is not known. We retrospectively assessed differences in cardiovascular events after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB)-induced weight loss in patients with and without OSA before and after propensity score matching for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and major comorbidities between the two groups and determined predictors of poor outcomes...
February 7, 2018: Sleep
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