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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103553/data-driven-affine-deformation-estimation-and-correction-in-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#1
Vincent Van Nieuwenhove, Jan De Beenhouwer, Thomas De Schryver, Luc Van Hoorebeke, Jan Sijbers
In Computed Tomography (CT), motion and deformation during the acquisition lead to streak artefacts and blurring in the reconstructed images. To remedy these artefacts, we introduce an efficient algorithm to estimate and correct for global affine deformations directly on the cone beam projections. The proposed technique is data-driven and thus removes the need for markers and/or a tracking system. A relationship between affine transformations and the cone beam transform is proven and used to correct the projections...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103528/topical-vaccination-with-super-stable-ready-to-use-nanovesicles
#2
Ayelen Tatiana Caimi, Federico Parra, Marcelo Alexander de Farias, Rodrigo Villares Portugal, Ana Paula Perez, Eder Lilia Romero, Maria Jose Morilla
Ultradeformable archaeosomes (UDA) are nanovesicles made of total polar archaeolipids (TPA) from the archaea Halorubrum tebenquichense, soybean phosphatidylcholine and sodium cholate (3:3:1w/w). Fresh dispersions of UDA including different type of antigens are acknowledged as efficient topical vaccination agents. UDA dispersions however, if manufactured for pharmaceutical use, have to maintain colloidal stability upon liposomicidal processes such as sterilization and lyophilization (SLRUDA), needed to extend shelf life during storage...
December 26, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103490/adsorption-of-4-6-dimethyldibenzothiophene-and-collidine-over-moo3-%C3%AE-al2o3-catalysts-with-different-pore-structures
#3
Di Zhang, Lijun Xue, Yongqiang Xu, Lijuan Song, Xinmei Liu
Mesoporous γ-Al2O3 supports with different pore structures were prepared by the cation-anion double hydrolysis method. Based on these samples, MoO3/γ-Al2O3 catalysts were made via impregnation. The adsorptions of 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) and collidine over the supports and catalysts were studied by FT-IR. The supports or catalysts with larger pores can adsorb more 4,6-DMDBT. The methyl groups on adsorbate molecules are very close to the sulfur atom, resulting in apparent steric hindrance. Increasing the pore size can promote the interaction between the adsorbates and supports or catalysts, enhancing the CC bond and weakening the CS bond of 4,6-DMDBT...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103190/learning-supervised-topic-models-for-classification-and-regression-from-crowds
#4
Filipe Rodrigues, Mariana Lourenco, Bernardete Ribeiro, Francisco Pereira
The growing need to analyze large collections of documents has led to great developments in topic modeling. Since documents are frequently associated with other related variables, such as labels or ratings, much interest has been placed on supervised topic models. However, the nature of most annotation tasks, prone to ambiguity and noise, often with high volumes of documents, deem learning under a single-annotator assumption unrealistic or unpractical for most real-world applications. In this article, we propose two supervised topic models, one for classification and another for regression problems, which account for the heterogeneity and biases among different annotators that are encountered in practice when learning from crowds...
January 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103051/standoff-laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopy-libs-using-a-miniature-wide-field-of-view-spatial-heterodyne-spectrometer-with-sub-microsteradian-collection-optics
#5
Patrick D Barnett, Nirmal Lamsal, S Michael Angel
A spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) is described for standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements. The spatial heterodyne LIBS spectrometer (SHLS) is a diffraction grating based interferometer with no moving parts that offers a very large field of view, high light throughput, and high spectral resolution in a small package. The field of view of the SHLS spectrometer is shown to be ∼1° in standoff LIBS measurements. In the SHLS system described here, the collection aperture was defined by the 10 mm diffraction gratings in the SHS and standoff LIBS measurements were made up to 20 m with no additional collection optics, corresponding to a collection solid angle of 0...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103041/substituent-effects-on-the-absorption-and-fluorescence-properties-of-anthracene
#6
Salsabil Abou-Hatab, Vincent A Spata, Spiridoula Matsika
Substitution can be used to efficiently tune the photophysical properties of chro- mophores. In this study, we examine the effect of substituents on the absorption and fluorescence properties of anthracene. The effects of mono-, di-, and quad- substitution of electron donating and withdrawing functional groups were explored. In addition, the influence of donor-acceptor substituent pair and the position of substitution were in- vestigated. Eleven functional groups were varied on positions 1, 2 and 9 of anthracene, and on position 6 of 2-methoxyanthracene and 2-carboxyanthracene...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103021/efficient-removal-of-methane-over-the-cobalt-monoxide-doped-aupd-nanocatalysts
#7
Shaohua Xie, Yuxi Liu, Jiguang Deng, Simiao Zang, Zhenhua Zhang, Hamidreza Arandiyan, Hongxing Dai
Catalytic total oxidation of CH4 at a relatively low temperature over the precious metal (e.g., Pd-, Rh- or Pt)-based catalyst is believed to be a potential technology for the removal of greenhouse gas CH4. The traditional Pd-based catalysts for CH4 combustion reported in the literature tend to deactivate at high temperatures (> 600 °C), because the PdOx active phase is easily changed into aggregated metallic Pd nanoparticles (NPs). The high cost of Pd also limits its wide applications. In order to overcome such drawbacks, we herein design a novel pathway by introducing a certain amount of CoO to the supported Au-Pd alloy NPs to generate high-performance Au-Pd-xCoO/3DOM Co3O4 (x is the Co/Pd molar ratio) catalysts...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103009/fully-automated-one-step-synthesis-of-single-transcript-talen-pairs-using-a-biological-foundry
#8
Ran Chao, Jing Liang, Ipek Tasan, Tong Si, Linyang Ju, Huimin Zhao
Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) is a programmable genome editing tool with wide applications. Since TALENs perform cleavage of DNA as heterodimers, a pair of TALENs must be synthesized for each target genome locus. Conventionally, TALEN pairs are either expressed on separate vectors or synthesized separately and then subcloned to the same vector. Neither approach allows high-throughput construction of TALEN libraries for large-scale applications. Here we present an assembly scheme to synthesize and express a pair of TALENs in a single transcript format with the help of a P2A self-cleavage sequence...
January 19, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102938/low-energy-catalytic-electrolysis-for-simultaneously-hydrogen-evolution-and-lignin-depolymerization
#9
Xu Du, Wei Liu, Zhe Zhang, Arie Mulyadi, Alex Brittain, Jian Gong, Yulin Deng
Hereby we present a novel proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis process in which lignin was used as the hydrogen source at anode for hydrogen production. Either polyoxometalate (POM) or FeCl3 was used as the catalysts and charge transfer agents in anode. Over 90% Faraday efficiency was achieved. In a thermal insulation reactor, the heat energy can be maintained at a very low stage for continuous operation. Compared to the best alkaline water electrolysis reported in literature, the electrical energy consumption could be 40% lower with novel lignin electrolysis method...
January 19, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102837/precise-and-efficient-scarless-genome-editing-in-stem-cells-using-correct
#10
Dylan Kwart, Dominik Paquet, Shaun Teo, Marc Tessier-Lavigne
CRISPR/Cas9 is a promising tool for genome-editing DNA in cells with single-base-pair precision, which allows novel in vitro models of human disease to be generated-e.g., in pluripotent stem cells. However, the accuracy of intended sequence changes can be severely diminished by CRISPR/Cas9's propensity to re-edit previously modified loci, causing unwanted mutations (indels) alongside intended changes. Here we describe a genome-editing framework termed consecutive re-guide or re-Cas steps to erase CRISPR/Cas-blocked targets (CORRECT), which, by exploiting the use of highly efficacious CRISPR/Cas-blocking mutations in two rounds of genome editing, enables accurate, efficient and scarless introduction of specific base changes-for example, in human induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells...
February 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102556/structurally-stable-attractive-nanoscale-emulsions-with-dipole-dipole-interaction-driven-interdrop-percolation
#11
Kyounghee Shin, Gyeonghyeon Gong, Jonas Cuadrado, Serim Jeon, Mintae Seo, Hong Sung Choi, Jae Sung Hwang, Youngbok Lee, Alberto Fernandez-Nieves, Jin Woong Kim
This study introduces an extremely stable attractive nanoscale emulsion fluid, in which the amphiphilic block copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL), is tightly packed with lecithin, thereby forming a mechanically robust thin-film at the oil-water interface. The molecular association of PEO-b-PCL with lecithin is critical for formation of a tighter and denser molecular assembly at the interface, which is systematically confirmed by T2 relaxation and DSC analyses. Moreover, our suspension rheology studies also reflect the interdroplet attractions over a wide volume fraction range of the dispersed oil phase; this results in a percolated network of stable drops that exhibit no signs of coalescence or phase separation...
January 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102469/lanosterol-suppresses-the-aggregation-and-cytotoxicity-of-misfolded-proteins-linked-with-neurodegenerative-diseases
#12
Arun Upadhyay, Ayeman Amanullah, Ribhav Mishra, Amit Kumar, Amit Mishra
Accumulation of misfolded or aberrant proteins in neuronal cells is linked with neurodegeneration and other pathologies. Which molecular mechanisms fail and cause inappropriate folding of proteins and what is their relationship to cellular toxicity is not well known. How does it happen and what are the probable therapeutic or molecular approaches to counter them are also not clear. Here, we demonstrate that treatment of lanosterol diminishes aberrant proteotoxic aggregation and mitigates their cytotoxicity via induced expression of co-chaperone CHIP and elevated autophagy...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102361/effectiveness-and-tolerability-of-different-recommended-doses-of-ppis-and-h2ras-in-gerd-network-meta-analysis-and-grade-system
#13
Chao Zhang, Joey S W Kwong, Rui-Xia Yuan, Hao Chen, Chang Xu, Yi-Pin Wang, Gong-Li Yang, Jin-Zhu Yan, Le Peng, Xian-Tao Zeng, Hong Weng, Jie Luo, Yu-Ming Niu
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine-2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) are used for gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD); however, the clinical evidence for treatment is poor. We evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of different doses of PPIs, H2RAs and placebo in adults with GERD. Six online databases were searched through September 1, 2016. All related articles were included and combined with a Bayesian network meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The GRADE systems were employed to assess the main outcome...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102038/edta-is-superior-to-dtt-treatment-for-overcoming-the-prozone-effect-in-hla-antibody-testing
#14
J Wang, J R Meade, N K Brown, J G Weidner, S R Marino
A limitation of solid-phase human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody assays is the falsely low/negative result of samples with high-titer antibodies, a phenomenon known as the prozone effect. Here we compared the efficacy of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment of serum samples in overcoming the prozone effect. A total of 21 serum samples were treated with either EDTA or DTT before HLA single antigen bead assay. The efficacy of prozone effect reversal, compared with untreated samples, was examined on fourfold, serially diluted samples, from neat to 1:256, using PBS as diluent...
February 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101909/efficient-transdifferentiation-of-human-dermal-fibroblasts-into-skeletal-muscle
#15
Selwa Mokhtar Boularaoui, Khaled M A Abdel-Raouf, Noaf Salah Ali Alwahab, Megan E Kondash, George A Truskey, Jeremy Choon Meng Teo, Nicolas Christoforou
Skeletal muscle holds significant regenerative potential but is incapable of restoring tissue loss caused due to severe injury, congenital defects, or tumor ablation. Consequently, skeletal muscle models are being developed to study human pathophysiology and regeneration. Their physiological accuracy, however, is hampered by the lack of an easily accessible human cell source that is readily expandable and capable of efficient differentiation. MYOD1, a master gene regulator, induces transdifferentiation of a variety of cell types into skeletal muscle, although inefficiently in human cells...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101844/prediction-of-diabetes-remission-at-long-term-following-biliopancreatic-diversion
#16
Nicola Scopinaro, Gian Franco Adami, Paolo Bruzzi, Renzo Cordera
IMPORTANCE: In obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), the marked weight loss following bariatric surgery is accompanied in a consistent number of cases by T2DM resolution or control. The clinical need of preoperative parameters reliable in predicting a positive metabolic outcome at long term following the operation has then emerged. OBSERVATION: A cohort of 135 consecutive T2DM patients with a wide range of body mass index (BMI) at more than 5 years following biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) was considered...
January 18, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101770/factors-controlling-fetal-echocardiography-determine-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-isolated-ventricular-septal-defect
#17
Jiao Chen, Liang Xie, Han-Min Liu
BACKGROUND: Fetal echocardiography (FECG) is a key screening tool for prenatal cardiac abnormalities. Herein, we examined the ultrasonic factors determining prenatal ultrasonic diagnosis of isolated ventricular septal defect (IVSD). METHODS: The diagnostic role of ultrasonic factors was investigated in patients in middle or late pregnancy, diagnosed with IVSD by FECG and confirmed using postnatal echocardiography. RESULTS: One hundred and six patients with IVSD were enrolled; the majority had perimembranous VSD...
January 19, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101753/effect-and-safety-of-paroxetine-combined-with-zolpidem-in-treatment-of-primary-insomnia
#18
Z H Yu, X H Xu, S D Wang, M F Song, Y Liu, Y Yin, H J Mao, G Z Tang
PURPOSE: Primary insomnia is a persistent and recurrent disorder as well as a risk factor for depression. The aim of this study was to determine whether the zolpidem combined with paroxetine would be effective in the treatment of patients with primary insomnia. METHODS: Ninety patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for primary insomnia were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of treatment with zolpidem combined with paroxetine (the combined treatment group, n = 45) or zolpidem combined with placebo (the control group, n = 45)...
January 18, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101720/enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-programs-for-liver-resection-a-meta-analysis
#19
Cheng Wang, Guoqun Zheng, Wenlong Zhang, Fabiao Zhang, Shangdong Lv, Aidong Wang, Zheping Fang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Due to the limited number of high-quality randomized controlled trials on enhanced recovery after surgery for hepatectomy, previous reviews have not been sufficiently comprehensive. Our objectives were to evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of enhanced recovery after surgery programs and traditional care in patients undergoing open or laparoscopic surgery and to assess the optimized items for hepatectomy. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases for all the relevant studies regardless of study design...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101636/a-slow-opportunist-physiological-and-growth-responses-of-an-obligate-understory-plant-to-patch-cut-harvesting
#20
Jennifer L Chandler
Understory light environments change rapidly following timber harvest, and while many understory species utilize and benefit from the additional light, this response is not ubiquitous in shade-obligate species. I examined the effects of patch cut timber harvest on the physiology and growth of an obligate forest understory species to determine if disturbances via timber harvest are physiological stressors or whether such disturbances provide physiological benefits and growth increases in understory species. Forest canopy structure, along with photosynthesis, respiration, water use efficiency, stomatal conductance, and growth rates of American ginseng were quantified one summer before and two summers after patch cut timber harvest...
January 19, 2017: Oecologia
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