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Endobronchial obstruction

Haisam Abid, Junaid Khan, Nazir Lone
We report a case of Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting as an endobronchial mass in a 40-year-old man with history of 8 months of non-specific symptoms like cough, fatigue and weight loss. Initially he was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for suspicion of pneumonia without recovery. Radiographic work-up showed cavitary consolidation of the upper lobe of the left lung, followed by bronchoscopy which showed obstructing mass of the upper lobe of the left lung mimicking primary lung carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining of the specimen was suggestive of Hodgkin's lymphoma...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Takayasu Ito, Masahide Oki, Hideo Saka, Yasuhiro Kondoh, Tomoki Kimura, Kensuke Kataoka
A 71-year-old man, who had received long-term oxygen therapy for respiratory failure caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, had an enlarged mediastinal lymph node for one year. As his lung function was poor, we tried performing endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration under non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for diagnosis but could not obtain sufficient specimens. Later, we performed an endoscopic ultrasound with bronchoscope-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-B-FNA) using a transesophageal approach...
May 2018: Respirology Case Reports
Geak Poh Tan, John Arputhan Abisheganaden, Soon Keng Goh, Akash Verma
Bronchial stenosis is known to complicate endobronchial tuberculosis despite medical therapy. It is often associated with dyspnoea. In severe cases, bronchial stenosis results in airflow obstruction, impaired secretion clearance, and can lead to respiratory failure. We present an unusual observation of platypnoea-orthodeoxia syndrome in a young woman with acute atelectasis due to post-tuberculosis bronchial stricture. Imaging revealed complete middle and right lower lobe atelectasis with a partially aerated right upper lobe...
April 2018: Respirology Case Reports
Iván R Caviedes, Gonzalo Labarca, Hugo G de Oliveira, Felix J F Herth, Sebastián Fernandez-Bussy
Endoscopic lung volume reduction is a minimally invasive procedure performed to reduce the space occupied by the emphysemas' lobes. This procedure has been demonstrated to be beneficial for patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and severe hyperinflation. The use of endobronchial valves is increasing, as well as the number of reports of adverse events. The most common complications after the procedure are a pneumothorax, bleeding, infections, the need for valve removal, and valve expulsion...
February 14, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Marwa A Mohamed, Ehab I Mohamed, Samir A Abd El-Kaream, Mohamed I Badawi, Samy H Darwish
BACKGROUND: Evidence is increasing that microRNAs (miR) are particularly important in lung homeostasis and development and have been shown to be involved in many pulmonary diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sarcoidosis, lung cancer (LC) and other smoking-related diseases. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of miR-155 and miR-486-5p in tissues from LC patients and healthy endobronchial mucosa as prognostic biomarkers for diagnosing LC...
February 12, 2018: MicroRNA
Javier Flandes, Francisco J Soto, Rosa Cordovilla, Enrique Cases, Javier Alfayate
Since the publication of the National Emphysema Treatment Trial study, lung volume reduction (LVR) has been considered a therapeutic alternative for patients with advanced obstructive lung disease. The high complication rate of surgical LVR has led to the development of bronchoscopic LVR (BLVR). Of the currently available BLVR alternatives, coils and unidirectional endobronchial valves lead the list. The choice of each device depends on emphysema characteristics and presence of collateral ventilation. Evaluation of these patients at centers with expertise in interventional pulmonology and management of BLVR is strongly recommended...
March 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Mustapha-Kamel Khelloufi, Etienne Loiseau, Marc Jaeger, Nicolas Molinari, Pascal Chanez, Delphine Gras, Annie Viallat
Mucociliary clearance is a biomechanical mechanism of airway protection. It consists of the active transport along the bronchial tree of the mucus, a fluid propelled by the coordinated beating of a myriad of cilia on the epithelial surface of the respiratory tract. The physics of mucus transport is poorly understood because it involves complex phenomena such as long-range hydrodynamic interactions, active collective ciliary motion, and the complex rheology of mucus. We propose a quantitative physical analysis of the ciliary activity and mucus transport on a large panel of human bronchial cultures from control subjects, patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease obtained from endobronchial biopsies...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Saibin Wang, Junwei Tu, Yong Song
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to establish a porcine model of reversible obstruction of endobronchial foreign body (FB) and to assess the natural pulmonary reexpansion process using radiology and histopathology after removal of the bronchial FB. METHODS: A metal stent was placed in the right lower lobe bronchial lumen of 15 pigs by bronchoscopy and removed after 2 weeks of stent retention. Animals were divided into two groups (group I and II), based on when they were sacrificed (week 2 or week 4) after stent removal...
January 29, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Carlos Almeida, Maria João Freitas, Diogo Brandão, José Pedro Assunção
Female, 85 y.o., weighting 60kg, multiple trauma patient. After an initial laparotomy, an emergent thoracotomy was performed using a bronchial blocker for lung isolation (initial active suction was applied). During surgery, bronchial cuff was deflated, causing a self-limited tracheal blood flooding. A second lung isolation was attempted but it was not as effective as initially. Probably, a lung collapse with the same bronchial blocker was impaired in the second attempt because of the obstruction of bronchial blocker lumen by intraoperative endobronchial hemorrhage...
January 13, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Raghav Gupta, Hassan Patail, Mohammad R Al-Ajam
Endobronchial obstruction is a known cause of an unexpandable lung. Endobronchial lesions are usually malignant, however benign cause like hemartoma, lipoma, amyloidosis and neuroendocrine tumors are known. We, hereby present the rare cause of bronchial elastosis presenting as right lower lobe lung collapse.
January 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Vishal Naik, Pui-Ying Iroh Tam, William Gershan, Andrew A Colin, Nadir Demirel
An 11-month-old healthy infant girl was noted to have left lower lobe (LLL) opacities on chest X-ray (CXR) after developing desaturations during an elective cochlear implant surgery. Repeat CXR 10 days later revealed hyperexpansion of the left lung and persistent LLL opacity. Chest computerized tomography revealed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, left mainstem bronchial obstruction, and nodular opacities. Bronchoscopic biopsy of the endobronchial tissue revealed multiple necrotizing granulomas and grew Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, Streptococcus viridans, and Actinomyces odontolyticus...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Mamdouh Khayat, Jawad S Hussain, Jeffrey Forris Beecham Chick, Anthony N Hage, Ravi N Srinivasa
Retained foreign bodies within the stomach and proximal small bowel may be problematic in patients with prior cerebrovascular injury or head, neck and esophageal malignancy, given the increased vulnerability of this patient population to complications from aspiration and increased difficulty of esophagogastroduodenoscopy in cases of tumoral obstruction. This article presents an alternative method for foreign body retrieval through an existing gastrostomy tract, which offers the benefits of fast procedure times, reduction in radiation dose and fluoroscopy time, and allows for safer retrieval of foreign bodies by using direct visualization...
January 2018: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
Katherine Khvilivitzky, Puja N Trivedi, P Michael McFadden
A case of tracheobronchial stenosis due to tuberculosis in a young woman is presented. Compromised pulmonary function due to near-total obstruction of the proximal left main bronchus was diagnosed. Treatment options included surgical resection, endobronchial dilation or stenting, and argon photocoagulation. An approach was chosen to address symptoms without aggressive resection or commitment to stenting. She remains monitored and, while possibly committed to future intervention, no bridges have been burned with respect to more definitive and invasive therapies...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Semih Halezeroğlu
We present here a 47-year old male patient who had a typical carcinoid tumor located at the orifice of right lower lobe bronchus underwent uniportal thoracoscopic lower lobectomy following bronchoscopic removal of the endobronchial tumor. Tumor was seen by bronchoscopy to protrude out from the lower lobe into the intermediary bronchus obstructing the lower lobe completely and the middle lob partially. However, the origin of the endobronchial tumor was in the distal part of the lower lobe bronchus. In this case, open surgery could be an alternative to save the middle lobe by incising the lower lobe bronchus to pull out the endobronchial tumor first during thoracotomy...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Lavina Vishnu Mirchandani, Sindhu S Kamath, Jayalakshami Thelapurath Kutty, Aparna Iyer
Primary pulmonary tuberculosis can involve regional lymph nodes which may resolve spontaneously or on treatment; or they may enlarge causing extrinsic bronchial compression; or cause endobronchial inflammation and ulceration; or a node may erode through the bronchial wall with extrusion of caseous materials into the bronchial tree, causing focal or lobar pneumonia. This erosion is seen radiologically as hilar lymphadenopathy, with atelectasis and consolidation and described as "epituberculosis". It is more common in infants than older children...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Hisashi Tsukada, Plamena Entcheva-Dimitrov, Armin Ernst, Samaan Rafeq, John H Keating, Kirk P Seward, Lonny Yarmus
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intratumoral administration of chemotherapeutic agents is a treatment modality that has proven efficacious in reducing the recurrence of tumours and increases specificity of treatment while minimizing systemic side effects. Direct intratumoral injection of malignant airway obstruction has potential therapeutic benefits but tissue drug concentrations and side-effect profiles are poorly understood. METHODS: Bronchial wall injection of generic paclitaxel (PTX) (102 injections of 0...
November 14, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Li-Ping Wang, Shou-Ping Chen, Yu-Ying Huang, Fang-Fang Qin, Wen Ou, Hong-Dong Liu, Xiao-Fang Deng, Lei Lou, Jing Tao, Yu-Xia Cui
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the significance of flexible bronchoscopy in children with respiratory diseases. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 80 children who were hospitalized due to respiratory diseases (including severe pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia with atelectasis/lung consolidation/local emphysema, protracted pneumonia, coughing and wheezing of unknown cause, chronic cough of unknown cause, and laryngeal stridor) and who underwent flexible bronchoscopy/alveolar lavage...
November 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Mariana A Antunes, José Roberto Lapa E Silva, Patricia Rm Rocco
COPD is the most frequent chronic respiratory disease and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The major risk factor for COPD development is cigarette smoke, and the most efficient treatment for COPD is smoking cessation. However, even after smoking cessation, inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress may persist and continue contributing to disease progression. Although current therapies for COPD (primarily based on anti-inflammatory agents) contribute to the reduction of airway obstruction and minimize COPD exacerbations, none can avoid disease progression or reduce mortality...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Felix Zamora, Roy Cho, Madhuri Rao, Heidi Gibson, H Erhan Dincer
Asthma is an incurable chronic disease affecting approximately 24 million people in the United States. The hallmark features of asthma are reversible airflow obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, bronchoconstriction, and excessive mucus secretion. Clinical symptoms include episodic or persistent breathlessness, wheezing, cough, or chest tightness/pressure. Forty-five percent of asthmatics continue to have yearly exacerbations and the disease is responsible for approximately 3,600 annual deaths...
2017: Journal of visualized surgery
Hidenao Kayawake, Toyofumi F Chen-Yoshikawa, Hiromi Oda, Hideki Motoyama, Masatsugu Hamaji, Toshi Menju, Akihiro Aoyama, Toshihiko Sato, Makoto Sonobe, Hiroshi Date
Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is considered useful for the staging and diagnosis of lung cancer or thoracic lymph node enlargement; however, little is known about its complications. Between July 2009 and November 2016, 413 patients underwent EBUS-TBNA, and four complications (0.97%) occurred. Here we report four cases involving complications of EBUS-TBNA, including mediastinitis (n = 2), obstructive pneumonia (n = 1), and airway obstruction requiring admission to the intensive care unit (n = 1)...
November 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
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