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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346936/differential-establishment-of-bifidobacteria-in-the-breastfed-infant-gut
#1
Zachery T Lewis, David A Mills
The composition of an infant's gut microbiome can impact their immediate and long-term health. Bifdobacteria play a major role in structuring the gut microbiome of breastfed infants due to their ability to consume oligosaccharides found in human milk. However, recent studies have revealed that bifidobacteria are often absent in the gut microbiome of breastfed infants in some locations. This lack of colonization may be due either to differences in the environmental conditions in the gastrointestinal tract of uncolonized infants which prohibit the growth of bifidobacteria or a dearth of sources from which infants may acquire these specialized bacterial species...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346931/compositional-analysis-and-metabolism-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-in-infants
#2
Clemens Kunz, Silvia Rudloff
It is a great success that biotechnological means are available today to produce amounts of single human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in a purity which allows performing metabolic and functional studies even in humans. As recent data indicate that there is a link between the Lewis blood group and the secretor status of an individual and certain inflammatory diseases, this review will also focus on the metabolic fate of secretor- and Lewis blood group-specific components. We conclude that there is no simple urinary or fecal excretion pattern of HMOs, although the pattern in urine often reflects the mother's secretor/nonsecretor status...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346874/protective-effects-of-hepatocyte-specific-glycyrrhetic-derivatives-against-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-damage-in-mice
#3
Yifei Yang, Lingyun Yang, Yaodan Han, Zhenwei Wu, Pan Chen, Huibin Zhang, Jinpei Zhou
Glycyrrhetic acid (GA), the main hydrolysate of glycyrrhizic acid extracted from the roots of the Chinese herb Glycyrrhiza glabra, was reported to be accumulated in hepatocytes due to the extensive distribution of GA receptors in liver. A series of hepatocyte-specific derivatives on the basis of anetholtrithione and glycyrrhizic were designed and synthesized. The potential beneficial effect was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury model. In addition, the hepatoprotective activity of these derivatives was assessed by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes, including serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the ratio of GSH to GSSG...
March 20, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346702/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-time-temperature-and-specimen-storage-on-in-vitro-lactate-concentrations-in-healthy-dogs
#4
Colin F Reich, Jonathan F Bach, Julie M Walker
BACKGROUND: Lactate concentrations increase significantly under certain storage conditions, except for when glycolysis-arresting agents are used. Evaluation of time and storage conditions on heparinized whole blood lactate concentrations without glycolysis-arresting agents have not been evaluated in dogs. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of preanalytic storage conditions on the in vitro concentration of lactate in heparinized canine venous blood specimens...
March 27, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346700/vitamin-d-status-in-wild-toque-macaques-macaca-sinica-in-sri-lanka
#5
Michael L Power, Wolfgang P J Dittus
The vitamin D receptor is found on most cells, including active immune cells, implying that vitamin D has important biological functions beyond calcium metabolism and bone health. Although captive primates should be given a dietary source of vitamin D, under free-living conditions vitamin D is not a required nutrient, but rather is produced in skin when exposed to UV-B light. The circulating level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) considered adequate for humans is a topic of current controversy. Levels of circulating 25-OH-D sufficient for good health for macaques and other Old World anthropoids are assumed to be the same as human values, but data from free-living animals are scant...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346691/reproductive-status-affects-the-feeding-ecology-and-social-association-patterns-of-female-squirrel-monkeys-saimiri-collinsi-in-an-amazonian-rainforest
#6
Luana V P Ruivo, Anita I Stone, Matthew Fienup
When making foraging decisions, female primates may follow specific behavioral strategies that reflect their reproductive state. Lactation is considered the most energetically costly phase for females, but we argue that gestation is also energetically expensive for squirrel monkeys. In this study, we examined whether female squirrel monkeys (a seasonally breeding primate) in different reproductive phases showed significant differences in their foraging ecology. We sampled two wild groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri collinsi) using the focal animal method, during 12 months (June 2014 to May 2015)...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346689/peripheral-and-central-fatigue-after-high-intensity-resistance-circuit-training
#7
Gonzalo Márquez, Salvador Romero-Arenas, Cristian Marín-Pagán, Antonio Vera-Ibañez, Miguel FernáNdez Del Olmo, Wolfgang Taube
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high intensity resistance circuit (HIRC) and traditional strength training (TST) on neuromuscular fatigue and metabolic responses. METHODS: Twelve trained young subjects performed HIRC and TST in a counterbalanced order with 1 week rest in-between. The amount of workload and the inter-set time for each local muscle group were matched (180 s), however, the time between successive exercises differed...
March 27, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346669/evaluation-of-a-point-of-care-electrochemical-meter-to-detect-subclinical-ketosis-and-hypoglycaemia-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#8
A Zakian, M Tehrani-Sharif, M R Mokhber-Dezfouli, M Nouri, P D Constable
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and validate a hand-held electrochemical meter (Precision Xtra®) as a screening test for subclinical ketosis and hypoglycaemia in lactating dairy cattle. DESIGN: Method comparison study using a convenience sample. PROCEDURE: Blood samples were collected into plain tubes from the coccygeal vessels of 181 Holstein cows at 2-4 weeks of lactation during summer in Iran. Blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration (BHB) and glucose concentration were immediately measured by the electrochemical meter after applying 20 μL of blood to the reagent strip...
April 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346665/effects-of-ovarian-structures-identified-at-ovsynch%C3%A2-enrolment-disease-history-and-lactation-variables-on-odds-of-pregnancy-to-a-fixed-time-artificial-insemination-after-ovsynch%C3%A2
#9
L Ingenhoff, E Hall, S Ranjbar Ni, J K House
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of ovarian structures present at Ovsynch™ enrolment, disease history, lactation variables and times bred on pregnancy per fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) following fixed-time insemination after Ovsynch and to determine the relationship between the size of ovarian follicular structures and concurrent presence of a corpus luteum (CL). METHODS: The study was conducted in a 3000-cow Holstein dairy herd. Over a 6-month period, 886 non-pregnant cows were examined by transrectal ultrasound and enrolled into 1132 Ovsynch events...
April 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346394/engineered-resistant-starch-ers-diet-shapes-colon-microbiota-profile-in-parallel-with-the-retardation-of-tumor-growth-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-pancreatic-cancer-models
#10
Concetta Panebianco, Kaarel Adamberg, Signe Adamberg, Chiara Saracino, Madis Jaagura, Kaia Kolk, Anna Grazia Di Chio, Paolo Graziano, Raivo Vilu, Valerio Pazienza
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite recent advances in treatment options, a modest impact on the outcome of the disease is observed so far. We have previously demonstrated that short-term fasting cycles have the potential to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy against PC. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an engineered resistant-starch (ERS) mimicking diet on the growth of cancer cell lines in vitro, on the composition of fecal microbiota, and on tumor growth in an in vivo pancreatic cancer mouse xenograft model...
March 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346122/non-targeted-metabolomics-in-sport-and-exercise-science
#11
Liam M Heaney, Kevin Deighton, Toru Suzuki
Metabolomics incorporates the study of metabolites that are produced and released through physiological processes at both the systemic and cellular levels. Biological compounds at the metabolite level are of paramount interest in the sport and exercise sciences, although research in this field has rarely been referred to with the global 'omics terminology. Commonly studied metabolites in exercise science are notably within cellular pathways for adenosine triphosphate production such as glycolysis (e.g., pyruvate and lactate), β-oxidation of free fatty acids (e...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346081/pneumocystis-jiroveci-pneumonia-pjp-in-non-hiv-immunocompromised-individuals
#12
Kathleen Schoovaerts, Luc Dirix, Annemie Rutten, Jef Van Schaeren, Bruno Van Herendael, Sofie Van Grieken, Luc Heytens
OBJECTIVES: PJP is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. Diagnosing PJP is often difficult because respiratory signs might be minimal or absent and the sensitivity of a chest X-ray (CXR) is low. We studied the clinical risk factors in order to increase awareness and facilitate the diagnosis. METHODS: We studied a prospective case series over a one year period (from 1 January 2015 to 1 January 2016) and did a retrospective analysis (from 2013 to 2016) of all PJP positive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) analysis...
March 27, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345875/reactive-oxygen-species-synergize-to-potently-and-selectively-induce-cancer-cell-death
#13
Hyang Yeon Lee, Elizabeth I Parkinson, Carlotta Granchi, Ilaria Paterni, Dipak Panigrahy, Pankaj Seth, Filippo Minutolo, Paul J Hergenrother
A distinctive feature of cancer cells is their elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a trait that can cause cancer cells to be more sensitive to ROS-inducing agents than normal cells. ROS takes several forms, each with different reactivity and downstream consequence. Here we show that simultaneous generation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide within cancer cells results in significant synergy, causing potent and selective cancer cell death. In these experiments superoxide is generated using the NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) substrate deoxynyboquinone (DNQ), and hydrogen peroxide is generated using the lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) inhibitor NHI-Glc-2...
March 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345605/extracellular-matrix-protein-reelin-promotes-myeloma-progression-by-facilitating-tumor-cell-proliferation-and-glycolysis
#14
Xiaodan Qin, Liang Lin, Li Cao, Xinwei Zhang, Xiao Song, Jie Hao, Yan Zhang, Risheng Wei, Xiaojun Huang, Jin Lu, Qing Ge
Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein that is crucial for neuron migration, adhesion, and positioning. We examined the expression of Reelin in a large cohort of multiple myeloma patients recorded in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and used over-expression and siRNA knockdown of Reelin to investigate the role of Reelin in myeloma cell growth. We find that Reelin expression is negatively associated with myeloma prognosis. Reelin promotes myeloma cell proliferation in vitro as well as in vivo. The Warburg effect, evidenced by increased glucose uptake and lactate production, is also enhanced in Reelin-expressing cells...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345594/serum-lactate-dehydrogenase-predicts-prognosis-and-correlates-with-systemic-inflammatory-response-in-patients-with-advanced-pancreatic-cancer-after-gemcitabine-based-chemotherapy
#15
Shu-Lin Yu, Li-Tao Xu, Qi Qi, Ya-Wen Geng, Hao Chen, Zhi-Qiang Meng, Peng Wang, Zhen Chen
Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentrations correlate with tumor progression and poor outcome. We evaluated the predictive value of serum LDH level for overall survival (OS) of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer after gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. We retrospectively enrolled 364 patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma who were then allocated to training (n = 139) and validation cohorts (n = 225). We evaluated the association between serum LDH levels and OS as well as with markers of systemic inflammation, including neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR)...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345160/increasing-skeletal-muscle-carnitine-availability-does-not-alter-the-adaptations-to-high-intensity-interval-training
#16
Christopher E Shannon, Reza Ghasemi, Paul L Greenhaff, Francis B Stephens
Increasing skeletal muscle carnitine availability alters muscle metabolism during steady-state exercise in healthy humans. We investigated whether elevating muscle carnitine, and thereby the acetyl-group buffering capacity, altered the metabolic and physiological adaptations to 24 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) at 100% maximal exercise capacity (Wattmax ). Twenty-one healthy male volunteers (age 23±2 years; BMI 24.2±1.1 kg/m(2) ) performed 2x3 minute bouts of cycling exercise at 100% Wattmax , separated by five minutes rest...
March 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345119/metabolism-of-mannose-in-cultured-primary-rat-neurons
#17
Wiebke Rastedt, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Ralf Dringen
Glucose is the main peripheral substrate for energy production in the brain. However, as other hexoses are present in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, we have investigated whether neurons have the potential to metabolize, in addition to glucose, also the hexoses mannose, fructose or galactose. Incubation of primary cerebellar granule neurons in the absence of glucose caused severe cell toxicity within 24 h, which could not be prevented by application of galactose or fructose, while the cells remained viable during incubation in the presence of either mannose or glucose...
March 27, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345070/are-scoring-systems-sufficient-for-predicting-mortality-due-to-sepsis-in-the-emergency-department
#18
Merve Gunes Ozaydin, Ozlem Guneysel, Fatma Saridogan, Vehbi Ozaydin
OBJECTIVES: Scoring systems have been used to risk stratify in intensive care units (ICU), but not routinely used in emergency departments. The aim of this study was to determine accuracy for predicting mortality in emergency medicine with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), Mortality in ED Sepsis (MEDS) score and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPSII). METHODS: This is a prospective observational study. Patients presenting with evidence of sepsis were all included...
March 2017: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344648/cellulosic-ethanol-production-via-consolidated-bioprocessing-by-a-novel-thermophilic-anaerobic-bacterium-isolated-from-a-himalayan-hot-spring
#19
Nisha Singh, Anshu S Mathur, Deepak K Tuli, Ravi P Gupta, Colin J Barrow, Munish Puri
BACKGROUND: Cellulose-degrading thermophilic anaerobic bacterium as a suitable host for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) has been proposed as an economically suited platform for the production of second-generation biofuels. To recognize the overall objective of CBP, fermentation using co-culture of different cellulolytic and sugar-fermenting thermophilic anaerobic bacteria has been widely studied as an approach to achieving improved ethanol production. We assessed monoculture and co-culture fermentation of novel thermophilic anaerobic bacterium for ethanol production from real substrates under controlled conditions...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344456/caffeine-ingestion-improves-repeated-freestyle-sprints-in-elite-male-swimmers
#20
Paul S R Goods, Grant Landers, Sacha Fulton
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a moderate dose of caffeine to improve repeat-sprint performance in elite freestyle sprinters. Nine highly trained male swimmers performed 6 x 75 m freestyle sprints on two occasions 1-h after consuming either 3 mg·kg(-1) caffeine (CAF), or placebo, in a cross-over manner. Capillary blood samples for the analysis of blood lactate concentration and pH were collected after the 1(st), 3(rd), and 5(th) sprint, while heart rate and perceived exertion (RPE) were collected after every sprint...
March 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
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