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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933548/metabolic-characterization-of-acutely-isolated-hippocampal-and-cerebral-cortical-slices-using-u-13-c-glucose-and-1-2-13-c-acetate-as-substrates
#1
Laura F McNair, Rasmus Kornfelt, Anne B Walls, Jens V Andersen, Blanca I Aldana, Jakob D Nissen, Arne Schousboe, Helle S Waagepetersen
Brain slice preparations from rats, mice and guinea pigs have served as important tools for studies of neurotransmission and metabolism. While hippocampal slices routinely have been used for electrophysiology studies, metabolic processes have mostly been studied in cerebral cortical slices. Few comparative characterization studies exist for acute hippocampal and cerebral cortical slices, hence, the aim of the current study was to characterize and compare glucose and acetate metabolism in these slice preparations in a newly established incubation design...
December 8, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933298/non-targeted-plasma-metabolome-of-early-and-late-lactation-gilts
#2
Lea A Rempel, Jeremy R Miles, William T Oliver, Corey D Broeckling
Female pigs nursing their first litter (first-parity gilts) have increased energy requirements not only to support their piglets, but they themselves are still maturing. Non-targeted plasma metabolomics were used to investigate the differences between (1) post-farrowing and weaning (early or late lactation), (2) degree of body condition loss after lactation (extreme or minimal), and (3) interactions; to potentially identify compounds or pathways that could aide in alleviating energetic demands of lactation in gilts...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933172/brown-tumor-of-the-jaw-after-pregnancy-and-lactation-in-a-men1-patient
#3
Anna Casteràs, Lídia Darder, Carles Zafon, Juan Antonio Hueto, Margarita Alberola, Enric Caubet, Jordi Mesa
: Skeletal manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) include brown tumors (BT), which are osteoclastic focal lesions often localized in the jaws. Brown tumors are a rare manifestation of pHTP in Europe and USA; however, they are frequent in developing countries, probably related to vitamin D deficiency and longer duration and severity of disease. In the majority of cases, the removal of the parathyroid adenoma is enough for the bone to remineralize, but other cases require surgery...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933053/waste-conversion-into-n-caprylate-and-n-caproate-resource-recovery-from-wine-lees-using-anaerobic-reactor-microbiomes-and-in-line-extraction
#4
Leo A Kucek, Jiajie Xu, Mytien Nguyen, Largus T Angenent
To convert wastes into sustainable liquid fuels and chemicals, new resource recovery technologies are required. Chain elongation is a carboxylate-platform bioprocess that converts short-chain carboxylates (SCCs) (e.g., acetate [C2] and n-butyrate [C4]) into medium-chain carboxylates (MCCs) (e.g., n-caprylate [C8] and n-caproate [C6]) with hydrogen gas as a side product. Ethanol or another electron donor (e.g., lactate, carbohydrate) is required. Competitive MCC productivities, yields (product vs. substrate fed), and specificities (product vs...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932993/effect-of-permissive-dehydration-on-induction-and-decay-of-heat-acclimation-and-temperate-exercise-performance
#5
Rebecca A Neal, Heather C Massey, Michael J Tipton, John S Young, Jo Corbett
Purpose: It has been suggested that dehydration is an independent stimulus for heat acclimation (HA), possibly through influencing fluid-regulation mechanisms and increasing plasma volume (PV) expansion. There is also some evidence that HA may be ergogenic in temperate conditions and that this may be linked to PV expansion. We investigated: (i) the influence of dehydration on the time-course of acquisition and decay of HA; (ii) whether dehydration augmented any ergogenic benefits in temperate conditions, particularly those related to PV expansion...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932619/ontogeny-of-cd4-t-lymphocytes-with-phenotypic-susceptibility-to-hiv-1-during-exclusive-and-non-exclusive-breastfeeding-in-hiv-1-exposed-ugandan-infants
#6
Elizabeth J McFarland, Tina M Powell, Carolyne Onyango-Makumbi, Weiming Zhang, Kelsey Melander, Prossy Naluyima, Samuel Okurut, Michael A Eller, Mary Glenn Fowler, Edward N Janoff
BACKGROUND: Among HIV-1-exposed infants, mixed breastfeeding is associated with higher postnatal HIV-1 transmission than exclusive breastfeeding, but the mechanisms of this differential risk are uncertain. METHODS: HIV-1-exposed, Ugandan infants were prospectively assessed over the first year of life for feeding practices and T cell maturation, intestinal homing (β7(hi)), activation, and HIV-1 co-receptor (CCR5) expression in peripheral blood. Infants receiving only breast milk and those with introduction of other foods prior to 6 months, categorized as exclusive and non-exclusive, respectively...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932018/the-determinants-of-essential-newborn-care-for-home-births-in-bangladesh
#7
T Akter, A Dawson, D Sibbritt
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of sociodemographic, antenatal and delivery care factors with the essential newborn care (ENC) practices of neonates born at home in Bangladesh. STUDY DESIGN: This study analyzed data of a cross-sectional survey-the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. METHODS: This analysis considered 3190 most recent live-born infants who were delivered at home within three years of the survey. Logistic regression models were used to identify the factors affecting the implementation of six ENC practices, namely using disinfected instruments to cut the umbilical cord, avoidance of application of any substances to the umbilical cord stump, immediate drying and wrapping of newborns, delayed bathing of newborns, and immediate initiation of breastfeeding...
December 2016: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931774/neonatal-venlafaxine-discontinuation-syndrome-a-mini-review
#8
REVIEW
Jonathon Holland, Richard Brown
During pregnancy, the developing fetal brain may be exposed to a range of psychotropic medications. The serotonin-noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine is one such drug, when used as a maternal antidepressant. Here we review the discontinuation phenomenon that may follow in exposed neonates following birth. Adults who abruptly stop taking venlafaxine can experience withdrawal symptoms. Venlafaxine and its metabolites cross the placenta and so the newborn can be exposed to this risk, as well as potential toxicity...
November 25, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931734/awareness-of-united-states-law-for-nursing-mothers-among-employers-in-new-orleans-louisiana
#9
Caitrin H Alb, Katherine Theall, Marni B Jacobs, Ana Bales
BACKGROUND: The U.S. Federal Reasonable Break Time for Nursing Mothers Law to support breastfeeding employees was passed in 2010, as part of the Affordable Care Act. However, few data are available assessing employers' awareness of the law or its implementation. OBJECTIVES: The study aims were to 1) describe New Orleans employers' awareness of the law, 2) determine the extent of the law implementation within workplaces, and 3) determine the associations between workplace characteristics and employers' awareness and implementation...
December 5, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931655/lactate-levels-and-hemodynamic-coherence-in-acute-circulatory-failure
#10
REVIEW
Jan Bakker
In this review, the relationship between changes in macrohemodynamics during the development and treatment of acute circulatory failure is discussed in the context of coherence with microcirculation and changes in lactate. In models of circulatory failure, coherence between changes in macrocirculatory and microcirculatory perfusion and coherence with subsequent changes in lactate levels are more or less preserved. However, in patients, particularly those with septic shock, these relationships are much less clear...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931578/pretransplant-left-ventricular-dysfunction-adversely-affects-perioperative-outcomes-in-pediatric-liver-transplantation-a%C3%A2-retrospective-observational-study
#11
D-M Jang, I-G Jun, Y-J Moon, W-J Shin, J-G Song, G-S Hwang
BACKGROUND: Although left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is a pronounced feature of adult cirrhotic cardiomyopathy and a major predictor of poor outcomes following liver transplantation (LT), little is known about if pretransplant cardiac dysfunction affects perioperative outcomes in pediatric LT. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated pretransplant clinical and Doppler echocardiographic data for 45 consecutive pediatric LT recipients who were treated between 2007 and 2013 (median age = 15 months; interquartile range = 9 to 78 months)...
December 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931520/translational-potential-of-long-term-decreases-in-mitochondrial-lipids-in-a-mouse-model-of-gulf-war-illness
#12
Laila Abdullah, James E Evans, Utsav Joshi, Gogce Crynen, Jon Reed, Benoit Mouzon, Stephan Baumann, Hannah Montague, Zuchra Zakirova, Tanja Emmerich, Corbin Bachmeier, Nancy Klimas, Kimberly Sullivan, Michael Mullan, Ghania Ait-Ghezala, Fiona Crawford
Gulf War Illness (GWI) affects 25% of veterans from the 1990-1991 Gulf War (GW) and is accompanied by damage to the brain regions involved in memory processing. After twenty-five years, the chronic pathobiology of GWI is still unexplained. To address this problem, we examined the long-term consequences of GW exposures in an established GWI mouse model to identify biological processes that are relevant to the chronic symptoms of GWI. Three-month old male C57BL6 mice were exposed for 10days to GW agents (pyridostigmine bromide and permethrin)...
November 30, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931507/hiv-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-efavirenz-reduces-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#13
Jingji Jin, Bethany Grimmig, James Izzo, Lecia A M Brown, Charles Hudson, Adam J Smith, Jun Tan, Paula C Bickford, Brian Giunta
The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). There is evidence that neural stem cells (NSCs) can migrate to sites of brain injury such as those caused by inflammation and oxidative stress, which are pathological features of HAND. Thus, reductions in NSCs may contribute to HAND pathogenesis. Since the HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz (EFV) has previously been associated with cognitive deficits and promotion of oxidative stress pathways, we examined its effect on NSCs in vitro as well as in C57BL/6J mice...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931267/western-diet-in-the-perinatal-period-promotes-dysautonomia-in-the-offspring-of-adult-rats
#14
R Vidal-Santos, F N Macedo, M N S Santana, V U De Melo, J L de Brito Alves, M R V Santos, L C Brito, E Nascimento, J H Costa-Silva, V J Santana-Filho
The present study investigated the impact of a western diet during gestation and lactation on the anthropometry, serum biochemical, blood pressure and cardiovascular autonomic control on the offspring. Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to their mother's diet received: control group (C: 18% calories of lipids) and westernized group (W: 32% calories of lipids). After weaning both groups received standard diet. On the 60th day of life, blood samples were collected for the analysis of fasting glucose and lipidogram...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931248/postpartum-depression-and-infant-feeding-practices-in-a-low-income-urban-settlement-in-nairobi-kenya
#15
Beatrice A Madeghe, Violet N Kimani, Ann Vander Stoep, Semret Nicodimos, Manasi Kumar
BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression can compromise caregiving activities, including infant feeding practices, resulting in child malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of postpartum depression on infant feeding practices and malnutrition among women in an urban low income settlement in Nairobi-Kenya. We conducted a cross-sectional study based in Kariobangi North Health Centre in Nairobi County. The study sample included 200 mother-infant pairs visiting the Maternal and Child Health clinics for infant immunization at 6-14 weeks postpartum...
December 8, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931189/adaptation-of-propionibacterium-freudenreichii-to-long-term-survival-under-gradual-nutritional-shortage
#16
Flavia Figueira Aburjaile, Marine Rohmer, Hugues Parrinello, Marie-Bernadette Maillard, Eric Beaucher, Gwénaële Henry, Aurélie Nicolas, Marie-Noëlle Madec, Anne Thierry, Sandrine Parayre, Stéphanie-Marie Deutsch, Muriel Cocaign-Bousquet, Anderson Miyoshi, Vasco Azevedo, Yves Le Loir, Hélène Falentin
BACKGROUND: Propionibacterium freudenreichii is an Actinobacterium widely used in the dairy industry as a ripening culture for Swiss-type cheeses, for vitamin B12 production and some strains display probiotic properties. It is reportedly a hardy bacterium, able to survive the cheese-making process and digestive stresses. RESULTS: During this study, P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA 138 (alias ITG P9), which has a generation time of five hours in Yeast Extract Lactate medium at 30 °C under microaerophilic conditions, was incubated for 11 days (9 days after entry into stationary phase) in a culture medium, without any adjunct during the incubation...
December 8, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931107/a-diffusely-enlarged-pancreas-the-un-usual-suspect
#17
Pedro Magalhães-Costa, Maria José Brito, Pedro Pinto-Marques
An 81-years-old female presented with obstructive jaundice and a non-specific clinical picture of nausea and appetite loss. Labs demonstrated a conjugated hyperbilirrubinemia (7.7 mg/dL), increased aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (10xULN and 8xULN, respectively), increased lactate dehydrogenase (10xULN) and serum lipase (3xULN). CA 19.9 was 342 U/mL (Ref value < 37 U/mL). There was no evidence of peripheral lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. Imaging (Figure 1A and 1B) revealed a marked homogeneous enlargement of the pancreas (without any well-defined mass), dilation of the extra and intra-hepatic bile ducts and ascites...
December 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931028/sustained-effects-of-neonatal-systemic-lipopolysaccharide-on-il-1%C3%AE-and-nrf2-in-adult-rat-substantia-nigra-are-partly-normalized-by-a-spirulina-enriched-diet
#18
Jaspal Patil, Ashok Matte, Hans Nissbrandt, Carina Mallard, Mats Sandberg
BACKGROUND/AIM: Neonatal infection can sensitize the adult substantia nigra (SN) to secondary insults, causing a decrease in antioxidant capacity which may lead to Parkinson's disease in adults. We studied the prolonged effect of systemic infection by (i.p.) administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on interleukin (IL)-1β, the antioxidant regulator nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α in rat SN...
December 9, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930987/antiproliferative-effects-of-extracts-from-salvia-officinalis-l-and-saliva-miltiorrhiza-bunge-on-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#19
Yuanyuan Jiang, Li Zhang, H P Vasantha Rupasinghe
Salvia species have been used as valuable medicinal and herbal plant in many countries. Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge are widely used in traditional medicine for a long time. In the present study, cytotoxicity of ethanol and acetone extracts prepared from leaves and roots of two Salvia species was investigated using hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) and normal human liver cells (WRL-68). The cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative abilities of the extracts were evaluated by measuring cell viability (MTS assay), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, the cellular ATP level, morphological changes using an inverted microscope, and apoptosis using flow cytometry...
December 5, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930890/within-session-responses-to-high-intensity-interval-training-in-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Todd Anthony Astorino, Jacob S Thum
AIM: Completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake and health status, yet its feasibility in persons with spinal cord injury is unknown. PURPOSE: To compare changes in cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables between two interval training regimes and moderate intensity exercise. METHOD: Nine adults with spinal cord injury (duration = 6.8 ± 6.2 year) initially underwent determination of peak oxygen uptake...
December 8, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
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