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Bacteriophage diagnostic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563204/frequency-of-instrument-environment-and-laboratory-technologist-contamination-during-routine-diagnostic-testing-of-infectious-specimens
#1
Melanie L Yarbrough, Jennie H Kwon, Meghan A Wallace, Tiffany Hink, Angela Shupe, Victoria J Fraser, Erik R Dubberke, Carey-Ann D Burnham
Laboratory testing to support the care of patients with highly infectious diseases may pose a risk for laboratory workers. However, data on the risk of virus transmission during routine laboratory testing conducted using standard personal protective equipment (PPE) are sparse. Our objective was to measure laboratory contamination during routine analysis of patient specimens. Remnant specimens were spiked with the nonpathogenic MS2 bacteriophage at 1.0 x 107 PFU/mL and biomarker contamination was assessed using RT-PCR for MS2...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536661/bacteriophage-lambda-the-path-from-biology-to-theranostic-agent
#2
REVIEW
Carlos E Catalano
Viral particles provide an attractive platform for the engineering of semisynthetic therapeutic nanoparticles. They can be modified both genetically and chemically in a defined manner to alter their surface characteristics, for targeting specific cell types, to improve their pharmacokinetic features and to attenuate (or enhance) their antigenicity. These advantages derive from a detailed understanding of virus biology, gleaned from decades of fundamental genetic, biochemical, and structural studies that have provided mechanistic insight into virus assembly pathways...
March 13, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506121/natural-occurrence-of-secondary-bacterial-symbionts-in-aphids-from-tunisia-with-a-focus-on-genus-hyalopterus
#3
Sana Zouari, Monia Kamel Ben Halima, Mariana Reyes-Prieto, Amparo Latorre, Rosario Gil
Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) can harbor two types of bacterial symbionts. In addition to the obligate endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola Munson, Baumann and Kinsey 1991 (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), several facultative symbiotic bacteria, called secondary (S) symbionts, have been identified among many important pest aphid species. To determine interpopulational diversity of S-symbionts, we carried out a survey in a total of 18 populations of six aphid species collected from six localities in Tunisia, by performing a diagnostic polymerase chain reaction analysis of partial 16S-23S rRNA operon sequences...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460442/fluorescent-nanodiamond-bacteriophage-conjugates-maintain-host-specificity
#4
Jimmy T Trinh, Masfer H Alkahtani, Isaac Rampersaud, Arfaan Rampersaud, Marlan Scully, Ryland F Young, Philip Hemmer, Lanying Zeng
Rapid identification of specific bacterial strains within clinical, environmental, and food samples can facilitate the prevention and treatment of disease. Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) are being developed as biomarkers in biology and medicine, due to their excellent imaging properties, ability to accept surface modifications, and lack of toxicity. Bacteriophages, the viruses of bacteria, can have exquisite specificity for certain hosts. We propose to exploit the properties of FNDs and phages to develop phages conjugated with FNDs as long-lived fluorescent diagnostic reagents...
June 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445800/acoustic-separation-in-plastic-microfluidics-for-rapid-detection-of-bacteria-in-blood-using-engineered-bacteriophage
#5
P Dow, K Kotz, S Gruszka, J Holder, J Fiering
A more effective treatment of bacteremia requires a diagnostic platform that is both sensitive, accurate and rapid. Currently, clinical laboratory techniques require growth of bacteria prior to diagnosis, take days to complete, and leave empiric therapy and broad spectrum antibiotics as the only option at the onset of treatment. In order to bypass this growth requirement, we engineered a system that purifies bacteria from blood to improve performance in a bacteriophage-based luminescence assay. To perform the purification, we used acoustophoresis in plastic microfluidic chips, enabling future development into a low cost point-of-care system...
March 13, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299830/review-of-the-nature-diversity-and-structure-of-bacteriophage-receptor-binding-proteins-that-target-gram-positive-bacteria
#6
REVIEW
Ahmed S A Dowah, Martha R J Clokie
As the importance of bacteriophages as novel antimicrobials and potential diagnostics comes increasingly into focus, there is a heightened interest in understanding the mechanisms of how they interact with their bacterial hosts. The first step of a bacteriophage (phage) infection is the recognition of specific moieties on the bacterial cell surface as determined by their phage receptor binding proteins (RBPs). Knowledge of RBPs and how they interact with bacteria has been driven by studies of model phages and of industrially important phages, such as those that impact the dairy industry...
January 3, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298913/cross-genus-rebooting-of-custom-made-synthetic-bacteriophage-genomes-in-l-form-bacteria
#7
Samuel Kilcher, Patrick Studer, Christina Muessner, Jochen Klumpp, Martin J Loessner
Engineered bacteriophages provide powerful tools for biotechnology, diagnostics, pathogen control, and therapy. However, current techniques for phage editing are experimentally challenging and limited to few phages and host organisms. Viruses that target Gram-positive bacteria are particularly difficult to modify. Here, we present a platform technology that enables rapid, accurate, and selection-free construction of synthetic, tailor-made phages that infect Gram-positive bacteria. To this end, custom-designed, synthetic phage genomes were assembled in vitro from smaller DNA fragments...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298884/genomic-and-biochemical-characterization-of-acinetobacter-podophage-petty-reveals-a-novel-lysis-mechanism-and-tail-associated-depolymerase-activity
#8
A C Hernandez-Morales, L L Lessor, T L Wood, D Migl, E M Mijalis, W K Russell, R F Young, J J Gill
The increased prevalence of drug-resistant, nosocomial Acinetobacter infections, particularly from pathogenic members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex, necessitates the exploration of novel treatments such as phage therapy. In the present study, we characterize phage Petty, a novel podophage that infects multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter nosocomialis and Acinetobacter baumannii Genome analysis reveals that phage Petty is a 40,431bp ϕKMV-like phage, with a coding density of 92.2% and a G+C content of 42...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259289/resolution-of-habitat-associated-ecogenomic-signatures-in-bacteriophage-genomes-and-application-to-microbial-source-tracking
#9
Lesley A Ogilvie, Jonathan Nzakizwanayo, Fergus M Guppy, Cinzia Dedi, David Diston, Huw Taylor, James Ebdon, Brian V Jones
Just as the expansion in genome sequencing has revealed and permitted the exploitation of phylogenetic signals embedded in bacterial genomes, the application of metagenomics has begun to provide similar insights at the ecosystem level for microbial communities. However, little is known regarding this aspect of bacteriophage associated with microbial ecosystems, and if phage encode discernible habitat-associated signals diagnostic of underlying microbiomes. Here we demonstrate that individual phage can encode clear habitat-related 'ecogenomic signatures', based on relative representation of phage-encoded gene homologues in metagenomic data sets...
April 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232619/engineering-of-protein-nanopores-for-sequencing-chemical-or-protein-sensing-and-disease-diagnosis
#10
REVIEW
Shaoying Wang, Zhengyi Zhao, Farzin Haque, Peixuan Guo
Biological systems contain highly-ordered structures performing diverse functions. The elegant structures of biomachines have inspired the development of nanopores as single molecule sensors. Over the years, the utility of nanopores for detecting a wide variety of analytes have rapidly emerged for sensing, sequencing and diagnostic applications. Several protein channels with diverse shapes and sizes, such as motor channels from bacteriophage Phi29, SPP1, T3, and T4, as well as α-hemolysin, MspA, aerolysin, FluA, OmpF/G, CsgG, ClyA, have been continually investigated and developed as nanopores...
December 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163915/field-deployable-quantitative-rapid-identification-of-active-ebola-virus-infection-in-unprocessed-blood
#11
Kavit Shah, Emma Bentley, Adam Tyler, Kevin S R Richards, Edward Wright, Linda Easterbrook, Diane Lee, Claire Cleaver, Louise Usher, Jane E Burton, James K Pitman, Christine B Bruce, David Edge, Martin Lee, Nelson Nazareth, David A Norwood, Sterghios A Moschos
The West African Ebola virus outbreak underlined the importance of delivering mass diagnostic capability outside the clinical or primary care setting in effectively containing public health emergencies caused by infectious disease. Yet, to date, there is no solution for reliably deploying at the point of need the gold standard diagnostic method, real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), in a laboratory infrastructure-free manner. In this proof of principle work, we demonstrate direct performance of RT-qPCR on fresh blood using far-red fluorophores to resolve fluorogenic signal inhibition and controlled, rapid freeze/thawing to achieve viral genome extraction in a single reaction chamber assay...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985502/the-revolution-continues-newly-discovered-systems-expand-the-crispr-cas-toolkit
#12
REVIEW
Karthik Murugan, Kesavan Babu, Ramya Sundaresan, Rakhi Rajan, Dipali G Sashital
CRISPR-Cas systems defend prokaryotes against bacteriophages and mobile genetic elements and serve as the basis for revolutionary tools for genetic engineering. Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems use single Cas endonucleases paired with guide RNAs to cleave complementary nucleic acid targets, enabling programmable sequence-specific targeting with minimal machinery. Recent discoveries of previously unidentified CRISPR-Cas systems have uncovered a deep reservoir of potential biotechnological tools beyond the well-characterized Type II Cas9 systems...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819114/isothermal-amplification-of-long-discrete-dna-fragments-facilitated-by-single-stranded-binding-protein
#13
Yinhua Zhang, Nathan A Tanner
Isothermal amplification methods for detection of DNA and RNA targets have expanded significantly in recent years, promising a new wave of simple and rapid molecular diagnostics. Current isothermal methods result in the generation of short fragments (<150 base pairs) or highly branched long DNA products. Here we report the amplification of discrete target fragments of several kilobases at 37 °C from both double- and single-stranded circular template DNA using specific primer pairs. In contrast to existing methods, this amplification requires only the single-stranded DNA-binding protein gp32 from bacteriophage T4 and a strand-displacing DNA polymerase...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757387/a-fast-pcr-based-method-for-the-characterization-of-prophage-profiles-in-strains-of-the-lactobacillus-casei-group
#14
Delfina Zaburlin, Diego J Mercanti, Andrea Quiberoni
Lysogeny is widespread among Lactobacillus strains of the casei group (L. casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus), and prophages account for most strain-specific DNA. Numerous PCR based methods have been developed to detect free phages of lactic acid bacteria, but they do not take in consideration prophages. In this study, a new PCR method for the detection of lysogeny was developed using genome sequences of L. casei group strains (including BL23) and bacteriophages. Nine pairs of primers were designed to selectively amplify the highly conserved prophage iA2 (pairs #1-#3) and fragments of two groups phages of temperate origin: CL1/CL2/iLp1308/iLp84 (pairs #4 and #5) and Lrm1/J-1/PL-1/A2/AT3/Lc-Nu (pairs #6 to #9)...
October 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750539/octupolar-metastructures-for-a-highly-sensitive-rapid-and-reproducible-phage-based-detection-of-bacterial-pathogens-by-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering
#15
Massimo Rippa, Riccardo Castagna, Marianna Pannico, Pellegrino Musto, Giorgia Borriello, Rubina Paradiso, Giorgio Galiero, Sergio Bolletti Censi, Jun Zhou, Joseph Zyss, Lucia Petti
The development of fast and ultrasensitive methods to detect bacterial pathogens at low concentrations is of high relevance for human and animal health care and diagnostics. In this context, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) offers the promise of a simplified, rapid, and high-sensitive detection of biomolecular interactions with several advantages over previous assay methodologies. In this work, we have conceived reproducible SERS nanosensors based on tailored multilayer octupolar nanostructures which can combine high enhancement factor and remarkable molecular selectivity...
July 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675248/quick-bacteriophage-mediated-bioluminescence-assay-for-detecting-staphylococcus-spp-in-sonicate-fluid-of-orthopaedic-artificial-joints
#16
Katja Šuster, Aleš Podgornik, Andrej Cör
Staphylococcus spp. accounts for up to two thirds of all microorganisms causing prosthetic joint infections, with Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis being the major cause. The present study describes a diagnostic model to detect staphylococci using a specific bacteriophage and bioluminescence detection, exploring the possibility of its use on sonicate fluid of orthopaedic artificial joints. Intracellular adenosine-5'-triphosphate release by bacteriophage mediated lysis of staphylococci was assessed to determine optimal parameters for detection...
July 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643099/-beyond-antibiotic-therapy-future-antiinfective-strategies-update-2017
#17
REVIEW
D Vogt, S Sperling, T Tkhilaishvili, A Trampuz, J-P Pirnay, C Willy
BACKGROUND: The key elements in the therapy of surgical site infections (SSI) are surgical debridement and local and systemic antibiotic therapy; however, due to increasing antibiotic resistance, the development of additional therapeutic measures is of great interest for future trauma and orthopedic surgery. METHOD: Against the background of our own experimental and clinical experiences and on the basis of the current literature, possible future anti-infective strategies were elaborated...
July 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532790/a-safe-and-molecular-tagged-brucella-canis-ghosts-confers-protection-against-virulent-challenge-in-mice
#18
Jing Qian, Zhaoyang Bu, Xulong Lang, Guangmou Yan, Yanling Yang, Xiuran Wang, Xinglong Wang
Canine brucellosis, caused by Brucella canis, is a persistent infectious reproductive disease in dogs. The absence of effective treatment to the intracellular pathogen and the irreversible consequence of infection makes the need of a specific vaccine urgent. Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are the empty envelopes of bacteria with no genome content inside, which emerge as a proper vaccine candidate due to its intact outer antigen. It is generally derived from a genetically engineered strain, through the expression of Bacteriophage phiX174 lysis E gene upon induction...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414631/rathayibacter-toxicus-other-rathayibacter-species-inducing-bacterial-head-blight-of-grasses-and-the-potential-for-livestock-poisonings
#19
REVIEW
Timothy D Murray, Brenda K Schroeder, William L Schneider, Douglas G Luster, Aaron Sechler, Elizabeth E Rogers, Sergei A Subbotin
Rathayibacter toxicus, a Select Agent in the United States, is one of six recognized species in the genus Rathayibacter and the best known due to its association with annual ryegrass toxicity, which occurs only in parts of Australia. The Rathayibacter species are unusual among phytopathogenic bacteria in that they are transmitted by anguinid seed gall nematodes and produce extracellular polysaccharides in infected plants resulting in bacteriosis diseases with common names such as yellow slime and bacterial head blight...
July 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411223/modified-bacteriophage-s16-long-tail-fiber-proteins-for-rapid-and-specific-immobilization-and-detection-of-salmonella-cells
#20
Jenna M Denyes, Matthew Dunne, Stanislava Steiner, Maximilian Mittelviefhaus, Agnes Weiss, Herbert Schmidt, Jochen Klumpp, Martin J Loessner
Bacteriophage-based assays and biosensors rival traditional antibody-based immunoassays for detection of low-level Salmonella contaminations. In this study, we harnessed the binding specificity of the long tail fiber (LTF) from bacteriophage S16 as an affinity molecule for the immobilization, enrichment, and detection of Salmonella We demonstrate that paramagnetic beads (MBs) coated with recombinant gp37-gp38 LTF complexes (LTF-MBs) are highly effective tools for rapid affinity magnetic separation and enrichment of Salmonella Within 45 min, the LTF-MBs consistently captured over 95% of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium cells from suspensions containing from 10 to 105 CFU · ml-1 , and they yielded equivalent recovery rates (93% ± 5%, n = 10) for other Salmonella strains tested...
June 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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