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Bacteriophage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676764/distribution-of-human-fecal-marker-gb-124-bacteriophages-in-urban-sewage-and-reclaimed-water-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-city-brazil
#1
Tatiana Prado, Antônio de Castro Bruni, Mikaela Renata Funada Barbosa, Vilma Marques Santos Bonanno, Suzi Cristina Garcia, Maria Inês Zanoli Sato
Bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides fragilis GB-124 have been described as potential markers of human fecal contamination in water sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of GB-124 phages in raw sewage, secondary effluents and reclaimed water of the São Paulo city using a low-cost microbial source tracking method. Samples were collected monthly from April 2015 to March 2016 in four municipal wastewater treatment plants that operate with activated sludge processes followed by different tertiary treatments (sand-anthracite filtration, membrane bioreactor/reverse osmosis) and final chlorination...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675838/t4-like-escherichia-coli-phages-from-the-environment-carry-bla-ctx-m
#2
Juliet Roshini Mohan Raj, Rajeshwari Vittal, Prashant Huilgol, Udaya Bhat, Indrani Karunasagar
The resistance determinant blaCTX -M has many variants and has been the most commonly reported gene in clinical isolates of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli. Phages have been speculated as potential reservoirs of resistance genes and efficient vehicles for horizontal gene transfer. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and characterize bacteriophages that harbour the resistance determinant blaCTX -M . E.coli specific bacteriophages were isolated from 15 samples including soil and water across Mangaluru, India using bacterial hosts that were sensitive to β-lactams...
April 20, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674103/determination-of-the-cell-wall-polysaccharide-and-teichoic-acid-structures-from-lactococcus-lactis-il1403
#3
Evgeny Vinogradov, Irina Sadovskaya, Pascal Courtin, Saulius Kulakauskas, Thierry Grard, Jennifer Mahony, Douwe van Sinderen, Marie-Pierre Chapot-Chartier
In the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis, a cell wall polysaccharide (CWPS) is the bacterial receptor of the majority of infecting bacteriophages. The diversity of CWPS structures between strains explains, at least partially, the narrow host range of lactococcal phages. In the present work, we studied the polysaccharide components of the cell wall of the prototype L. lactis subsp. lactis strain IL1403. We identified a rhamnose-rich complex polysaccharide, carrying a glycerophosphate substitution, as the major component...
April 12, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672980/using-disruptive-insertional-mutagenesis-to-identify-the-in-situ-structure-function-landscape-of-the-shigella-translocator-protein-ipab
#4
Michael L Barta, Shoichi Tachiyama, Meenakumari Muthuramalingam, Olivia Arizmendi, Cecilia E Villanueva, Kasra X Ramyar, Brian V Geisbrecht, Scott Lovell, Kevin P Battaile, Wendy L Picking, William D Picking
Bacterial type III secretion systems (T3SS) are used to inject proteins into mammalian cells to subvert cellular functions. The Shigella T3SS apparatus (T3SA) is comprised of a basal body, cytoplasmic sorting platform and exposed needle with needle "tip complex" (TC). TC maturation occurs when the translocator protein IpaB is recruited to the needle tip where both IpaD and IpaB control secretion induction. IpaB insertion into the host membrane is the first step of translocon pore formation and secretion induction...
April 19, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672536/development-of-a-quantitative-pachytene-chromosome-map-and-its-unification-with-somatic-chromosome-and-linkage-maps-of-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#5
Nobuko Ohmido, Aiko Iwata, Seiji Kato, Toshiyuki Wako, Kiichi Fukui
A quantitative pachytene chromosome map of rice (Oryza sativa L.) was developed using imaging methods. The map depicts not only distribution patterns of chromomeres specific to pachytene chromosomes, but also the higher order information of chromosomal structures, such as heterochromatin (condensed regions), euchromatin (decondensed regions), the primary constrictions (centromeres), and the secondary constriction (nucleolar organizing regions, NOR). These features were image analyzed and quantitatively mapped onto the map by Chromosome Image Analyzing System ver...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671810/bacteriophage-applications-for-food-production-and-processing
#6
REVIEW
Zachary D Moye, Joelle Woolston, Alexander Sulakvelidze
Foodborne illnesses remain a major cause of hospitalization and death worldwide despite many advances in food sanitation techniques and pathogen surveillance. Traditional antimicrobial methods, such as pasteurization, high pressure processing, irradiation, and chemical disinfectants are capable of reducing microbial populations in foods to varying degrees, but they also have considerable drawbacks, such as a large initial investment, potential damage to processing equipment due to their corrosive nature, and a deleterious impact on organoleptic qualities (and possibly the nutritional value) of foods...
April 19, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671403/kdiamend-a-package-for-detecting-key-drivers-in-a-molecular-ecological-network-of-disease
#7
Mengxuan Lyu, Jiaxing Chen, Yiqi Jiang, Wei Dong, Zhou Fang, Shuaicheng Li
BACKGROUND: Microbial abundance profiles are applied widely to understand diseases from the aspect of microbial communities. By investigating the abundance associations of species or genes, we can construct molecular ecological networks (MENs). The MENs are often constructed by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) between genes. In this work, we also applied multimodal mutual information (MMI) to construct MENs. The members which drive the concerned MENs are referred to as key drivers...
April 11, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670863/commentary-bacteriophage-transfer-during-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-clostridium-difficile-infection-is-associated-with-treatment-outcome
#8
COMMENT
Blessing O Anonye
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670843/bacteriophage-isolated-from-sewage-eliminates-and-prevents-the-establishment-of-escherichia-coli-biofilm
#9
Karla Veloso Gonçalves Ribeiro, Cleberson Ribeiro, Roberto Sousa Dias, Silvia Almeida Cardoso, Sergio Oliveira de Paula, Jose Cola Zanuncio, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira
Purpose: Biofilm growth exerts a negative impact on industry and health, necessitating the development of strategies to control. The objective of this work was study the lytic activity of the phage isolated from the sewage network in the formation and degradation of Escherichia coli biofilms. Methods: E. coli cultures were incubated in 96-well polystyrene microplates under controlled conditions to evaluate the biofilm formation. The E. coli cultures and established biofilms were treated with the suspensions of the vB_EcoM-UFV017 (EcoM017) bacteriophage obtained from sewage for 24 hours...
March 2018: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668682/biogeography-and-environmental-conditions-shape-bacteriophage-bacteria-networks-across-the-human-microbiome
#10
Geoffrey D Hannigan, Melissa B Duhaime, Danai Koutra, Patrick D Schloss
Viruses and bacteria are critical components of the human microbiome and play important roles in health and disease. Most previous work has relied on studying bacteria and viruses independently, thereby reducing them to two separate communities. Such approaches are unable to capture how these microbial communities interact, such as through processes that maintain community robustness or allow phage-host populations to co-evolve. We implemented a network-based analytical approach to describe phage-bacteria network diversity throughout the human body...
April 18, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666613/novel-biocontrol-methods-for-listeria-monocytogenes-biofilms-in-food-production-facilities
#11
REVIEW
Jessica A Gray, P Scott Chandry, Mandeep Kaur, Chawalit Kocharunchitt, John P Bowman, Edward M Fox
High mortality and hospitalization rates have seen Listeria monocytogenes as a foodborne pathogen of public health importance for many years and of particular concern for high-risk population groups. Food manufactures face an ongoing challenge in preventing the entry of L. monocytogenes into food production environments (FPEs) due to its ubiquitous nature. In addition to this, the capacity of L. monocytogenes strains to colonize FPEs can lead to repeated identification of L. monocytogenes in FPE surveillance...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666226/discovery-of-recombinases-enables-genome-mining-of-cryptic-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-in-burkholderiales-species
#12
Xue Wang, Haibo Zhou, Hanna Chen, Xiaoshu Jing, Wentao Zheng, Ruijuan Li, Tao Sun, Jiaqi Liu, Jun Fu, Liujie Huo, Yue-Zhong Li, Yuemao Shen, Xiaoming Ding, Rolf Müller, Xiaoying Bian, Youming Zhang
Bacterial genomes encode numerous cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) that represent a largely untapped source of drugs or pesticides. Mining of the cryptic products is limited by the unavailability of streamlined genetic tools in native producers. Precise genome engineering using bacteriophage recombinases is particularly useful for genome mining. However, recombinases are usually host-specific. The genome-guided discovery of novel recombinases and their transient expression could boost cryptic BGC mining...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665440/mri-compatible-ms2-nanoparticles-designed-to-cross-the-blood-brain-barrier-providing-a-path-towards-tinnitus-treatment
#13
Aaron K Apawu, Stephanie M Curley, Angela R Dixon, Mirabela Hali, Moaz Sinan, Rod D Braun, James Castracane, Anthony T Cacace, Magnus Bergkvist, Avril Genene Holt
Fundamental challenges of targeting specific brain regions for treatment using pharmacotherapeutic nanoparticle (NP) carriers include circumventing the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and tracking delivery. Angiopep-2 (AP2) has been shown to facilitate the transport of large macromolecules and synthetic nanoparticles across the BBB. Thus, conjugation of AP2 to an MS2 bacteriophage based NP should also permit transport across the BBB. We have fabricated and tested a novel MS2 capsid-based NP conjugated to the ligand AP2...
April 14, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664205/selective-and-sensitive-escherichia-coli-detection-based-on-a-t4-bacteriophage-immobilized-multimode-microfiber
#14
Yanpeng Li, Hui Ma, Lin Gan, Andong Gong, Haibin Zhang, Deming Liu, Qizhen Sun
Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacteria have been found to be responsible for various health outbreaks caused by contaminated food and water. Accurate and rapid test of E.coli is thus crucial for protecting the public health. A fast-response, label-free bacteriophage-based detection of E.coli using multimode microfiber probe is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. Due to the abrupt taper and subwavelength diameter, different modes are excited and guided in the microfiber as evanescent field that can interact with surrounding E...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663680/knowledge-gaps-in-control-of-campylobacter-for-prevention-of-campylobacteriosis
#15
I Hansson, M Sandberg, I Habib, R Lowman, E O Engvall
Campylobacteriosis is an important, worldwide public health problem with numerous socio-economic impacts. Since 2015, approximately 230,000 cases have been reported annually in Europe. In the United States, Australia and New Zealand, campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported disease. Poultry and poultry products are considered important sources of human infections. Poultry meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter during slaughter if live chickens are intestinal carriers. Campylobacter spp. can be transferred from animals to humans through consumption and handling of contaminated food products, with fresh chicken meat being the most commonly implicated food type...
April 16, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661863/-vibrio-cholerae-outer-membrane-vesicles-inhibit-bacteriophage-infection
#16
Tamara Reyes-Robles, Rebecca S Dillard, Lynne S Cairns, Cecilia A Silva-Valenzuela, Max Housman, Afsar Ali, Elizabeth R Wright, Andrew Camilli
Novel preventatives could help in efforts to limit Vibrio cholerae infection and the spread of cholera. Bacteriophage (or phage) treatment has been proposed to be an alternative intervention, given the rapid replication of virulent phages, prey specificity, and relative ease of finding new virulent phages. Phage tropism is dictated in part by the presence of phage receptors on the bacterial surface. While many phages that can kill V. cholerae have been isolated, whether this pathogen is able to defend itself by neutralizing phage binding is unknown...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660798/dynamics-and-rigidity-of-an-intact-filamentous-bacteriophage-virus-probed-by-magic-angle-spinning-nmr
#17
Tom Aharoni, Amir Goldbourt
The capsid dynamics of filamentous bacteriophages is related to their function, stability and interactions with the genome, and can be assessed by measuring the chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) of 15N-amides, which are sensitive to large amplitude motions. In this study, we used CSA recoupling experiments under magic-angle spinning NMR in order to probe the dynamics of the y21m capsid mutant of fd bacteriophage. We show, based on fitting those generated CSA lineshapes, that residues located in the N-terminus undergo increased motional amplitudes suggesting its global motion, while other backbone residues are rigid, and imply on a tight hydrophobic packing of the phage...
April 16, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657964/vive-la-persistence-engineering-human-microbiomes-in-the-21st-century
#18
Katrine L Whiteson
I imagine a future in which children grow up with healthy microbial communities. Engineering human microbiomes might actually be achievable in the near future, as we enter an era of hunting for human-adapted bacterial strains and phages. Furthermore, breath metabolites could allow us to track whether a probiotic colonizes persistently or a phage has knocked down a microbe of interest. Recent successes with probiotics, such as bifidobacteria that can break down human milk oligosaccharides, are making a future in which infants are intentionally colonized with health-promoting strains seem less unlikely...
March 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657774/a-mathematical-model-of-marine-bacteriophage-evolution
#19
Silvia Pagliarini, Andrei Korobeinikov
To explore how particularities of a host cell-virus system, and in particular host cell replication, affect viral evolution, in this paper we formulate a mathematical model of marine bacteriophage evolution. The intrinsic simplicity of real-life phage-bacteria systems, and in particular aquatic systems, for which the assumption of homogeneous mixing is well justified, allows for a reasonably simple model. The model constructed in this paper is based upon the Beretta-Kuang model of bacteria-phage interaction in an aquatic environment (Beretta & Kuang 1998 Math...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655392/bacteriophage-m13-may-be-used-for-the-assessment-of-viral-transfer-during-doffing-of-ebola-level-personal-protective-equipment
#20
Shu Yuan, Zhong-Wei Zhang, Zi-Lin Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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