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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342597/bacteria-bacteriophage-coevolution-in-the-human-gut-implications-for-microbial-diversity-and-functionality
#1
REVIEW
Pauline D Scanlan
Antagonistic coevolution (AC) between bacteria and bacteriophages plays a key role in driving and maintaining microbial diversity. Consequently, AC is predicted to affect all levels of biological organisation, from the individual to ecosystem scales. Nonetheless, we know nothing about bacteria-bacteriophage AC in perhaps the most important and clinically relevant microbial ecosystem known to humankind - the human gut microbiome. In this opinion piece I review current research on bacteria-phage AC in in vitro and natural populations of microbes...
March 22, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339743/application-of-bacteriophages-to-reduce-salmonella-attachment-and-biofilms-on-hard-surfaces
#2
Chao Gong, Xiuping Jiang
This study evaluated the effectiveness of bacteriophage treatment for reducing Salmonella attachment and biofilms on hard surfaces. Bacteriophages (n = 6) were selected for bacteriophage treatment based on host ranges against Salmonella isolates (n = 10) obtained from rendering plants. The effectiveness of bacteriophage treatment (104-108 PFU/mL) was initially evaluated against strong Salmonella biofilm formers in 96-well microplate. Then, the bacteriophage treatment (109 PFU/mL) was applied for 7 d to reduce Salmonella attached to the stainless steel surfaces under laboratory and greenhouse conditions...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339484/a-high-throughput-qpcr-system-for-simultaneous-quantitative-detection-of-dairy-lactococcus-lactis-and-leuconostoc-bacteriophages
#3
Musemma K Muhammed, Lukasz Krych, Dennis S Nielsen, Finn K Vogensen
Simultaneous quantitative detection of Lactococcus (Lc.) lactis and Leuconostoc species bacteriophages (phages) has not been reported in dairies using undefined mixed-strain DL-starters, probably due to the lack of applicable methods. We optimized a high-throughput qPCR system that allows simultaneous quantitative detection of Lc. lactis 936 (now SK1virus), P335, c2 (now C2virus) and Leuconostoc phage groups. Component assays are designed to have high efficiencies and nearly the same dynamic detection ranges, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338911/new-horizons-in-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-in-older-people
#4
Victoria Ewan, Thomas Hellyer, Julia Newton, John Simpson
Approximately 1.5% of hospital patients develop hospital acquired pneumonia. Aspiration is the major risk factor for pneumonia and is associated with reduced ability to mechanically clear respiratory pathogens into the stomach. Currently non-invasive methods of diagnosing hospital acquired pneumonia are less robust than invasive methods, and lead to over-diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis is key to surveillance, prevention and treatment of HAP, and also to improving outcomes; newer imaging modalities such as phase contrast X-ray imaging and nanoparticle enhanced magnetic resonance imaging may help...
February 27, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338832/evidence-of-translation-efficiency-adaptation-of-the-coding-regions-of-the-bacteriophage-lambda
#5
Eli Goz, Oriah Mioduser, Alon Diament, Tamir Tuller
Deciphering the way gene expression regulatory aspects are encoded in viral genomes is a challenging mission with ramifications related to all biomedical disciplines. Here, we aimed to understand how the evolution shapes the bacteriophage lambda genes by performing a high resolution analysis of ribosomal profiling data and gene expression related synonymous/silent information encoded in bacteriophage coding regions.We demonstrated evidence of selection for distinct compositions of synonymous codons in early and late viral genes related to the adaptation of translation efficiency to different bacteriophage developmental stages...
February 28, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337580/bacteriophage-encoded-virion-associated-enzymes-to-overcome-the-carbohydrate-barriers-during-the-infection-process
#6
REVIEW
Agnieszka Latka, Barbara Maciejewska, Grazyna Majkowska-Skrobek, Yves Briers, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that infect the host after successful receptor recognition and adsorption to the cell surface. The irreversible adherence followed by genome material ejection into host cell cytoplasm must be preceded by the passage of diverse carbohydrate barriers such as capsule polysaccharides (CPSs), O-polysaccharide chains of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules, extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) forming biofilm matrix, and peptidoglycan (PG) layers. For that purpose, bacteriophages are equipped with various virion-associated carbohydrate active enzymes, termed polysaccharide depolymerases and lysins, that recognize, bind, and degrade the polysaccharide compounds...
March 23, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336602/complete-genome-sequences-of-pseudomonas-fluorescens-bacteriophages-isolated-from-freshwater-samples-in-omaha-nebraska
#7
Guoqing Lu, Jamie Luhr, Andrew Stoecklein, Paige Warner, William Tapprich
The complete genome sequences of four Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteriophages, UNO-SLW1 to UNO-SLW4, isolated from freshwater samples, are 39,092 to 39,215 bp long. The genomes are highly similar (identity, >0.995) but dissimilar from that of Pseudomonas phage Pf-10 (the closest relative, 0.685 to 0.686 identity), with 48 to 49 protein-coding genes and 66 regulatory sites predicted.
March 23, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335451/a-review-of-phage-therapy-against-bacterial-pathogens-of-aquatic-and-terrestrial-organisms
#8
REVIEW
Janis Doss, Kayla Culbertson, Delilah Hahn, Joanna Camacho, Nazir Barekzi
Since the discovery of bacteriophage in the early 1900s, there have been numerous attempts to exploit their innate ability to kill bacteria. The purpose of this report is to review current findings and new developments in phage therapy with an emphasis on bacterial diseases of marine organisms, humans, and plants. The body of evidence includes data from studies investigating bacteriophage in marine and land environments as modern antimicrobial agents against harmful bacteria. The goal of this paper is to present an overview of the topic of phage therapy, the use of phage-derived protein therapy, and the hosts that bacteriophage are currently being used against, with an emphasis on the uses of bacteriophage against marine, human, animal and plant pathogens...
March 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335417/dna-sequencing-sensors-an-overview
#9
REVIEW
Jose Antonio Garrido-Cardenas, Federico Garcia-Maroto, Jose Antonio Alvarez-Bermejo, Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro
The first sequencing of a complete genome was published forty years ago by the double Nobel Prize in Chemistry winner Frederick Sanger. That corresponded to the small sized genome of a bacteriophage, but since then there have been many complex organisms whose DNA have been sequenced. This was possible thanks to continuous advances in the fields of biochemistry and molecular genetics, but also in other areas such as nanotechnology and computing. Nowadays, sequencing sensors based on genetic material have little to do with those used by Sanger...
March 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334205/tetrahymena-phagocytic-vesicles-as-ecological-micro-niches-of-phage-transfer
#10
Iqbal Aijaz, Gerald B Koudelka
The microbial communities in natural environments such as soil, pond water, or animal rumens are comprised of a diverse mixture of bacteria and protozoa including ciliates or flagellates. In such microbiomes, a major source of bacterial mortality is grazing by phagocytic protists. Many protists are omnivorous heterotrophs, feeding on a range of different bacterial species. Due to this indiscriminate feeding, different bacterial species can assemble together in the same phagocytic vesicles where can they potentially exchange genetic material...
March 3, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332591/improved-lysis-efficiency-and-immunogenicity-of-salmonella-ghosts-mediated-by-co-expression-of-%C3%AE-phage-holin-endolysin-and-%C3%A9-x174-gene-e
#11
Gayeon Won, Irshad Ahmed Hajam, John Hwa Lee
Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria by bacteriophage ɸX174 gene E mediated lysis. They represent a novel inactivated vaccine platform; however, the practical application of BGs for human vaccines seems to be limited due to the safety concerns on the presence of viable cells in BGs. Therefore, to improve the lysis efficiency of the gene E, we exploited the peptidoglycan hydrolyzing ability of the λ phage holin-endolysins to expedite the process of current BG production system...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331958/nucleic-acid-sensing-with-enzyme-dna-binding-protein-conjugates-cascade-and-simple-dna-nanostructures
#12
Gülsen Betül Aktas, Vasso Skouridou, Lluis Masip
A versatile and universal DNA sensing platform is presented based on enzyme-DNA binding protein tags conjugates and simple DNA nanostructures. Two enzyme conjugates were thus prepared, with horseradish peroxidase linked to the dimeric single-chain bacteriophage Cro repressor protein (HRP-scCro) and glucose oxidase linked to the dimeric headpiece domain of Escherichia coli LacI repressor protein (GOx-dHP), and used in conjunction with a hybrid ssDNA-dsDNA detection probe. This probe served as a simple DNA nanostructure allowing first for target recognition through its target-complementary single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) part and then for signal generation after conjugate binding on the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) containing the specific binding sites for the dHP and scCro DNA binding proteins...
March 22, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331815/measuring-e-coli-and-bacteriophage-dna-in-cell-sonicates-to-evaluate-the-cal1-reaction-as-a-synthetic-biology-standard-for-qpcr
#13
Alexander Templar, Desmond M Schofield, Darren N Nesbeth
We measured the impact of the presence of total Escherichia coli (E. coli) cellular material on the performance of the Linear Regression of Efficiency (LRE) method of absolute quantitative PCR (LRE qPCR), which features the putatively universal CAL1 calibration reaction, which we propose as a synthetic biology standard. We firstly used a qPCR reaction in which a sequence present in the lone genomic BirA locus is amplified. Amplification efficiency for this reaction, a key metric for many quantitative qPCR methods, was inhibited by cellular material from bioreactor cultivation to a greater extent than material from shake flask cultivation...
March 2017: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331600/bacterial-cell-to-cell-signaling-promotes-the-evolution-of-resistance-to-parasitic-bacteriophages
#14
Pierre Moreau, Stephen P Diggle, Ville-Petri Friman
The evolution of host-parasite interactions could be affected by intraspecies variation between different host and parasite genotypes. Here we studied how bacterial host cell-to-cell signaling affects the interaction with parasites using two bacteria-specific viruses (bacteriophages) and the host bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa that communicates by secreting and responding to quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules. We found that a QS-signaling proficient strain was able to evolve higher levels of resistance to phages during a short-term selection experiment...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329379/the-lysis-of-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-by-bacteriophages-releases-less-endotoxin-than-betalactams
#15
Nicolas Dufour, Raphaëlle Delattre, Jean-Damien Ricard, Laurent Debarbieux
Background: Beside numerous experimental data assessing phage therapy efficacy, questions regarding safety of this approach are not sufficiently addressed. In particular, as phages can kill bacterial cells within less than 10 minutes, the associated endotoxin release (ER) in severe infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria could be a matter of concern. Methods: Two therapeutic virulent phages and four reference antibiotics were studied in vitro for their ability to kill two pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and generate an ER...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327667/genetic-and-functional-diversity-of-ubiquitous-dna-viruses-in-selected-chinese-agricultural-soils
#16
Li-Li Han, Dan-Ting Yu, Li-Mei Zhang, Ju-Pei Shen, Ji-Zheng He
Viral community structures in complex agricultural soils are largely unknown. Electron microscopy and viromic analyses were conducted on six typical Chinese agricultural soil samples. Tailed bacteriophages, spherical and filamentous viral particles were identified by the morphological analysis. Based on the metagenomic analysis, single-stranded DNA viruses represented the largest viral component in most of the soil habitats, while the double-stranded DNA viruses belonging to the Caudovirales order were predominanted in Jiangxi-maize soils...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327522/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-shewanella-phage-host-system-from-the-gut-of-the-tunicate-ciona-intestinalis
#17
Brittany Leigh, Charlotte Karrer, John P Cannon, Mya Breitbart, Larry J Dishaw
Outnumbering all other biological entities on earth, bacteriophages (phages) play critical roles in structuring microbial communities through bacterial infection and subsequent lysis, as well as through horizontal gene transfer. While numerous studies have examined the effects of phages on free-living bacterial cells, much less is known regarding the role of phage infection in host-associated biofilms, which help to stabilize adherent microbial communities. Here we report the cultivation and characterization of a novel strain of Shewanella fidelis from the gut of the marine tunicate Ciona intestinalis, inducible prophages from the S...
March 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325816/papers-of-note-in-science355-6330
#18
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles include several reviews on targeting signaling pathways to treat cancer, as well as research articles that highlight proteins that drive circadian clocks; how bacteriophages affect the virulence of pathogenic bacteria; a mobile transcription factor in plants; a secreted nucleoside that affects metabolism; and the effects of protein aggregation in aging yeast cells.
March 21, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324709/improvement-of-virus-removal-using-ultrafiltration-membranes-modified-with-grafted-zwitterionic-polymer-hydrogels
#19
Ruiqing Lu, Chang Zhang, Maria Piatkovsky, Mathias Ulbricht, Moshe Herzberg, Thanh H Nguyen
Potable water reuse has been adopted by cities suffering water scarcity in recent years. The microbial safety in water reuse, especially with respect to pathogenic viruses, is still a concern for water consumers. Membrane filtration can achieve sufficient removal of pathogenic viruses without disinfection byproducts, but the required energy is intensive. In this study, we graft-polymerized zwitterionic SPP ([3-(methacryloylamino) propyl] dimethyl (3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide) on a 150 kDa ultrafiltration polyethersulfone membrane to achieve a significantly higher virus removal...
March 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324612/quantitative-image-analysis-of-single-molecule-mrna-dynamics-in-living-cells
#20
José Rino, Ana C de Jesus, Maria Carmo-Fonseca
Single mRNA molecules can be imaged in living cells by a method that consists in genetically inserting binding sites for a bacteriophage protein in the gene of interest. The resulting reporter transgene is then integrated in the genome of cells that express the phage protein fused to a fluorescent tag. Upon transcription, binding of the fluorescent protein to its target sequence makes the RNA visible. With this approach it is possible to track, in real time, the life cycle of a precursor mRNA at the site of transcription in the nucleus and transport of mature mRNA to the cytoplasm...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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