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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633592/recent-advances-in-therapeutic-delivery-systems-of-bacteriophage-and-bacteriophage-encoded-endolysins
#1
Hollie Hathaway, Scarlet Milo, J Mark Sutton, Toby A Jenkins
Antibiotics have been the cornerstone of clinical management of bacterial infection since their discovery in the early 20th century. However, their widespread and often indiscriminate use has now led to reports of multidrug resistance becoming globally commonplace. Bacteriophage therapy has undergone a recent revival in battle against pathogenic bacteria, as the self-replicating and co-evolutionary features of these predatory virions offer several advantages over conventional therapeutic agents. In particular, the use of targeted bacteriophage therapy from specialized delivery platforms has shown particular promise owing to the control of delivery location, administration conditions and dosage of the therapeutic cargo...
July 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630923/ribosome-rearrangements-at-the-onset-of-translational-bypassing
#2
Xabier Agirrezabala, Ekaterina Samatova, Mariia Klimova, Miguel Zamora, David Gil-Carton, Marina V Rodnina, Mikel Valle
Bypassing is a recoding event that leads to the translation of two distal open reading frames into a single polypeptide chain. We present the structure of a translating ribosome stalled at the bypassing take-off site of gene 60 of bacteriophage T4. The nascent peptide in the exit tunnel anchors the P-site peptidyl-tRNA(Gly) to the ribosome and locks an inactive conformation of the peptidyl transferase center (PTC). The mRNA forms a short dynamic hairpin in the decoding site. The ribosomal subunits adopt a rolling conformation in which the rotation of the small subunit around its long axis causes the opening of the A-site region...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628648/the-adenovirus-major-core-protein-vii-is-dispensable-for-virion-assembly-but-is-essential-for-lytic-infection
#3
Philomena Ostapchuk, Maarit Suomalainen, Yueting Zheng, Karin Boucke, Urs F Greber, Patrick Hearing
The Adenovirus (Ad) genome within the capsid is tightly associated with a virus-encoded, histone-like core protein-protein VII. Two other Ad core proteins, V and X/μ, also are located within the virion and are loosely associated with viral DNA. Core protein VII remains associated with the Ad genome during the early phase of infection. It is not known if naked Ad DNA is packaged into the capsid, as with dsDNA bacteriophage and herpesviruses, followed by the encapsidation of viral core proteins, or if a unique packaging mechanism exists with Ad where a DNA-protein complex is simultaneously packaged into the virion...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627567/dissecting-binding-of-a-%C3%AE-barrel-membrane-protein-by-phage-display
#4
Luz M Meneghini, Sarvind Tripathi, Marcus A Woodworth, Sudipta Majumdar, Thomas L Poulos, Gregory A Weiss
Membrane proteins (MPs) constitute a third of all proteomes, and contribute to a myriad of cellular functions including intercellular communication, nutrient transport and energy generation. For example, TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs) in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria play an essential role transporting iron and other nutrients into the bacterial cell. The inherently hydrophobic surfaces of MPs complicates protein expression, purification, and characterization. Thus, dissecting the functional contributions of individual amino acids or structural features through mutagenesis can be a challenging ordeal...
June 19, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624655/biological-responses-to-m13-bacteriophage-modified-titanium-surfaces-in-vitro
#5
Yuhua Sun, Yiting Li, Baohua Wu, Jianxin Wang, Xiong Lu, Shuxin Qu, Jie Weng, Bo Feng
Phage-based materials have showed great potential in tissue engineering application. However, it is unknown what inflammation response will happen to this kind of materials. This work is to explore the biological responses to M13 bacteriophage (phage) modified titanium surfaces in vitro from the aspects of their interaction with macrophages, osteoblasts and mineralization behavior. Pretreated Ti surface, Ti surfaces with noncrosslinked phage film (APP) and crosslinked phage film (APPG) were compared. Phage films could limit the macrophage adhesion and activity due to inducing adherent-cell apoptosis...
June 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622860/immunogenicity-of-t7-bacteriophage-nanoparticles-displaying-g-h-loop-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-fmdv
#6
Hai Xu, Xi Bao, Yu Lu, Yamei Liu, Bihua Deng, Yiwei Wang, Yue Xu, Jibo Hou
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that causes severe economic losses worldwide. The G-H loop of the FMDV VP1 structural protein is the major neutralizing antigenic site. However, a fully protective G-H loop peptide vaccine requires the addition of promiscuous Th sites from a source outside VP1. Thus, we demonstrated the potential of T7 bacteriophage based nanoparticles displaying a genetically fused G-H loop peptide (T7-GH) as a FMDV vaccine candidate. Recombinant T7-GH phage was constructed by inserting the G-H loop coding region into the T7 Select 415-1b vector...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622385/effect-of-acute-predation-with-bacteriophage-on-intermicrobial-aggression-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#7
Patrick R Secor, Gabriele Sass, Hasan Nazik, David A Stevens
In persons with structural lung disease, particularly those with cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic airway infections cause progressive loss of lung function. CF airways can be colonized by a variety of microorganisms; the most frequently encountered bacterial and fungal pathogens are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus, respectively. Co-infection with P. aeruginosa and A. fumigatus often results in a more rapid loss of lung function, indicating that interactions between these pathogens affect infection pathogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620370/environmental-t4-family-bacteriophages-evolve-to-escape-abortive-infection-via-multiple-routes-in-a-bacterial-host-employing-altruistic-suicide-through-type-iii-toxin-antitoxin-systems
#8
Bihe Chen, Chidiebere Akusobi, Xinzhe Fang, George P C Salmond
Abortive infection is an anti-phage mechanism employed by a bacterium to initiate its own death upon phage infection. This reduces, or eliminates, production of viral progeny and protects clonal siblings in the bacterial population by an act akin to an "altruistic suicide." Abortive infection can be mediated by a Type III toxin-antitoxin system called ToxINPa consisting of an endoribonuclease toxin and RNA antitoxin. ToxINPa is a heterohexameric quaternary complex in which pseudoknotted RNA inhibits the toxicity of the toxin until infection by certain phages causes destabilization of ToxINPa, leading to bacteriostasis and, eventually, lethality...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618627/experimental-comparison-of-forces-resisting-viral-dna-packaging-and-driving-dna-ejection
#9
Nicholas Keller, Zachary T Berndsen, Paul J Jardine, Douglas E Smith
We compare forces resisting DNA packaging and forces driving DNA ejection in bacteriophage phi29 with theoretical predictions. Ejection of DNA from prohead-motor complexes is triggered by heating complexes after in vitro packaging and force is inferred from the suppression of ejection by applied osmotic pressure. Ejection force from 0% to 80% filling is found to be in quantitative agreement with predictions of a continuum mechanics model that assumes a repulsive DNA-DNA interaction potential based on DNA condensation studies and predicts an inverse-spool conformation...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618013/not-a-barrier-but-a-key-how-bacteriophages-exploit-host-s-o-antigen-as-an-essential-receptor-to-initiate-infection
#10
Nina K Broeker, Stefanie Barbirz
Tailed bacteriophages specific for Gram-negative bacteria encounter lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during the first infection steps. Yet, it is not well understood how biochemistry of these initial interactions relates to subsequent events orchestrating phage adsorption and tail rearrangements to initiate cell entry. For many phages, long O-antigen chains found on the LPS of smooth bacterial strains serve as essential receptor recognized by their tailspike proteins (TSP). Many TSP are depolymerases and O-antigen cleavage was described as necessary step for subsequent orientation towards a secondary receptor...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616834/minimizing-bias-in-virally-seeded-water-treatment-studies-evaluation-of-optimal-bacteriophage-and-mammalian-virus-preparation-methodologies
#11
Nathan Dunkin, ShihChi Weng, Joseph G Jacangelo, Kellogg J Schwab
One key assumption impacting data quality in viral inactivation studies is that reduction estimates are not altered by the virus seeding process. However, seeding viruses often involves the inadvertent addition of co-constituents such as cell culture components or additives used during preparation steps which can impact viral reduction estimates by inducing non-representative oxidant demand in disinfection studies and fouling in membrane assessments. The objective of this study was therefore to characterize a mammalian norovirus surrogate, murine norovirus (MNV), and bacteriophage MS2 at sequential stages of viral purification and to quantify their potential contribution to artificial oxidant demand and non-representative membrane fouling...
June 14, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612603/sortase-mediated-ligation-as-a-modular-approach-for-the-covalent-attachment-of-proteins-to-the-exterior-of-the-bacteriophage-p22-virus-like-particle
#12
Dustin P Patterson, Benjamin Schwarz, John Avera, Brian Western, Matthew Hicks, Paul Krugler, Matthew Terra, Masaki Uchida, Kimberly McCoy, Trevor Douglas
Virus-like particles are unique platforms well suited for the construction of nanomaterials with broad range applications. The research presented here describes the development of a modular approach for the covalent attachment of protein domains to the exterior of the versatile bacteriophage P22 virus-like particle (VLP) via a sortase-mediated ligation strategy. The bacteriophage P22 coat protein was genetically engineered to incorporate an LPETG amino acid sequence on the C-terminus, providing the peptide recognition sequence utilized by the sortase enzyme to catalyze peptide bond formation between the LPETG-tagged protein and a protein containing a poly-glycine sequence on the N-terminus...
June 14, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612402/coenzyme-b12-synthesis-as-a-baseline-to-study-metabolite-contribution-of-animal-microbiota
#13
Antoine Danchin, Sherazade Braham
Microbial communities thrive in a number of environments. Exploration of their microbiomes - their global genome - may reveal metabolic features that contribute to the development and welfare of their hosts, or chemical cleansing of environments. Yet we often lack final demonstration of their causal role in features of interest. The reason is that we do not have proper baselines that we could use to monitor how microbiota cope with key metabolites in the hosting environment. Here, focusing on animal gut microbiota, we describe the fate of cobalamins - metabolites of the B12 coenzyme family - that are essential for animals but synthesized only by prokaryotes...
June 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611755/efficacy-of-phage-therapy-in-controlling-rabbit-colibacillosis-and-changes-in-cecal-microbiota
#14
Jian Zhao, Yan Liu, Chenwen Xiao, Shaojie He, Huochun Yao, Guolian Bao
Phage therapy is a valid weapon that we could use to fight against pathogens. Bacteriophages kill bacteria and self-proliferate in the digestive tract. Furthermore, it was assumed that phage therapy could preserve the existing gut microbiota. In this study, 45 rabbits were equally divided into three groups after they were orally inoculated with pathogenic Escherichia coli to induce gut infection. Each group was treated with bacteriophage ZRP1 (Group P), ciprofloxacin lactate (Group A), or phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) (Group N)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611731/the-genomic-architecture-of-novel-simulium-damnosum-wolbachia-prophage-sequence-elements-and-implications-for-onchocerciasis-epidemiology
#15
James L Crainey, Jacob Hurst, Poppy H L Lamberton, Robert A Cheke, Claire E Griffin, Michael D Wilson, Cláudia P Mendes de Araújo, María-Gloria Basáñez, Rory J Post
Research interest in Wolbachia is growing as new discoveries and technical advancements reveal the public health importance of both naturally occurring and artificial infections. Improved understanding of the Wolbachia bacteriophages (WOs) WOcauB2 and WOcauB3 [belonging to a sub-group of four WOs encoding serine recombinases group 1 (sr1WOs)], has enhanced the prospect of novel tools for the genetic manipulation of Wolbachia. The basic biology of sr1WOs, including host range and mode of genomic integration is, however, still poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611496/a-bacteriophage-mediated-gold-nanoparticles-synthesis-and-their-anti-biofilm-activity
#16
S S Ahiwale, A V Bankar, S Tagunde, B P Kapadnis
In the present study, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis was carried out by using a rare bacteriophage which is morphologically similar to 7-11 phages of the C3 morphotype of tailed phage belonging to Podoviridae family as green route. Effect of various physiological parameters like pH, temperature and concentration of gold chloride salt on AuNPs synthesis was studied. The reaction mixtures have shown vivid colours at various physiological parameters. Phage inspired AuNPs were further characterized by using different techniques such as UV-Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS)...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611478/therapy-bacteriophages-important-for-fmt-efficacy
#17
Iain Dickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611213/spacer-capture-and-integration-by-a-type-i-f-cas1-cas2-3-crispr-adaptation-complex
#18
Robert D Fagerlund, Max E Wilkinson, Oleg Klykov, Arjan Barendregt, F Grant Pearce, Sebastian N Kieper, Howard W R Maxwell, Angela Capolupo, Albert J R Heck, Kurt L Krause, Mihnea Bostina, Richard A Scheltema, Raymond H J Staals, Peter C Fineran
CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems capture DNA fragments from invading bacteriophages and plasmids and integrate them as spacers into bacterial CRISPR arrays. In type I-E and II-A CRISPR-Cas systems, this adaptation process is driven by Cas1-Cas2 complexes. Type I-F systems, however, contain a unique fusion of Cas2, with the type I effector helicase and nuclease for invader destruction, Cas3. By using biochemical, structural, and biophysical methods, we present a structural model of the 400-kDa Cas14-Cas2-32 complex from Pectobacterium atrosepticum with bound protospacer substrate DNA...
June 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606192/assessment-of-healthcare-worker-protocol-deviations-and-self-contamination-during-personal-protective-equipment-donning-and-doffing
#19
Jennie H Kwon, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Kimberly A Reske, Stephen Y Liang, Tiffany Hink, Meghan A Wallace, Angela Shupe, Sondra Seiler, Candice Cass, Victoria J Fraser, Erik R Dubberke
OBJECTIVE To evaluate healthcare worker (HCW) risk of self-contamination when donning and doffing personal protective equipment (PPE) using fluorescence and MS2 bacteriophage. DESIGN Prospective pilot study. SETTING Tertiary-care hospital. PARTICIPANTS A total of 36 HCWs were included in this study: 18 donned/doffed contact precaution (CP) PPE and 18 donned/doffed Ebola virus disease (EVD) PPE. INTERVENTIONS HCWs donned PPE according to standard protocols. Fluorescent liquid and MS2 bacteriophage were applied to HCWs...
June 13, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605670/ssb-recruitment-of-exonuclease-i-aborts-template-switching-in-escherichia-coli
#20
Laura T Laranjo, Stephen J Gross, Danna M Zeiger, Susan T Lovett
Misalignment of a nascent strand and the use of an alternative template during DNA replication, a process termed "template-switching", can give rise to frequent mutations and genetic rearrangements. Mutational hotspots are frequently found associated with imperfect inverted repeats ("quasipalindromes" or "QPs") in many organisms, including bacteriophage, bacteria, yeast and mammals. Evidence suggests that QPs mutate by a replication template-switch whereby one copy of the inverted repeat templates synthesis of the other...
June 3, 2017: DNA Repair
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