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Michael Versoza, Wonseok Jung, Mona Loraine Barabad, Yongil Lee, Kyomin Choi, Duckshin Park
The inactivation of viruses that retain their infectivity when transmitted through the air is challenging. To address this issue, this study used a non-contact ultrasound transducer (NCUT) to generate shock waves in the air at specific distances, input voltages, and exposure durations, targeting bacteriophage virus aerosols captured on to H14 HEPA filters. Initially, a frequency of 27.56 kHz (50V) at 25-mm distance was used, which yielded an inactivation efficiency of up to 32.69 ± 12.10%. Other frequencies at shorter distances were investigated, where 29...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Christian R Boehm, Paul K Grant, Jim Haseloff
Modern genetic tools allow the dissection and emulation of fundamental mechanisms shaping morphogenesis in multicellular organisms. Several synthetic genetic circuits for control of multicellular patterning have been reported to date. However, hierarchical induction of gene expression domains has received little attention from synthetic biologists, despite its importance in biological self-organization. Here we report a synthetic genetic system implementing population-based AND-logic for programmed autonomous induction of bacterial gene expression domains...
February 22, 2018: Nature Communications
Suntae Lee, Shota Tasaki, Akihiko Hata, Naoyuki Yamashita, Hiroaki Tanaka
Evaluating the reduction of virus load in water reclamation plants is important to ensuring the hygienic safety of the reclaimed water. A virus-spiking test is usually used to estimate virus reduction but is not practicable at large-scale plants. Thus, we evaluated virus reduction by ultrafiltration (UF) plus ultraviolet (UV) irradiation at a large-scale reclamation plant (1000 m3 /d) by quantifying indigenous F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPHs). To detect the infectious FRNAPH, we used both plaque assay and integrated culture-reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction combined with the most probable number assay, which can detect infectious FRNAPH genotypes...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Technology
Lisa M Casanova, Kimberly Erukunuakpor, Colleen S Kraft, Joel M Mumma, Francis T Durso, Ashley N Ferguson, Christina L Gipson, Victoria L Walsh, Craig Zimring, Jennifer DuBose, Jesse T Jacob
Background: Personal protective equipment (PPE) protects healthcare workers (HCWs) caring for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD), and PPE doffing is a critical point for preventing viral self-contamination. We assessed contamination of skin, gloves, and scrubs after doffing Ebola-level PPE contaminated with surrogate viruses: bacteriophages MS2 and Φ6. Methods: In a medical biocontainment unit, HCWs (n = 10) experienced in EVD care donned and doffed PPE following unit protocols that incorporate trained observer guidance and alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR)...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Kaitlynne Bohm, Steffen Porwollik, Weiping Chu, John A Dover, Eddie B Gilcrease, Sherwood R Casjens, Michael McClelland, Kristin N Parent
Bacteriophages rely on their hosts for replication, and many host genes critically determine either viral progeny production or host success via phage resistance. A random insertion transposon library of 240,000 mutants in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was used to monitor effects of individual bacterial gene disruptions on bacteriophage P22 lytic infection. These experiments revealed candidate host genes that alter the timing of phage P22 propagation. Using a False Discovery Rate of <0.1, mutations in 235 host genes either blocked or delayed progression of P22 lytic infection, including many genes for which this role was previously unknown...
February 22, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Yilmaz Emre Gencay, Martine C H Sørensen, Cory Q Wenzel, Christine M Szymanski, Lone Brøndsted
Campylobacter jejuni NCTC12662 is sensitive to infection by many Campylobacter bacteriophages. Here we used this strain to investigate the molecular mechanism behind phage resistance development when exposed to a single phage and demonstrate how phase variable expression of one surface component influences phage sensitivity against many diverse C. jejuni phages. When C. jejuni NCTC12662 was exposed to phage F207 overnight, 25% of the bacterial cells were able to grow on a lawn of phage F207, suggesting that resistance develops at a high frequency...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Simon Meister, Matthew E Verbyla, Marius Klinger, Tamar Kohn
The susceptibility of waterborne viruses to disinfection is known to vary between viruses and even between closely related strains, yet the extent of this variation is not known. Here, different enteroviruses (six strains of coxsackievirus B5, two strains of coxsackievirus B4 and one strain of coxackievirus B1) were isolated from wastewater and inactivated by UV254 , sunlight, free chlorine (FC), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), and heat. Inactivation kinetics of these isolates were compared with those of laboratory enterovirus strains (CVB5 Faulkner and echovirus 11 Gregory) and MS2 bacteriophage...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Sebastien Alphonse, Boris Itin, Reza Khayat, Ranajeet Ghose
While solid-state NMR (ssNMR) has emerged as a powerful technique to study viral capsids, current studies are limited to capsids formed from single proteins or single polyproteins. The ability to selectively label individual protein components within multi-protein viral capsids and the resulting spectral simplification will facilitate the extension of ssNMR techniques to complex viruses. In vitro capsid assembly by combining individually purified, labeled and unlabeled components in NMR quantities is not a viable option for most viruses...
February 21, 2018: Biochemistry
Steven Molinarolo, Daniele Granata, Vincenzo Carnevale, Christopher A Ahern
Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) beta (β) subunits have been called the "overachieving" auxiliary ion channel subunit. Indeed, these subunits regulate the trafficking of the sodium channel complex at the plasma membrane and simultaneously tune the voltage-dependent properties of the pore-forming alpha-subunit. It is now known that VGSC β-subunits are capable of similar modulation of multiple isoforms of related voltage-gated potassium channels, suggesting that their abilities extend into the broader voltage-gated channels...
February 21, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Sherwood R Casjens, Graham F Hatfull
Roger W. Hendrix was at the forefront of bacteriophage biology for nearly 50 years, and central both to our understanding of viral capsid assembly as well as phage genomic diversity and evolution. Roger's warm and gentle demeanor belied a razor-sharp mind and warmed him to numerous highly productive collaborations that amplified his scientific impact. Roger was always completely open with scientific ideas while at the same time quietly agitating with a stream of new ways of thinking about problems and nudging our communities to search for innovative solutions: a gentle, but highly effective, provocateur...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Kanchan Chauhan, Juan M Hernandez-Meza, Ana G Rodríguez-Hernández, Karla Juarez-Moreno, Prakhar Sengar, Rafael Vazquez-Duhalt
BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen is the standard endocrine therapy for breast cancers, which require metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP). However, the lower and variable concentrations of CYP activity at the tumor remain major bottlenecks for the efficient treatment, causing severe side-effects. Combination nanotherapy has gained much recent attention for cancer treatment as it reduces the drug-associated toxicity without affecting the therapeutic response. RESULTS: Here we show the modular design of P22 bacteriophage virus-like particles for nanoscale integration of virus-driven enzyme prodrug therapy and photodynamic therapy...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
S Rigvava, I Kusradze, N Karumidze, T Dvalidze, M Katsitadze, S Barbakadze, D Bolkvadze, M Goderdzishvili
Bacteriophages represent the widest group of viruses, from which only virulent phages are used as antibacterial agent. But the picture in the case of temperate phage is absolutely different; many lysogenic phages express gene products that have subtle effects on the phenotype of the host cell. This process is called lysogenic conversion. In present study we characterized new temperate Enterococcus faecium phage vB_GEC_EFS_2, which was isolated from river Mtkvari. The phage is a member of Siphoviridae family...
January 2018: Georgian Medical News
Louise Stone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
Jimmy T Trinh, Masfer H Alkahtani, Isaac Rampersaud, Arfaan Rampersaud, Marlan Scully, Ryland F Young, Philip Hemmer, Lanying Zeng
Rapid identification of specific bacterial strains within clinical, environmental, and food samples can facilitate the prevention and treatment of disease. Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) are being developed as biomarkers in biology and medicine, due to their excellent imaging properties, ability to accept surface modifications, and lack of toxicity. Bacteriophages, the viruses of bacteria, can have exquisite specificity for certain hosts. We propose to exploit the properties of FNDs and phages to develop phages conjugated with FNDs as long-lived fluorescent diagnostic reagents...
February 20, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Dilini Kumaran, Mariam Taha, QiLong Yi, Sandra Ramirez-Arcos, Jean-Simon Diallo, Alberto Carli, Hesham Abdelbary
The inability to effectively treat biofilm-related infections is a major clinical challenge. This has been attributed to the heightened antibiotic tolerance conferred to bacterial cells embedded within biofilms. Lytic bacteriophages (phages) have evolved to effectively infect and eradicate biofilm-associated cells. The current study was designed to investigate the ability of phage treatment to enhance the activity of antibiotics against biofilm-forming Staphylococcus aureus . The biofilm positive S. aureus strain ATCC 35556, the lytic S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rajvee Shah Punatar, Stephen C West
Holliday junctions provide a covalent link between recombining DNA molecules and need to be removed prior to chromosome segregation at mitosis. Defects in their resolution lead to mitotic catastrophe, characterized by the formation of DNA breaks and chromosome aberrations. Enzymes that resolve recombination intermediates have been identified in all forms of life, from bacteriophage, to bacteria, yeast, and humans. In higher eukaryotes, Holliday junctions are resolved by GEN1, a nuclease that is mechanistically similar to the prototypic resolvase Escherichia coli RuvC, and by the SMX trinuclease complex...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Tibebe A Teklemariam, Osvaldo D Rivera, Scott W Nelson
Bacteriophage T4 encodes orthologs of the proteins Rad50 (gp46) and Mre11 (gp47), which form a heterotetrameric complex (MR) that is responsible for host genome degradation and the processing of DNA ends for recombination-dependent DNA repair. In this chapter, we describe the ensemble methods currently employed by our laboratory to characterize the exonuclease activity of the T4 MR complex. DNA exonucleases play a vital role in maintaining the integrity of DNA through their participation in DNA repair pathways and as proofreaders for DNA polymerases...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Khashayar Shahin, Majid Bouzari, Ran Wang
PURPOSE: Shigellosis is one of the most important food-borne and water-borne diseases worldwide. Although antibiotics are considered as efficient agents for shigellosis treatment, improper use of these has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant Shigella spp. Therefore, finding a new strategy as alternative treatment seems necessary. METHODOLOGY: Different samples from a wastewater treatment plant were used to isolate Shigella spp. specific phages. Physiological properties were determined, and genomic analysis was also carried out...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Galina V Mikoulinskaia, Sergei V Chernyshov, Maria S Shavrina, Nikolai V Molochkov, Valentina Ya Lysanskaya, Andrei A Zimin
Identification and cloning of genes as well as biochemical characterization of the gene products were carried out for two novel endolysins of pseudo T-even lytic bacteriophages RB43 and RB49, which represent different myovirus groups of the subfamily Tevenvirinae. Genes RB43ORF159c and RB49р102 were cloned in E. coli cells, and their products were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity with an up to 80 % yield of total activity. In respect to substrate specificity, both enzymes were found to be lytic l-alanoyl-d-glutamate peptidases belonging to the M15 family...
February 1, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Abdelrahim Zoued, Jean-Pierre Duneau, Eric Durand, Alexandre P España, Laure Journet, Françoise Guerlesquin, Eric Cascales
The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a multiprotein complex used by bacteria to deliver effectors into target cells. The T6SS comprises a bacteriophage-like contractile tail structure anchored to the cell envelope by a membrane complex constituted of the TssJ outer membrane lipoprotein and the TssL and TssM inner membrane proteins. TssJ establishes contact with the periplasmic domain of TssM whereas the transmembrane segments of TssM and its cytoplasmic domain interact with TssL. TssL protrudes in the cytoplasm but is anchored by a C-terminal transmembrane helix (TMH)...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
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