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Josicelli Souza Crispim, Roberto Sousa Dias, Pedro Marcus Pereira Vidigal, Maíra Paula de Sousa, Cynthia Canêdo da Silva, Mateus Ferreira Santana, Sérgio Oliveira de Paula
Bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio belong to the group of Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB). SRB generate significant liabilities in the petroleum industry, mainly due to their ability to microbiologically induce corrosion, biofilm formation and H2 S production. Bacteriophages are an alternative control method for SRB, whose information for this group of bacteria however, is scarce. The present study developed a workflow for the identification of complete prophages in Desulfovibrio. Poly-lysogenesis was shown to be common in Desulfovibrio...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Li Guo, Ruobing Xu, Lu Gou, Zhichao Liu, Yiming Zhao, Dingxin Liu, Lei Zhang, Hailan Chen, Michael G Kong
Viruses are serious pathogenic contamination that severely affect the environment and human health. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma efficiently inactivates pathogenic bacteria, however, the mechanism of virus inactivation by plasma is not fully understood. In this study, surface plasma in argon mixed with 1% air and plasma-activated water were used to treat water containing bacteriophages. Both agents efficiently inactivated bacteriophages T4, Φ174, and MS2 in a time-dependent manner. Prolonged storage had marginal effects on the anti-viral activity of plasma-activated water...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Mengyu Shen, Yuhui Yang, Wei Shen, Lujia Cen, Jeffrey S McLean, Wenyuan Shi, Shuai Le, Xuesong He
The human oral cavity is home to a large number of bacteria and bacteriophages (phages). However, the biology of oral phages as members of the human microbiome is not well understood. Recently, we isolated an Actinomyces odontolyticus subsp. Actinosynbacte r strain XH001 from human oral cavity, and genomic analysis revealed the presence of an intact prophage, named xhp1. Here we demonstrated that xhp1 is a linear plasmid-like prophage, which is a newly identified phage of A. odontolyticus Prophage xhp1 genome is 35 kb linear double-stranded DNA with 10 bp single-stranded cohesive ends at 3' of both ends...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Saptarshi Sinha, Rajdeep K Grewal, Soumen Roy
Bacteriophages are more abundant than any other organism on our planet. The interaction of bacteriophages and bacteria and their coevolution is well known. In this chapter, we describe various aspects of modeling such systems and their dynamics. We explore their interaction in: (i) liquid media, which leads to well-mixed populations and (ii) solid media, where their interaction is spatially restricted. Such modeling, when used in conjunction with experiments would not only shed deep insight into the underlying dynamics but also provide useful clues toward potential therapeutic applications...
2018: Advances in Applied Microbiology
Siobhan C Watkins, Emily Sible, Catherine Putonti
Despite the abundance, ubiquity and impact of environmental viruses, their inherent genomic plasticity and extreme diversity pose significant challenges for the examination of bacteriophages on Earth. Viral metagenomic studies have offered insight into broader aspects of phage ecology and repeatedly uncover genes to which we are currently unable to assign function. A combined effort of phage isolation and metagenomic survey of Chicago’s nearshore waters of Lake Michigan revealed the presence of Pbunaviruses, relatives of the Pseudomonas phage PB1...
June 16, 2018: Viruses
George Tetz, Victor Tetz
The pathogenesis of numerous human multifaceted devastating diseases, including a variety of neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases, is associated with alterations in the gut microbiota; however, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Our recent human metagenome and phagobiota proteome analyses and studies in relevant animal models suggested that bacterial viruses might be implicated in the progression and maintenance of at least some pathologies, including those associated with protein misfolding...
June 16, 2018: Microorganisms
Yanyuan Pan, Hui Gao, Hao Lin, Zhen Liu, Lixia Tang, Songtao Li
Bacteriophages, which are tremendously important to the ecology and evolution of bacteria, play a key role in the development of genetic engineering. Bacteriophage virion proteins are essential materials of the infectious viral particles and in charge of several of biological functions. The correct identification of bacteriophage virion proteins is of great importance for understanding both life at the molecular level and genetic evolution. However, few computational methods are available for identifying bacteriophage virion proteins...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marta Lourenço, Luisa De Sordi, Laurent Debarbieux
Phage therapy is based on a simple concept: the use of a virus (bacteriophage) that is capable of killing specific pathogenic bacteria to treat bacterial infections. Since the pioneering work of Félix d’Herelle, bacteriophages (phages) isolated in vitro have been shown to be of therapeutic value. Over decades of study, a large number of rather complex mechanisms that are used by phages to hijack bacterial resources and to produce their progeny have been deciphered. While these mechanisms have been identified and have been studied under optimal conditions in vitro, much less is known about the requirements for successful viral infections in relevant natural conditions...
June 15, 2018: Viruses
Luisa De Sordi, Marta Lourenço, Laurent Debarbieux
Viruses that infect bacteria, or bacteriophages, are among the most abundant entities in the gut microbiome. However, their role and the mechanisms by which they infect bacteria in the intestinal tract remain poorly understood. We recently reported that intestinal bacteria are an evolutionary force, driving the expansion of the bacteriophage host range by boosting the genetic variability of these viruses. Here, we expand these observations by studying antagonistic bacteriophage-bacteria coevolution dynamics and revealing that bacterial genetic variability is also increased under the pressure of bacteriophage predation...
June 18, 2018: Gut Microbes
Pia S Pannaraj, Melissa Ly, Chiara Cerini, Monica Saavedra, Grace M Aldrovandi, Abdul A Saboory, Kevin M Johnson, David T Pride
Infants acquire many of their microbes from their mothers during the birth process. The acquisition of these microbes is believed to be critical in the development of the infant immune system. Bacteria also are transmitted to the infant through breastfeeding, and help to form the microbiome of the infant gastrointestinal (GI) tract; it is unknown whether viruses in human milk serve to establish an infant GI virome. We examined the virome contents of milk and infant stool in a cohort of mother-infant pairs to discern whether milk viruses colonize the infant GI tract...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sounak Sarkar, Mayukh Das, Tushar Suvra Bhowmick, Hemanta Koley, Robert Atterbury, Alok K Chakrabarti, Banwarilal L Sarkar
Objectives: We have isolated a total of five newer cholera phages which are novel broad host range to incorporate with the existing phage typing schemes for an extended typing scheme. Materials and Methods: These newly isolated phages were well characterized including the electron micrograph. A total of 300 Vibrio cholerae strains were isolated from the different endemic region in India were included in phage typing study. Results: These phages were found different from the existing phages...
April 2018: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Eric C Keen, Gautam Dantas
Recent years have witnessed an explosion of interest in the human microbiota. Although commensal bacteria have dominated research efforts to date, mounting evidence suggests that endogenous viral populations (the 'virome') play key roles in basic human physiology. The most numerous constituents of the human virome are not eukaryotic viruses but rather bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria. Here, we review phages' interactions with their immediate (prokaryotic) and extended (eukaryotic) hosts and with each other, with a particular emphasis on the temperate phages and prophages which dominate the human virome...
June 13, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Alberto Rastrojo, Antonio Alcamí
Viruses play an important role in the control of microbial communities, and it has been suggested that the influence of viruses in polar ecosystems, with low nutrients and under extreme environmental conditions, may be greater. Viral metagenomics allows the genetic characterization of complex viral communities without the need to isolate and grow viruses. Recent investigations in Antarctica and the Arctic are uncovering a great diversity of DNA viruses, including bacteriophages, circular single-stranded DNA viruses, algal-infecting phycodnaviruses, and virophages, adapted to these extreme environments...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Girja S Shukla, Yu-Jing Sun, Stephanie C Pero, Giselle S Sholler, David N Krag
The aim of this preclinical study was to evaluate T7 bacteriophage as a nanoparticle platform for expression of neoantigens that could allow rapid generation of vaccines for potential studies in human cancer patients. We have generated recombinant T7 phage vaccines carrying neoepitopes derived from mutated proteins of B16-F10 melanoma tumor cells. With the single mutated amino acid (AA) centered, peptides were expressed on the outer coat of T7 phage. All peptides with 11 and 34 AAs were successfully expressed...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Erica L Vonasek, Angela H Choi, Juan Sanchez, Nitin Nitin
There is a significant unmet need to develop antimicrobial solutions to reduce the risk of contamination in fresh produce. Bacteriophages have been proposed as a potential approach for controlling foodborne pathogens. This study evaluated the combination of edible dip coatings with T7 bacteriophages on whole and cut produce. The evaluation includes an assessment of phage loading, phage storage stability, antimicrobial activity, and phage stability during simulated gastric digestion on sliced cucumbers, sliced apples, and whole cherry tomatoes...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Fuminori Hyodo, Takeya Sho, Maity Basudev, Kenta Fujita, Yoko Tachibana, Satoko Akashi, Megumi Mano, Yuki Hishikawa, Masayuki Matsuo, Tomoko Nakaji, Takafumi Ueno
We report construction of an artificial protein needle (PN), which includes the membrane puncturing needle domain of bacteriophage T4, conjugated to Mn carbonyl (MnCO) complexes. The responsiveness to visible light of the MnCO complex makes it useful as a photo-induced in vivo magnetic resonance imaging contrast reagent (MRI CR) because the PN carrier has the potential to deliver the MnCO complex into mouse tumors with retention of coordination structure within the in vivo environment. Moreover, the composite has higher relaxivity and longer circulation as an MRI CR than the corresponding MnCO complex...
June 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
J C Sacher, E Yee, C M Szymanski, W G Miller
Bacteriophage therapy can potentially reduce Campylobacter jejuni numbers in livestock, but it requires a detailed understanding of phage-host interactions. C. jejuni strains readily infected by certain phages are designated as phage-propagating strains. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of three such strains, NCTC 12660, NCTC 12661, and NCTC 12664.
June 14, 2018: Genome Announcements
Paulo Tavares
Many icosahedral viruses use a specialized portal vertex for genome encapsidation in the viral capsid (or head). This structure then controls release of the viral genetic information to the host cell at the beginning of infection. In tailed bacteriophages, the portal system is connected to a tail device that delivers their genome to the bacterial cytoplasm. The head-to-tail interface is a multiprotein complex that locks the viral DNA inside the phage capsid correctly positioned for egress and that controls its ejection when the viral particle interacts with the host cell receptor...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Jānis Rūmnieks, Kaspars Tārs
Bacteriophages of the Leviviridae family are small viruses with short single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genomes. Protein-RNA interactions play a key role throughout the phage life cycle, and all of the conserved phage proteins - the maturation protein, the coat protein and the replicase - are able to recognize specific structures in the RNA genome. The phage-coded replicase subunit associates with several host proteins to form a catalytically active complex. Recognition of the genomic RNA by the replicase complex is achieved in a remarkably complex manner that exploits the RNA-binding properties of host proteins and the particular three-dimensional structure of the phage genome...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Suzana K Straus, Htet E Bo
Filamentous bacteriophages, also known as filamentous bacterial viruses or Inoviruses, have been studied extensively over the years. They are interesting paradigms in structural molecular biology and offer insight into molecular assembly, a process that remains to be fully understood. In this chapter, an overview on filamentous bacteriophages will be provided. In particular, we review the constituent proteins of filamentous bacteriophage and discuss assembly by examining the structure of the major coat protein at various stages of the process...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
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