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Bacteriophage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044635/development-and-application-of-a-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-detection-of-a-novel-gut-bacteriophage-crassphage
#1
Yuying Liang, Xin Jin, Yuan Huang, Shuiping Chen
BACKGROUND: crAssphage is a novel and by far the most abundant bacteriophage in human gut. This bacteriophage might modulate gut microbiota balance so as to be involved in some diseases like obesity, diabetes, metabolic disorders, hypertension, and cancer. Therefore, a rapid and reliable detection and quantification method for crAssphage is essential for studying its molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity in human diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The primers-probes set for the quantitative real-time PCR assay was designed based on the DNA polymerase gene (ORF00018) of crAssphage...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043791/lyophilized-engineered-phages-for-escherichia-coli-detection-in-food-matrices
#2
Juhong Chen, Rachael A Picard, Danhui Wang, Sam R Nugen
Easy-to-use, low-cost, and convenient-of-transport are the key requirements for a commercial bacteria detection kit designed for resource-limited settings. Here, we report the colorimetric detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in food samples using freeze-dried engineered bacteriophages (phages). In this approach, we have engineered T7 phages to carry the lacZ operon driven by T7 promoter to overexpress reporter enzyme. The engineered phages were freeze-dried in a water-soluble polymer for storage and transportation...
October 18, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042801/investigating-a-rare-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-strain-first-description-of-genome-sequencing-and-molecular-characterization-of-cc15-mrsa
#3
Abiola C Senok, Ali M Somily, Peter Slickers, Muhabat A Raji, Ghada Garaween, Atef Shibl, Stefan Monecke, Ralf Ehricht
PURPOSE: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC15 strains (CC15-MRSA) have only been sporadically described in literature. This study was carried out to describe the genetic make-up for this rare MRSA strain. METHODS: Four CC15-MRSA isolates collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between 2013 and 2014 were studied. Two isolates were from clinical infection and 2 from retail meat products. Whole genome sequencing was carried out using Illumina HiSeq2500 genome analyzer...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042498/capsids-and-genomes-of-jumbo-sized-bacteriophages-reveal-the-evolutionary-reach-of-the-hk97-fold
#4
Jianfei Hua, Alexis Huet, Carlos A Lopez, Katerina Toropova, Welkin H Pope, Robert L Duda, Roger W Hendrix, James F Conway
Large icosahedral viruses that infect bacteria represent an extreme of the coevolution of capsids and the genomes they accommodate. One subset of these large viruses is the jumbophages, tailed phages with double-stranded DNA genomes of at least 200,000 bp. We explored the mechanism leading to increased capsid and genome sizes by characterizing structures of several jumbophage capsids and the DNA packaged within them. Capsid structures determined for six jumbophages were consistent with the canonical phage HK97 fold, and three had capsid geometries with novel triangulation numbers (T=25, T=28, and T=52)...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040073/removal-of-model-viruses-e-coli-and-cryptosporidium-oocysts-from-surface-water-by-zirconium-and-chitosan-coagulants
#5
Ekaterina Christensen, Vegard Nilsen, Tor Håkonsen, Arve Heistad, Christophe Gantzer, Lucy J Robertson, Mette Myrmel
The present work evaluates the effect of contact filtration, preceded by coagulation with zirconium (Zr) and chitosan coagulants, on model microorganisms and waterborne pathogens. River water intended for potable water production was spiked with MS2 and Salmonella Typhimurium 28B bacteriophages, Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts prior to coagulation. The hygienic performance demonstrated by Zr comprised 3.0-4.0 log10 removal of viruses and 5.0-6.0 log10 removal of E. coli and C. parvum oocysts...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039249/visualizing-a-vibrio-cholerae-o1-el-tor-typing-bacteriophage-belonging-to-the-myoviridae-group-and-the-packaging-of-its-genomic-ends-inside-the-phage-capsid
#6
Anindito Sen, Amar N Ghosh
Phage D10, an O1 El Tor tying vibriophage, has been successfully employed to tract the outspread of cholera epidemic. Using Transmission Electron Microscopy and computational image analysis, we have determined the structures of the capsid, head-to-tail connector, the contractile helical tail, the baseplate and combined them to form the complete three-dimensional (3D) D10 phage structure. Using partial denaturation experiments on the genome and using the computed 3D structure of the phage, we have established the packing of the genome ends inside the capsid together with the release styles during the phage infection, respectively...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038252/a-bacteriophage-capsid-protein-is-an-inhibitor-of-a-conserved-transcription-terminator-of-various-bacterial-pathogens
#7
Gairika Ghosh, Jayavardhana Reddy, Susmit Sambhare, Ranjan Sen
Rho is a hexameric molecular motor that functions as a conserved transcription terminator in majority of the bacterial species, which is a potential drug target. Psu is a bacteriophage P4 capsid protein that inhibits E.coli Rho by obstructing its ATPase and translocase activities. Here, we explored the anti-Rho activity of Psu for the Rho proteins from different pathogens. Sequence alignment and homology modelling of Rho proteins from pathogenic bacteria revealed the conserved nature of the Psu-interacting regions in all these proteins...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037147/de-novo-assembly-of-genomes-from-long-sequence-reads-reveals-uncharted-territories-of-propionibacterium-freudenreichii
#8
Paulina Deptula, Pia K Laine, Richard J Roberts, Olli-Pekka Smolander, Helena Vihinen, Vieno Piironen, Lars Paulin, Eija Jokitalo, Kirsi Savijoki, Petri Auvinen, Pekka Varmanen
BACKGROUND: Propionibacterium freudenreichii is an industrially important bacterium granted the Generally Recognized as Safe (the GRAS) status, due to its long safe use in food bioprocesses. Despite the recognized role in the food industry and in the production of vitamin B12, as well as its documented health-promoting potential, P. freudenreichii remained poorly characterised at the genomic level. At present, only three complete genome sequences are available for the species. RESULTS: We used the PacBio RS II sequencing platform to generate complete genomes of 20 P...
October 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033917/newly-isolated-bacteriophages-from-the-podoviridae-siphoviridae-and-myoviridae-families-have-variable-effects-on-putative-novel-dickeya-spp
#9
Špela Alič, Tina Naglič, Magda Tušek-Žnidarič, Maja Ravnikar, Nejc Rački, Matjaž Peterka, Tanja Dreo
Soft rot pathogenic bacteria from the genus Dickeya cause severe economic losses in orchid nurseries worldwide, and there is no effective control currently available. In the last decade, the genus Dickeya has undergone multiple changes as multiple new taxa have been described, and just recently a new putative Dickeya species was reported. This study reports the isolation of three bacteriophages active against putative novel Dickeya spp. isolates from commercially produced infected orchids that show variable host-range profiles...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031680/soluble-expression-and-purification-of-a-full-length-asparaginyl-trna-synthetase-from-fasciola-gigantica
#10
R Vijayakumar, Timir Tripathi
We report the molecular cloning, expression, and single-step homogeneous purification of a full-length asparaginyl tRNA synthetase (NRS) from Fasciola gigantica (FgNRS). Fasciola gigantica is a parasitic liver fluke of the class Trematoda. It causes fascioliasis that infects the livers of various mammals, including humans. Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (AARS) catalyze the first step of protein synthesis. They attach an amino acid to its cognate tRNA, forming an amino acid-tRNA complex. The gene that codes for FgNRS was generated by amplification by polymerase chain reaction...
October 12, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029274/mutation-driven-parallel-evolution-during-viral-adaptation
#11
Andrew M Sackman, Lindsey W McGee, Anneliese J Morrison, Jessica Pierce, Jeremy Anisman, Hunter Hamilton, Stephanie Sanderbeck, Cayla Newman, Darin R Rokyta
Convergent evolution has been demonstrated across all levels of biological organization, from parallel nucleotide substitutions to convergent evolution of complex phenotypes, but whether instances of convergence are the result of selection repeatedly finding the same optimal solution to a recurring problem or are the product of mutational biases remains unsettled. We generated 20 replicate lineages allowed to fix a single mutation from each of four bacteriophage genotypes under identical selective regimes to test for parallel changes within and across genotypes at the levels of mutational effect distributions and gene, protein, amino acid, and nucleotide changes...
September 27, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028182/hypothesis-rna-and-dna-viral-sequence-integration-into-the-mammalian-host-genome-supports-long-term-b-cell-and-t-cell-adaptive-immunity
#12
Julia L Hurwitz, Bart G Jones, Emmanuelle Charpentier, David L Woodland
Viral sequence integration into the mammalian genome has long been perceived as a health risk. In some cases, integration translates to chronic viral infection, and in other instances, oncogenic gene mutations occur. However, research also shows that animal cells can benefit from integrated viral sequences (e.g., to support host cell development or to silence foreign invaders). Here we propose that, comparable with the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats that provide bacteria with adaptive immunity against invasive bacteriophages, animal cells may co-opt integrated viral sequences to support immune memory...
October 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027819/can-phage-therapy-solve-the-problem-of-recalcitrant-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#13
Joanna Szaleniec, Andrzej Górski, Maciej Szaleniec, Ryszard Międzybrodzki, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Paweł Stręk, Jacek Składzień
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) affects 5-15% of the global population. In some patients, the infectious exacerbations of the disease are recalcitrant to medical treatment and surgery. These cases are probably associated with the presence of bacterial biofilms. Bacteriophage (phage) therapy seems to be a promising antibiofilm strategy. The efficacy of phage therapy in sinonasal infections has been demonstrated both in vitro and in animal models. In the past, phage preparations were also administered to humans with CRS with favorable outcomes and no significant side effects...
October 13, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026949/a-filamentous-bacteriophage-targeted-to-carcinoembryonic-antigen-induces-tumor-regression-in-mouse-models-of-colorectal-cancer
#14
Paola Murgas, Nicolás Bustamante, Nicole Araya, Sebastián Cruz-Gómez, Eduardo Durán, Diana Gaete, César Oyarce, Ernesto López, Andrés Alonso Herrada, Nicolás Ferreira, Hans Pieringer, Alvaro Lladser
Colorectal cancer is a deadly disease, which is frequently diagnosed at advanced stages, where conventional treatments are no longer effective. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a new form to treat different malignancies by turning-on the immune system against tumors. However, tumors are able to evade antitumor immune responses by promoting an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Single-stranded DNA containing M13 bacteriophages are highly immunogenic and can be specifically targeted to the surface of tumor cells to trigger inflammation and infiltration of activated innate immune cells, overcoming tumor-associated immunosuppression and promoting antitumor immunity...
October 12, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026171/characterization-and-genomic-study-of-phikmv-like-phage-paxyb1-infecting-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#15
Xinyan Yu, Yue Xu, Yu Gu, Yefei Zhu, Xiaoqiu Liu
Bacteriophage PAXYB1 was recently isolated from wastewater samples. This phage was chosen based on its lytic properties against clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). In the present study, characterized PAXYB1, clarified its morphological and lytic properties, and analyzed its complete genome sequence. Based on the morphology of PAXYB1, it is a Podoviridae. The linear GC-rich (62.29%) double-stranded DNA genome of PAXYB1 is 43,337 bp including direct terminal repeats (DTRs) of 468 bp...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023522/microencapsulation-of-clostridium-difficile-specific-bacteriophages-using-microfluidic-glass-capillary-devices-for-colon-delivery-using-ph-triggered-release
#16
Gurinder K Vinner, Goran T Vladisavljević, Martha R J Clokie, Danish J Malik
The prevalence of pathogenic bacteria acquiring multidrug antibiotic resistance is a global health threat to mankind. This has motivated a renewed interest in developing alternatives to conventional antibiotics including bacteriophages (viruses) as therapeutic agents. The bacterium Clostridium difficile causes colon infection and is particularly difficult to treat with existing antibiotics; phage therapy may offer a viable alternative. The punitive environment within the gastrointestinal tract can inactivate orally delivered phages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021178/evolutionary-contribution-to-coexistence-of-competitors-in-microbial-food-webs
#17
Teppo Hiltunen, Veijo Kaitala, Jouni Laakso, Lutz Becks
The theory of species coexistence is a key concept in ecology that has received much attention. The role of rapid evolution for determining species coexistence is still poorly understood although evolutionary change on ecological time-scales has the potential to change almost any ecological process. The influence of evolution on coexistence can be especially pronounced in microbial communities where organisms often have large population sizes and short generation times. Previous work on coexistence has assumed that traits involved in resource use and species interactions are constant or change very slowly in terms of ecological time-scales...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020448/preparation-of-tc99m-labeled-pseudomonas-bacteriophage-without-adversely-impacting-infectivity-or-biodistribution
#18
Derek Holman, Matthew P Lungren, Jonathan Hardy, Christopher H Contag, Francis G Blankenberg
Bacteriophages (phages) are ubiquitous viruses which have adapted to infect and replicate within target bacteria, their only known hosts, in a strain specific fashion with minimal cross infectivity. The recent steep rise in antibiotic resistance throughout the world has renewed interest in adapting phages for the imaging and treatment of bacterial infection in humans. In this article, we describe the current limitations surrounding the radiolabeling of phage for the imaging and treatment of bacterial infection and methods to overcome these difficulties...
October 11, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018773/activity-of-bacteriophages-in-removing-biofilms-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-from-chronic-rhinosinusitis-patients
#19
Stephanie A Fong, Amanda Drilling, Sandra Morales, Marjolein E Cornet, Bradford A Woodworth, Wytske J Fokkens, Alkis J Psaltis, Sarah Vreugde, Peter-John Wormald
Introduction:Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are prevalent amongst chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) sufferers. Many P. aeruginosa strains form biofilms, leading to treatment failure. Lytic bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that infect, replicate within, and lyse bacteria, causing bacterial death. Aim: To assess the activity of a phage cocktail in eradicating biofilms of ex vivo P.aeruginosa isolates from CRS patients. Methods: P. aeruginosa isolates from CRS patients with and without cystic fibrosis (CF) across three continents were multi-locus sequence typed and tested for antibiotic resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018426/transfer-and-persistence-of-a-multi-drug-resistance-plasmid-in-situ-of-the-infant-gut-microbiota-in-the-absence-of-antibiotic-treatment
#20
Heidi Gumpert, Jessica Z Kubicek-Sutherland, Andreas Porse, Nahid Karami, Christian Munck, Marius Linkevicius, Ingegerd Adlerberth, Agnes E Wold, Dan I Andersson, Morten O A Sommer
The microbial ecosystem residing in the human gut is believed to play an important role in horizontal exchange of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes that threatens human health. While the diversity of gut-microorganisms and their genetic content has been studied extensively, high-resolution insight into the plasticity, and selective forces shaping individual genomes is scarce. In a longitudinal study, we followed the dynamics of co-existing Escherichia coli lineages in an infant not receiving antibiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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