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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822242/mucosal-immunity-of-the-postpartum-bovine-genital-tract
#1
REVIEW
Dinesh Dadarwal, Colin Palmer, Philip Griebel
In this review, mucosal immune defense mechanisms used to control infections in the bovine genital tract (vestibule, vagina, cervix, uterus and oviduct) during the postpartum period are reviewed. Knowledge gaps are highlighted to emphasize the need for further investigations. Physical barriers to the entry of microbes include vulvar sealing, vestibule-vaginal constriction, a narrow cervical opening and the mucosal epithelium along with the overlying mucus layer. Genital tract mucosal epithelial cells recognize damage-associated molecular patterns and pathogen-associated molecular patterns and respond by secreting antimicrobial peptides and cytokines to recruit and activate immune cells...
August 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820065/bcg-increased-membrane-expression-of-trim59-through-the-tlr2-tlr4-irf5-pathway-in-raw264-7-macrophages
#2
Jin Zheng, Tian Yuan, Yan Dongmei, Li Dong, Zhu Xun
OBJECTIVE: In our previous study, we showed that Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-activated macrophages have the ability to directly kill tumor cells. One of the main properties of these macrophages is the high expression of tripartite motif family protein 59 (TRIM59). This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of BCG-induced TRIM59 expression on macrophages and to identify the subcellular localization of TRIM59. METHODS: TRIM59 expression and TNF-α secretion were compared in RAW264...
August 18, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814758/targeted-insertion-of-an-anti-cd2-monoclonal-antibody-transgene-into-the-ggta1-locus-in-pigs-using-foki-dcas9
#3
Mark B Nottle, Evelyn J Salvaris, Nella Fisicaro, Stephen McIlfatrick, Ivan Vassiliev, Wayne J Hawthorne, Philip J O'Connell, Jamie L Brady, Andrew M Lew, Peter J Cowan
Xenotransplantation from pigs has been advocated as a solution to the perennial shortage of donated human organs and tissues. CRISPR/Cas9 has facilitated the silencing of genes in donor pigs that contribute to xenograft rejection. However, the generation of modified pigs using second-generation nucleases with much lower off-target mutation rates than Cas9, such as FokI-dCas9, has not been reported. Furthermore, there have been no reports on the use of CRISPR to knock protective transgenes into detrimental porcine genes...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810553/evaluation-of-the-c-domain-of-heparanase-during-age-induced-macrophage-inflammatory-response
#4
Qiaojing Qin, Guang Xu, Weiwei Qi, Mei Guo, Zhaoxia Wang, Wangjie Xu, Zhongdong Qiao, Yong Gu, Jianying Niu
Diabetic vasculopathy is intensified by macrophage inflammation caused by advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Heparanase (HPA) is a unique endoglycosidase, which cleaves heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) including syndecan-1 (Syn-1) to further stimulate macrophage cell migration and inflammation. The present study was planned to evaluated the role of C-domain (if any) of HPA in AGE inflammatory response in macrophages. Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay, migration assay, ELISA for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels, mRNA expression by RT-PCR and heparan degrading enzyme assay for HPA activity...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807607/plasma-cell-and-serum-antibody-responses-to-influenza-vaccine-in-preterm-and-full-term-infants
#5
Carl T D'Angio, Claire P Wyman, Ravi S Misra, Jessica L Halliley, Hongyue Wang, Julianne E Hunn, Caitlin M Fallone, F Eun-Hyung Lee
BACKGROUND: Preterm (PT) infants are at greater risk for severe influenza infection and experience decrements in long-term antibody responses to vaccines. This may related to defects in antibody secreting cell (ASC) generation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships among the frequencies of influenza-specific antibody secreting cells, ASC numbers and subsets, and antibody responses to influenza vaccines (IV) among PT and full-term (FT) infants. DESIGN/METHODS: We enrolled 11 former PT (≤32weeks' gestation, ≤1500 g' birth weight) and 11FT infants, 6-17months of age, receiving their first influenza immunizations...
August 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806642/circulating-follicular-helper-t-cells-presented-distinctively-different-responses-toward-bacterial-antigens-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#6
Zun-Qiang Zhou, Da-Nian Tong, Jiao Guan, Mei-Fang Li, Qi-Ming Feng, Min-Jie Zhou, Zheng-Yun Zhang
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic and progressive cholestatic liver disease with unknown causes. The initiation of PBC is associated with bacterial infections and abnormal immune correlates, such as the presence of self-reactive anti-mitochondrial antibodies and shifted balance of T cell subsets. In particular, the CD4(+)CXCR5(+) follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are highly activated in PBC patients and are significantly associated with PBC severity, but the underlying reasons are unknown. In this study, we found that the circulating CD4(+)CXCR5(+) T cells were enriched with the interferon (IFN)-γ-secreting Th1-subtype and the interleukin (IL)-17-secreting Th17-subtype, but not the IL-4-secreting Th2 subtype...
August 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804955/3m-052-as-an-adjuvant-for-a-plga-microparticle-based-leishmania-donovani-recombinant-protein-vaccine
#7
Qian Wang, Meagan A Barry, Christopher A Seid, Elissa M Hudspeth, C Patrick McAtee, Michael J Heffernan
It is believed that an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis will require a T helper type 1 (TH 1) immune response. In this study, we investigated the adjuvanticity of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonist 3M-052 in combination with the Leishmania donovani 36-kDa nucleoside hydrolase recombinant protein antigen (NH36). NH36 and 3M-052 were encapsulated in separate batches of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles (MPs). The loading efficiency for NH36 was 83% and for 3M-052 was above 95%. In vitro stimulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, measured by IL-12 secretion, demonstrated that 3M-052 (free or MP-formulated) had a concentration-dependent immunostimulatory effect with an optimum concentration of 2 µg/mL...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802838/identification-of-immune-correlates-of-protection-in-shigella-infection-by-application-of-machine-learning
#8
Jorge M Arevalillo, Marcelo B Sztein, Karen L Kotloff, Myron M Levine, Jakub K Simon
BACKGROUND: Immunologic correlates of protection are important in vaccine development because they give insight into mechanisms of protection, assist in the identification of promising vaccine candidates, and serve as endpoints in bridging clinical vaccine studies. Our goal is the development of a methodology to identify immunologic correlates of protection using the Shigella challenge as a model. METHODS: The proposed methodology utilizes the Random Forests (RF) machine learning algorithm as well as Classification and Regression Trees (CART) to detect immune markers that predict protection, identify interactions between variables, and define optimal cutoffs...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802663/peripheral-gamma-delta-t-cells-secrete-inflammatory-cytokines-in-women-with-idiopathic-recurrent-pregnancy-loss
#9
Ayantika Talukdar, Reeta Rai, K Aparna Sharma, D N Rao, Alpana Sharma
BACKGROUND: Gamma delta (γδ) T cells are known to link innate and adaptive immunity. Decidual γδ T cells are known to provide immunotolerance by producing IL-10 and TGF-β. In recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) females, the role of peripheral γδ T cells remain unstudied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the different phenotypes of γδ T cells in the peripheral blood of women with idiopathic RPL and their possible involvement in RPL condition. METHODS: A total of 120 women were recruited for the study...
August 9, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800954/a-tim-3-oligonucleotide-aptamer-enhances-t-cell-functions-and-potentiates-tumor-immunity-in-mice
#10
Tal Gefen, Iris Castro, Darija Muharemagic, Yvonne Puplampu-Dove, Shradha Patel, Eli Gilboa
T cell immunoglobulin-3 (TIM-3) is a negative regulator of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secreting CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cytotoxic cells. Recent studies have highlighted the role of TIM-3 as an important mediator of CD8(+) T cell exhaustion in the setting of chronic viral infections and cancer. In murine tumor models, antibody blockade of TIM-3 with anti-TIM-3 antibodies as monotherapy has no or minimal antitumor activity, suggesting that TIM-3 signaling exerts an accessory or amplifying effect in keeping immune responses in check...
August 8, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800590/assessment-and-optimization-of-theileria-parva-sporozoite-full-length-p67-antigen-expression-in-mammalian-cells
#11
Giulia Tebaldi, Laura B Williams, Andrea E Verna, Francesca Macchi, Valentina Franceschi, Lindsay M Fry, Donald P Knowles, Gaetano Donofrio
Delivery of various forms of recombinant Theileria parva sporozoite antigen (p67) has been shown to elicit antibody responses in cattle capable of providing protection against East Coast fever, the clinical disease caused by T. parva. Previous formulations of full-length and shorter recombinant versions of p67 derived from bacteria, insect, and mammalian cell systems are expressed in non-native and highly unstable forms. The stable expression of full-length recombinant p67 in mammalian cells has never been described and has remained especially elusive...
August 11, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800119/new-insights-contributing-to-the-development-of-effective-vaccines-and-therapies-to-reduce-the-pathology-caused-by-hrsv
#12
REVIEW
Nicolás M S Gálvez, Jorge A Soto, Alexis M Kalergis
Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) is one of the major causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) worldwide, leading to significant levels of immunocompromisation as well as morbidity and mortality in infants. Its main target of infection is the ciliated epithelium of the lungs and the host immune responses elicited is ineffective at achieving viral clearance. It is thought that the lack of effective immunity against hRSV is due in part to the activity of several viral proteins that modulate the host immune response, enhancing a Th2-like pro-inflammatory state, with the secretion of cytokines that promote the infiltration of immune cells to the lungs, with consequent damage...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799202/immune-tolerance-induced-by%C3%A2-platelet-targeted-factor-viii-gene-therapy-in-hemophilia-a-mice-is-cd4%C3%A2-t-cell-mediated
#13
Y Chen, X Luo, J A Schroeder, J Chen, C K Baumgartner, J Hu, Q Shi
BACKGROUND: Immune responses are a major concern in gene therapy. Our previous studies demonstrated that platelet-targeted FVIII (2bF8) gene therapy together with in vivo drug-selection of transduced cells can rescue the bleeding diathesis and induce immune tolerance in FVIII(null) mice. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether non-selectable 2bF8 lentiviral vector (LV) for the induction of platelet-FVIII expression is sufficient to induce immune tolerance and how immune tolerance is induced after 2bF8LV gene therapy...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797112/a-novel-whole-bacterial-enzyme-linked-immunosorbant-assay-to-quantify-chlamydia-trachomatis-specific-antibodies-reveals-distinct-differences-between-systemic-and-genital-compartments
#14
Hannah L Albritton, Pamela A Kozlowski, Rebecca A Lillis, Chris L McGowin, Julia D Siren, Stephanie N Taylor, Joyce A Ibana, Lyndsey R Buckner, Li Shen, Alison J Quayle
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the leading sexually transmitted bacterial infection. The continued global burden of CT infection strongly predicates the need for a vaccine to supplement current chlamydial control programs. The correlates of protection against CT are currently unknown, but they must be carefully defined to guide vaccine design. The localized nature of chlamydial infection in columnar epithelial cells of the genital tract necessitates investigation of immunity at the site of infection. The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive whole bacterial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify and compare CT-specific IgG and IgA in sera and genital secretions from CT-infected women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796897/hookworm-excretory-secretory-products-modulate-immune-responses-to-heterologous-and-species-specific-antigens
#15
Nicholas Diliani, Blaise Dondji
Approximately one billion people are currently infected with hookworm. Despite its high prevalence and the concomitant immune suppression seen in infected individuals, little research has been done on the mechanism of immunosuppression by hookworm. Our study focused on characterizing mechanisms utilized by hookworm to suppress the host immune response. Splenocytes and draining lymph node cells from mice injected with hookworm excretory/secretory (ES) proteins showed decreased proliferation in response to both heterologous and species-specific antigens while also having increased nitric oxide secretion...
August 10, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795800/prompt-and-robust-humoral-immunity-elicited-by-a-conjugated-chimeric-malaria-antigen-with-a-truncated-flagellin
#16
Fangxia Guo, Yong Dong Liu, Chun Zhang, Qi Wang, Lianyan Wang, Yuhui Gao, Jingxiu Bi, Heng Wang, Zhiguo Su
As one of the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), flagellin is recently utilized as a potent adjuvant for many subunit vaccines. In this study, a truncated flagellin (tFL) with deletion of the hypervariable regions was adopted as a carrier-adjuvant by chemical conjugation with a chimeric malaria antigen M.RCAg-1 (M312) via a hetero-bifunctional PEG linker. After boosting immunization in mice without any extra adjuvants, the M312-PEG-tFL conjugates elicited 100-1,000 times higher M312-specific antibody titers than M312, and 10-100 times higher than the physical mixture of M312 and tFL...
August 10, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794279/nasopharyngeal-infection-by-streptococcus-pyogenes-requires-superantigen-responsive-v%C3%AE-specific-t-cells
#17
Joseph J Zeppa, Katherine J Kasper, Ivor Mohorovic, Delfina M Mazzuca, S M Mansour Haeryfar, John K McCormick
The globally prominent pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes secretes potent immunomodulatory proteins known as superantigens (SAgs), which engage lateral surfaces of major histocompatibility class II molecules and T-cell receptor (TCR) β-chain variable domains (Vβs). These interactions result in the activation of numerous Vβ-specific T cells, which is the defining activity of a SAg. Although streptococcal SAgs are known virulence factors in scarlet fever and toxic shock syndrome, mechanisms by how SAgs contribute to the life cycle of S...
August 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794148/tubulointerstitial-nephritis-with-igm-positive-plasma-cells
#18
Naoki Takahashi, Takako Saeki, Atsushi Komatsuda, Chishio Munemura, Takeaki Fukui, Naofumi Imai, Noriyuki Homma, Tsuguru Hatta, Ken-Ichi Samejima, Takashi Fujimoto, Hiroki Omori, Yumi Ito, Yudai Nishikawa, Mamiko Kobayashi, Yukie Morikawa, Sachiko Fukushima, Seiji Yokoi, Daisuke Mikami, Kenji Kasuno, Hideki Kimura, Tomoyuki Nemoto, Yasunari Nakamoto, Kiyonao Sada, Manabu Sugai, Hironobu Naiki, Haruyoshi Yoshida, Ichiei Narita, Yoshihiko Saito, Masayuki Iwano
Infiltration by IgG-positive plasma cells is a common finding in tubulointerstitial nephritis. Indeed, it has been thought that CD138-positive mature plasma cells secrete mainly IgG, and the occurrence of tubulointerstitial nephritis with CD138-positive plasma cells secreting IgM has rarely been reported. Routine immunofluorescence of fresh frozen sections is considered the gold standard for detection of immune deposits. However, the immunoenzyme method with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections is superior for detecting IgM- or IgG-positive cells within the renal interstitium, thus histologic variants may often go undetected...
August 9, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793310/reduced-internalization-of-tnf-%C3%A9-tnfr1-down-regulates-caspase-dependent-phagocytosis-induced-cell-death-picd-in-neonatal-monocytes
#19
Stephan Dreschers, Christian Gille, Martin Haas, Florence Seubert, Christopher Platen, Thorsten W Orlikowsky
Phagocytosis-induced cell death (PICD) is diminished in cord blood monocytes (CBMO) as compared to cells from adults (PBMO) due to differences in the CD95-pathway. This may support a prolonged pro-inflammatory response with sequels of sustained inflammation as seen in neonatal sepsis. Here we hypothesized that TNF-α mediated induction of apoptosis is impaired in CBMO due to differences in the TNFR1-dependent internalization. Monocytes were infected with Escherichia coli-GFP (E. coli-GFP). Monocyte phenotype, phagocytic activity, induction of apoptosis, and TNF-α/TNF-receptor (TNFR) -expression were analysed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792942/hiv-1-neutralizing-antibody-induced-by-simian-adenovirus-and-poxvirus-mva-vectored-bg505-native-like-envelope-trimers
#20
Silvia Capucci, Edmund G Wee, Torben Schiffner, Celia C LaBranche, Nicola Borthwick, Albert Cupo, Jonathan Dodd, Hansi Dean, Quentin Sattentau, David Montefiori, Per J Klasse, Rogier W Sanders, John P Moore, Tomáš Hanke
Rabbits and monkeys immunized with HIV type 1 (HIV-1) native-like BG505 SOSIP.664 (BG505s) glycoprotein trimers are known to induce antibodies that can neutralize the autologous tier-2 virus. Here, we assessed the induction of HIV-1 trimer binding and neutralizing antibody (nAb) titres when BG505s trimers were also delivered by non-replicating simian (chimpanzee) adenovirus and non-replicating poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine vectors. First, we showed that approximately two-thirds and one-third of the trimers secreted from the ChAdOx1...
2017: PloS One
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