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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454256/five-month-old-infants-have-expectations-for-the-accumulation-of-nonsolid-substances
#1
Erin M Anderson, Susan J Hespos, Lance J Rips
Infants fail to represent quantities of non-cohesive substances in paradigms where they succeed with solid objects. Some investigators have interpreted these results as evidence that infants do not yet have representations for substances. More recent research, however, shows that 5-month-old infants expect objects and substances to behave and interact in different ways. In the present experiments, we test whether infants have expectations for substances when the outcomes are not simply the opposite of those for objects...
February 14, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454244/-keeping-birth-normal-exploratory-evaluation-of-a-training-package-for-midwives-in-an-inner-city-alongside-midwifery-unit
#2
Shawn Walker, Laura Batinelli, Lucia Rocca-Ihenacho, Christine McCourt
OBJECTIVES: to gain understanding about how participants perceived the value and effectiveness of 'Keeping Birth Normal' training, barriers to implementing it in an along-side midwifery unit, and how the training might be enhanced in future iterations. DESIGN: exploratory interpretive. SETTING: inner-city maternity service. PARTICIPANTS: 31 midwives attending a one-day training package on one of three occasions. METHODS: data were collected using semi-structured observation of the training, a short feedback form (23/31 participants), and focus groups (28/31 participants)...
February 2, 2018: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454209/reconciling-discrepancies-in-the-source-characterization-of-vocs-between-emission-inventories-and-receptor-modeling
#3
Jiamin Ou, Junyu Zheng, Zibing Yuan, Dabo Guan, Zhijiong Huang, Fei Yu, Min Shao, Peter K K Louie
Emission inventory (EI) and receptor model (RM) are two of the three source apportionment (SA) methods recommended by Ministry of Environment of China and used widely to provide independent views on emission source identifications. How to interpret the mixed results they provide, however, were less studied. In this study, a cross-validation study was conducted in one of China's fast-developing and highly populated city cluster- the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. By utilizing a highly resolved speciated regional EI and a region-wide gridded volatile organic compounds (VOCs) speciation measurement campaign, we elucidated underlying factors for discrepancies between EI and RM and proposed ways for their interpretations with the aim to achieve a scientifically plausible source identification...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454199/benthic-nitrite-exchanges-in-the-seine-river-france-an-early-diagenetic-modeling-analysis
#4
Zahra Akbarzadeh, Anniet M Laverman, Fereidoun Rezanezhad, Mélanie Raimonet, Eric Viollier, Babak Shafei, Philippe Van Cappellen
Nitrite is a toxic intermediate compound in the nitrogen (N) cycle. Elevated concentrations of nitrite have been observed in the Seine River, raising questions about its sources and fate. Here, we assess the role of bottom sediments as potential sources or sinks of nitrite along the river continuum. Sediment cores were collected from two depocenters, one located upstream, the other downstream, from the largest wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) servicing the conurbation of Paris. Pore water profiles of oxygen, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium were measured...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454127/neurosurgery-on-a-pregnant-woman-with-post-mortem-fetal-extrusion-an-unusual-case-from-medieval-italy
#5
REVIEW
Alba Pasini, Vanessa Samantha Manzon, Xabier Gonzalez-Muro, Emanuela Gualdi-Russo
Trepanation is one of the most ancient and applied surgical treatments; several archaeologically documented cases are known, dated back from Prehistory to the Middle ages. This case study reports the anthropological analysis of the skeletal remains of a young medieval woman and a fetus (Imola, Italy). The fetal remains were laid between her pelvis and lower limbs. A perforating injury was observed to her frontal bone. After assessing biological profiles, we attempted to interpret the injury and to reconstruct possible circumstances of death...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454097/improving-sustained-drug-delivery-from-ophthalmic-lens-materials-through-the-control-of-temperature-and-time-of-loading
#6
Ana Topete, Andreia S Oliveira, A Fernandes, T G Nunes, A P Serro, B Saramago
Although the possibility of using drug-loaded ophthalmic lens to promote sustained drug release has been thoroughly pursued, there are still problems to be solved associated to the different alternatives. In this work, we went back to the traditional method of drug loading by soaking in the drug solution and tried to optimize the release profiles by changing the temperature and the time of loading. Two materials commercially available under the names of CI26Y and Definitive 50 were chosen. CI26Y is used for intraocular lenses (IOLs) and Definitive 50 for soft contact lenses (SCLs)...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454067/considering-our-methods-methodological-issues-with-rodent-models-of-appetite-and-obesity-research
#7
Thomas A Lutz
A large number of animal models are currently used in appetite and obesity research. Because the worldwide incidence of obesity continues to climb, it is imperative that animal models sharing characteristics of human obesity and its co-morbidities be used appropriately in the quest for novel preventions or treatments. There is probably no animal model, at least in rodents, that recapitulates all aspects of "common" human obesity and its comorbidities, but rodent models allow insight into specific mechanisms of disease or its consequences...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454030/using-decision-thresholds-for-ranking-treatments-in-network-meta-analysis-results-in-more-informative-rankings
#8
Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Bradley C Johnston, Alejandro R Jadad, George Tomlinson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how the rank probabilities obtained from NMA change with the use of increasingly stringent criteria for the relative effect comparing two treatments that ranks one treatment better than the other. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic survey and re-analysis of published data. We included all systematic reviews (SRs) with NMA from the field of cardiovascular medicine that had trial-level data available, published in Medline up to February 2015...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454010/enhancing-creative-cognition-with-a-rapid-right-parietal-neurofeedback-procedure
#9
Sergio Agnoli, Marco Zanon, Serena Mastria, Alessio Avenanti, Giovanni Emanuele Corazza
The present article describes an innovative neurofeedback training (NFT) procedure aimed at increasing creative cognition through the enhancement of specific brain activities previously associated with divergent thinking. We designed and tested two NFT protocols based on training alpha and beta EEG oscillations selectively measured over the right parietal region. A total of 80 participants were involved, 40 in the alpha NFT protocol and 40 in the beta NFT protocol. The NFT loop was closed on a video stream that would advance only when oscillation power exceeded a normalized threshold...
February 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454006/predicting-cognitive-decline-with-deep-learning-of-brain-metabolism-and-amyloid-imaging
#10
Hongyoon Choi, Kyong Hwan Jin
For effective treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is important to identify subjects who are most likely to exhibit rapid cognitive decline. We aimed to develop an automatic image interpretation system based on a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) which can accurately predict future cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients using flurodeoxyglucose and florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET). PET images of 139 patients with AD, 171 patients with MCI and 182 normal subjects obtained from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database were used...
February 14, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453834/demystifying-evidence-based-policy-analysis-by-revealing-hidden-value-laden-constraints
#11
Adam M Finkel
Consider any choice that affects some social policy. A decision that considers evidence will, at its heart, contain some kind of explicit or implicit "because" statement: "We are doing X because the evidence says Y." But can evidence ever truly speak for itself, in the sense of being reducible to objective utterances that are either correct or in need of correction? Before answering, consider what you'd prefer. Would you rather receive evidence that was free of any value judgments imposed by human actors, that was laden with value judgments that you agree with, or laden with value judgments that you disagree with? The central assertion of this essay is that, throughout policy analysis but especially in assessments of the costs and benefits of regulating versus encouraging new technologies (cost-benefit analysis, or CBA), the first possibility above is a mirage, and the second and third are self-contradictory...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453814/preclinical-evaluation-of-a-semi-automated-and-rapid-commercial-electrophoresis-assay-for-von-willebrand-factor-multimers
#12
Marika Pikta, Galina Zemtsovskaja, Hector Bautista, Georges Nouadje, Timea Szanto, Margus Viigimaa, Valdas Banys
BACKGROUND: The von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimer test is required to correctly subtype qualitative type 2 von Willebrand disease (VWD). The current VWF multimer assays are difficult, nonstandardized, and time-consuming. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of the commercial VWF multimer kit by Sebia (Lisses, France), an electrophoresis technique yielding same-day results. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteer plasma samples, in-house reference plasma (IRP) and commercial normal plasma (CNP) samples, 10 plasma samples from patients with a known VWD type, 1 hemophilia A plasma sample, and 7 external quality assurance (EQA) samples were analyzed using the commercial VWF multimer kit...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453780/bone-conditioned-medium-modulates-the-osteoconductive-properties-of-collagen-membranes-in-a-rat-calvaria-defect-model
#13
Ulrike Kuchler, Tina Rybaczek, Toni Dobask, Patrick Heimel, Stefan Tangl, Jessica Klehm, Matthias Menzel, Reinhard Gruber
OBJECTIVES: Collagen membranes are not limited to be occlusive barriers as they actively support bone regeneration. However, the impact of bone-derived growth factors on their osteoconductive competence has not been examined. METHODS: Twenty adult Sprague Dawley rats were included in the study. Calvaria defects with a diameter of five millimeter were created. The defect was covered with one layer of a collagen membrane previously soaked in conditioned medium of porcine bone chips or in culture medium alone...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453778/-i-m-happy-to-own-my-implicit-biases-public-encounters-with-the-implicit-association-test
#14
Jeffery Yen, Kevin Durrheim, Romin W Tafarodi
The implicit association test (IAT) and concept of implicit bias have significantly influenced the scientific, institutional, and public discourse on racial prejudice. In spite of this, there has been little investigation of how ordinary people make sense of the IAT and the bias it claims to measure. This article examines the public understanding of this research through a discourse analysis of reactions to the IAT and implicit bias in the news media. It demonstrates the ways in which readers interpreted, related to, and negotiated the claims of IAT science in relation to socially shared and historically embedded concerns and identities...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453601/immunohistochemical-biomarkers-in-pituitary-pathology
#15
REVIEW
Sylvia L Asa, Ozgur Mete
Pituitary pathology is one area of endocrine pathology that is highly dependent on immunohistochemistry. There is a wide range of disorders that occur in and around the sella turcica, and the distinction of tumor-like lesions from neoplasms requires careful evaluation. The diagnosis, prognosis, and predictive features of neoplasms in the sellar region are all dependent on the application and interpretation of biomarkers of cell differentiation, hormonal activity, subcellular morphology, and proliferation. As in hematopathology, the number of biomarkers has increased dramatically and continues to increase...
February 16, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453594/time-to-first-event-versus-recurrent-event-analysis-points-to-consider-for-selecting-a-meaningful-analysis-strategy-in-clinical-trials-with-composite-endpoints
#16
Geraldine Rauch, Meinhard Kieser, Harald Binder, Antoni Bayes-Genis, Antje Jahn-Eimermacher
BACKGROUND: Composite endpoints combining several event types of clinical interest often define the primary efficacy outcome in cardiologic trials. They are commonly evaluated as time-to-first-event, thereby following the recommendations of regulatory agencies. However, to assess the patient's full disease burden and to identify preventive factors or interventions, subsequent events following the first one should be considered as well. This is especially important in cohort studies and RCTs with a long follow-up leading to a higher number of observed events per patients...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453566/profiling-signaling-proteins-in-sertoli-cells-by-co-immunoprecipitation
#17
Maria João Freitas, Margarida Fardilha
Sertoli cells are crucial for germ cell support, create a suitable environment for spermatogenesis, and integrate information from the nervous system and germ cell line. To fully understand the role of Sertoli cells, it is necessary to characterize the protein-protein interactions. Identifying the interactome of a given protein may provide leads about the role and molecular mechanism of such protein in Sertoli cells. One of the techniques to characterize protein interactomes consists of co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry or Western blot...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453517/probable-diagnosis-of-a-patient-with-niemann-pick-disease-type-c-managing-pitfalls-of-exome-sequencing
#18
William A Zeiger, Nasheed I Jamal, Maren T Scheuner, Patricia Pittman, Kimiyo M Raymond, Massimo Morra, Shri K Mishra
Here, we present a case of a 31-year-old man with progressive cognitive decline, ataxia, and dystonia. Extensive laboratory, radiographic, and targeted genetic studies over the course of several years failed to yield a diagnosis. Initial whole exome sequencing through a commercial laboratory identified several variants of uncertain significance; however, follow-up clinical examination and testing ruled each of these out. Eventually, repeat whole exome sequencing identified a known pathogenic intronic variant in the NPC1 gene (NM_000271...
February 17, 2018: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453495/comparison-of-concentrations-of-drugs-between-blood-samples-with-and-without-fluoride-additive-important-findings-for-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-and-amphetamine
#19
Christopher Wiedfeld, Julia Krueger, Gisela Skopp, Frank Musshoff
Fluoride is a common stabilizing agent in forensic toxicology to avoid the frequent problem of degradation of drugs in blood samples especially described for cocaine. In cases only samples with addition of fluoride are available, it is a crucial question if also concentrations of common drugs other than cocaine (amphetamines, opiates and cannabinoids) are affected by fluoride. So far, there are only rare literature data available on discrepant results especially for Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In this study, comparative analysis of positive tested paired routine plasma/serum samples (n = 375), collected at the same time point (one device with and one without fluoride), was carried out with special focus on cannabinoids...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453455/temporal-structure-in-spiking-patterns-of-ganglion-cells-defines-perceptual-thresholds-in-rodents-with-subretinal-prosthesis
#20
Elton Ho, Henri Lorach, Georges Goetz, Florian Laszlo, Xin Lei, Theodore Kamins, Jean-Charles Mariani, Alexander Sher, Daniel Palanker
Subretinal prostheses are designed to restore sight in patients blinded by retinal degeneration using electrical stimulation of the inner retinal neurons. To relate retinal output to perception, we studied behavioral thresholds in blind rats with photovoltaic subretinal prostheses stimulated by full-field pulsed illumination at 20 Hz, and measured retinal ganglion cell (RGC) responses to similar stimuli ex-vivo. Behaviorally, rats exhibited startling response to changes in brightness, with an average contrast threshold of 12%, which could not be explained by changes in the average RGC spiking rate...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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