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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040416/fractionating-the-neurocognitive-mechanisms-underlying-working-memory-independent-effects-of-dopamine-and-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Sean James Fallon, Rozemarijn Margaretha Mattiesing, Kinan Muhammed, Sanjay Manohar, Masud Husain
Deficits in working memory (WM) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are often considered to be secondary to dopaminergic depletion. However, the neurocognitive mechanisms by which dopamine causes these deficits remain highly contested, and PD is now also known to be associated with nondopaminergic pathology. Here, we examined how PD and dopaminergic medication modulate three components of WM: maintenance over time, updating contents with new information and making memories distracter-resistant. Compared with controls, patients were disproportionately impaired when retaining information for longer durations...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040234/preventing-wedge-deformities-when-treating-intertrochanteric-femur-fractures-with-intramedullary-devices-a-technical-tip
#2
Bennet A Butler, Ryan S Selley, Hobie D Summers, Michael D Stover
Intertrochanteric femur fractures are common injuries associated with significant patient morbidity and mortality and high societal costs. Although intramedullary devices have shown promise for treating a wide range of intertrochanteric femur fractures, improper technique can lead to malalignment, fracture displacement and/or iatrogenic fractures. In particular, a "wedge effect" has been described, in which the passage of conical reamers and the intramedullary nail itself results in distraction of intertrochanteric fragments with lateralization of the shaft from the femoral neck and varus malalignment...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040144/surgical-treatment-of-dentofacial-deformities-caused-by-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#3
Patricia Stoor, Zlatan Hodzic, Sirpa Arte
The purpose of our retrospective study was to evaluate the results of orthognathic treatment, distraction osteogenesis, and/or prosthetic reconstruction of the temporomandibular joints in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).Twelve patients with severely affected temporomandibular joints (TMJs) and reduced ramus height were treated with mandibular advancement with orthognathic surgery (11) and additional bilateral or unilateral mandibular ramus distraction (3) or additional bilateral or unilateral prosthetic reconstruction of the TMJ (3)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040141/proof-of-concept-study-for-the-design-manufacturing-and-testing-of-a-patient-specific-shape-memory-device-for-treatment-of-unicoronal-craniosynostosis
#4
Alessandro Borghi, Will Rodgers, Silvia Schievano, Allan Ponniah, Owase Jeelani, David Dunaway
Treatment of unicoronal craniosynostosis is a surgically challenging problem, due to the involvement of coronal suture and cranial base, with complex asymmetries of the calvarium and orbit. Several techniques for correction have been described, including surgical bony remodeling, early strip craniotomy with orthotic helmet remodeling and distraction. Current distraction devices provide unidirectional forces and have had very limited success. Nitinol is a shape memory alloy that can be programmed to the shape of a patient-specific anatomy by means of thermal treatment...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036492/partners-overestimation-of-patients-pain-severity-relationships-with-partners-interpersonal-responses
#5
Doerte U Junghaenel, Stefan Schneider, Joan E Broderick
Objectives: The present study examined whether concordance between patients' and their partners' reports of patient pain severity relates to partners' social support and behavioral responses in couples coping with chronic pain. Methods: Fifty-two couples completed questionnaires about the patient's pain severity. Both dyad members also rated the partner's social support and negative, solicitous, and distracting responses toward the patient when in pain. Results: Bivariate correlations showed moderate correspondence between patient and partner ratings of pain severity (r = 0...
September 26, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036029/-anterior-skull-base-and-pericranial-flap-ossification-after-frontofacial-monobloc-advancement
#6
Anne Morice, Giovanna Paternoster, Agnès Ostertag, Syril James, Martine Cohen-Solal, Roman H Khonsari, Eric Arnaud
BACKGROUND: Frontofacial monobloc advancement (FFMBA) creates a communication between the anterior cranial fossa and nasal cavities. To tackle this issue, trans-orbital pericranial pedicled flaps (PF) are routinely performed in our center. This study aimed to assess the post-operative ossification of the anterior skull base and PF following FFMBA, and to identify factors influencing this ossification. METHODS: Measurements of the skull base only (SB) and of the ossified PF together with the SB (SB-OPF) were performed on CT scans at the naso-frontal (NF) and the naso-ethmoïdo-frontal (NEF) junctions...
October 12, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036024/minimally-invasive-spring-assisted-correction-of-sagittal-suture-synostosis-technique-outcome-and-complications-in-83-cases
#7
Marie-Lise C van Veelen, Nathalie Kamst, Carolina Touw, Katya Mauff, Hansje Bredero, Leon van Adrichem, Sarah Versnel, Ruben Dammers, T H Rob de Jong, Vani Prasad, Irene M Mathijssen
BACKGROUND: This series describes the results of minimally invasive strip craniotomy with additional spring distraction. METHODS: Included are the first 83 consecutive patients who underwent this procedure (Jan 1, 2010-Jan 1, 2014). Outcome parameters were collected prospectively and included surgical parameters and complications, the occurrence of papilledema, skull growth, cephalic index and photographic scores RESULTS:: Duration of surgery was 63 min: 19% required blood transfusion and complications were minor...
October 12, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035894/prevalence-of-potentially-distracting-noncare-activities-and-their-effects-on-vigilance-workload-and-nonroutine-events-during-anesthesia-care
#8
Jason M Slagle, Eric S Porterfield, Amanda N Lorinc, David Afshartous, Matthew S Shotwell, Matthew B Weinger
BACKGROUND: When workload is low, anesthesia providers may perform non-patient care activities of a clinical, educational, or personal nature. Data are limited on the incidence or impact of distractions on actual care. We examined the prevalence of self-initiated nonclinical distractions and their effects on anesthesia workload, vigilance, and the occurrence of nonroutine events. METHODS: In 319 qualifying cases in an academic medical center using a Web-based electronic medical chart, a trained observer recorded video and performed behavioral task analysis...
October 16, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035068/effects-of-animal-assisted-therapy-on-concentration-and-attention-span-in-patients-with-acquired-brain-injury-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Vanya Gocheva, Margret Hund-Georgiadis, Karin Hediger
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported that brain-injured patients frequently suffer from cognitive impairments such as attention and concentration deficits. Numerous rehabilitation clinics offer animal-assisted therapy (AAT) to address these difficulties. The authors' aim was to investigate the immediate effects of AAT on the concentration and attention span of brain-injured patients. METHOD: Nineteen patients with acquired brain injury were included in a randomized, controlled, within-subject trial...
October 16, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032000/everyday-multitasking-habits-university-students-seamlessly-text-and-walk-on-a-split-belt-treadmill
#10
Dorelle Clare Hinton, Yeu-Yao Cheng, Caroline Paquette
With increasing numbers of adults owning a cell phone, walking while texting has become common in daily life. Previous research has shown that walking is not entirely automated and when challenged with a secondary task, normal walking patterns are disrupted. This study investigated the effects of texting on the walking patterns of healthy young adults while walking on a split-belt treadmill. Following full adaptation to the split-belt treadmill, thirteen healthy adults (23±3years) walked on a tied-belt and split-belt treadmill, both with and without a simultaneous texting task...
October 7, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031471/gunslingers-poker-players-and-chickens-3-decision-making-under-mental-performance-pressure-in-junior-elite-athletes
#11
Beth L Parkin, Vincent Walsh
BACKGROUND: Having investigated the decision making of world class elite and subelite athletes (see Parkin and Walsh, 2017; Parkin et al., 2017), here the abilities of those at the earliest stage of entry to elite sport are examined. Junior elite athletes have undergone initial national selection and are younger than athletes examined previously (mean age 13 years). Decision making under mental pressure is explored in this sample. During performance an athlete encounters a wide array of mental pressures; these include the psychological impact of errors, negative feedback, and requirements for sustained attention in a dynamic environment (Anshel and Wells, 2000; Mellalieu et al...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030279/posterior-cranial-vault-distraction-osteogenesis-in-craniofacial-surgery-technical-note
#12
Q de Kerangal, A Paré, A Joly, N Travers, D Goga, B Laure
INTRODUCTION: Posterior cranial vault distraction is a treatment for intracranial hypertension in certain cases of craniosynostosis and faciocraniosynostosis. It allows the harmonisation of the skull back and prevents turricephaly. This study presents the surgical technique. TECHNICAL NOTE: Posterior cranial vault distraction osteogenesis consists of a circular osteotomy of the skull back. Four distractors are placed on the cranial flap without detachment of the dura mater...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028518/absence-of-distracting-information-explains-the-redundant-signals-effect-for-a-centrally-presented-categorization-task
#13
Ada D Mishler, Mark B Neider
The redundant signals effect, a speed-up in response times with multiple targets compared to a single target in one display, is well-documented, with some evidence suggesting that it can occur even in conceptual processing when targets are presented bilaterally. The current study was designed to determine whether or not category-based redundant signals can speed up processing even without bilateral presentation. Toward that end, participants performed a go/no-go visual task in which they responded only to members of the target category (i...
October 10, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027494/discriminating-non-native-segmental-length-contrasts-under-increased-task-demands
#14
Yuki Asano
The present study examines how vulnerable perception of second language prosody is to increased task demands. German learners of Japanese, German non-learners without exposure to Japanese, and Japanese native listeners were tested in their ability to discriminate consonant length contrasts (compared to vowel length contrasts that served as a control condition). Memory load was increased by a longer inter-stimulus interval (2500 ms compared to 300 ms) and the demand on attention control was enhanced through the addition of the acoustic complexity of the stimuli (i...
October 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026807/airway-management-in-pierre-robin-sequence-the-vancouver-classification
#15
Wai-Yee Li, Alana Poon, Douglas Courtemanche, Cynthia Verchere, Sandra Robertson, Marija Bucevska, Claudia Malic, Jugpal S Arneja
BACKGROUND: Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is a triad of micrognathia, glossoptosis, and respiratory distress. There is no standard clinical classification used in the management of neonatal airway in patients with PRS. The goal of our study was to review the presentation and management of patients with PRS and formulate a clinical grading system and treatment algorithm. METHODS: A 10-year retrospective review of all neonates diagnosed with PRS was performed after obtaining institutional ethics approval...
February 2017: Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026111/distraction-and-expressive-suppression-strategies-in-regulation-of-high-and-low-intensity-negative-emotions
#16
Ping Li, Wei Wang, Cong Fan, Chuanlin Zhu, Shuaixia Li, Zhao Zhang, Zhengyang Qi, Wenbo Luo
The current study compared the effectiveness of distraction, an antecedent-focused strategy that involves diverting an individual's attention away from affective terms, and expressive suppression, a response-focused strategy that involves inhibiting conscious emotion-expressive behavior during an emotionally aroused state, in the regulation of high- and low-intensity unpleasant stimuli, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Sixteen participants completed an emotion regulation experiment in which they passively viewed high- or low-intensity unpleasant images (view), solved a mathematical equation presented on high- or low-intensity negative images (distraction), or suppressed their emotional expression in response to high- or low-intensity unpleasant images (suppression)...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025113/innovative-technology-using-virtual-reality-in-the-treatment-of-pain-does-it-reduce-pain-via-distraction-or-is-there-more-to-it
#17
Anita Gupta, Kevin Scott, Matthew Dukewich
Objective: Virtual reality (VR) is an exciting new technology with almost endless possible uses in medicine. One area it has shown promise is pain management. This selective review focused on studies that gave evidence to the distraction or nondistraction mechanisms by which VR leads to the treatment of pain. Methods: The review looked at articles from 2000 to July 29, 2016, focusing on studies concerning mechanisms by which virtual reality can augment pain relief...
August 31, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024843/multisensory-integration-and-adhd-like-traits-evidence-for-an-abnormal-temporal-integration-window-in-adhd
#18
Maria Panagiotidi, Paul G Overton, Tom Stafford
Abnormalities in multimodal processing have been found in many developmental disorders such as autism and dyslexia. However, surprisingly little empirical work has been conducted to test the integrity of multisensory integration in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The main aim of the present study was to examine links between symptoms of ADHD (as measured using a self-report scale in a healthy adult population) and the temporal aspects of multisensory processing. More specifically, a Simultaneity Judgement (SJ) and a Temporal Order Judgement (TOJ) task were used in participants with low and high levels of ADHD-like traits to measure the temporal integration window and Just-Noticeable Difference (JND) (respectively) between the timing of an auditory beep and a visual pattern presented over a broad range of stimulus onset asynchronies...
October 9, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022803/assessing-the-amount-of-distraction-needed-for-expandable-anterior-column-cages-in-the-cervical-spine
#19
M D Sewell, L Rothera, O Stokes, A Clarke, M Hutton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022728/stereo-viewing-modulates-three-dimensional-shape-processing-during-object-recognition-a-high-density-erp-study
#20
Zoe J Oliver, Filipe Cristino, Mark V Roberts, Alan J Pegna, E Charles Leek
The role of stereo disparity in the recognition of 3-dimensional (3D) object shape remains an unresolved issue for theoretical models of the human visual system. We examined this issue using high-density (128 channel) recordings of event-related potentials (ERPs). A recognition memory task was used in which observers were trained to recognize a subset of complex, multipart, 3D novel objects under conditions of either (bi-) monocular or stereo viewing. In a subsequent test phase they discriminated previously trained targets from untrained distractor objects that shared either local parts, 3D spatial configuration, or neither dimension, across both previously seen and novel viewpoints...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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