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Simon A Moss, Melanie Irons, Martin Boland
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lecturers often present entertaining videos, or organize a variety of amusing demonstrations, to foster student engagement or to encourage critical analysis. Magic tricks, in particular, have been shown to activate neural circuits that underpin motivation or problem-solving and, therefore, could be beneficial during lectures. Nevertheless, we hypothesize that, unless the method that underpins these tricks is revealed, students may ruminate over possible explanations, distracting attention from the lecture material...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Educational Psychology
Paola Papoff, Marco Castori, Lucia Manganaro, Fabio Midulla, Corrado Moretti, Piero Cascone
Although micrognathia and cleft palate have been reported in patients with Lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome (LDS), the classic Robin sequence with glossoptosis and airway obstruction has not been previously described in patients with genetically confirmed LDS. Here we report on two female siblings with LDS confirmed by a FOXC2 mutation who presented at birth with severe airway obstruction related to Robin sequence. Respiratory obstruction was successfully managed by early distraction osteogenesis. Our report highlights the unusual occurrence of Robin sequence in LDS patients and advises distraction osteogenesis to resolve breathing problems in LDS patients who present with Robin related severe airway obstruction...
September 2016: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
Alexandra I Korda, Mariniki Koliaraki, Pantelis A Asvestas, George K Matsopoulos, Errikos M Ventouras, Periklis Y Ktonas, Nikolaos Smyrnis
The frequency of intrusive saccades during maintenance of active visual fixation has been used as a measure of sustained visual attention in studies of healthy subjects as well as of neuropsychiatric patient populations. In this study, the mechanism that generates intrusive saccades during active visual fixation was investigated in a population of young healthy men performing three sustained fixation tasks (fixation to a visual target, fixation to a visual target with visual distracters, and fixation straight ahead in the dark)...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
Sibel Kucukoglu, Aynur Aytekin, Ayda Celebioglu, Arzu Celebi, Ibrahim Caner, Rukiye Maden
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of white noise as a distraction method in relieving procedural pain caused by vaccination for premature infants. This experimental study was performed at a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a university hospital in Turkey between July and September 2013. The study population was composed of 75 premature infants (35 in the study group and 40 in the control group) who met the inclusion criteria. Premature infants in the study group were exposed to white noise using MP3 players placed at the head of the infants' open crib for 1 minute before vaccination...
October 14, 2016: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
E Mark Mahone, Deana Crocetti, Laura Tochen, Tina Kline, Stewart H Mostofsky, Harvey S Singer
BACKGROUND: Complex motor stereotypies in children are repetitive rhythmic movements that have a predictable pattern and location, seem purposeful, but serve no obvious function, tend to be prolonged, and stop with distraction, e.g., arm or hand flapping, waving. They occur in both "primary" (otherwise typically developing) and secondary conditions. These movements are best defined as habitual behaviors and therefore pathophysiologically hypothesized to reside in premotor to posterior putamen circuits...
September 8, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Hideyuki Suenaga, Asako Taniguchi, Kazumichi Yonenaga, Kazuto Hoshi, Tsuyoshi Takato
INTRODUCTION: Computer-assisted preoperative simulation surgery is employed to plan and interact with the 3D images during the orthognathic procedure. It is useful for positioning and fixation of maxilla by a plate. We report a case of maxillary retrusion by a bilateral cleft lip and palate, in which a 2-stage orthognathic procedure (maxillary advancement by distraction technique and mandibular setback surgery) was performed following a computer-assisted preoperative simulation planning to achieve the positioning and fixation of the plate...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Richmond Darko, Jessica L Mashburn
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and its associated complications have become a significant public health concern. Zika virus is a Flavivirus, and is transmitted to humans by Aedes species mosquitoes. In May 2015, the World Health Organization reported the first locally acquired transmission of ZIKV in Brazil, the first case in the Western Hemisphere. There have also been reports of increased incidence of microcephaly and other neurologic complications associated with ZIKV infection, as well as a 20-fold increase in the incidence of Guillain-Barre Syndrome during ZIKV outbreaks...
October 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Pina Violano, Linda Roney, Kirsten Bechtel
BACKGROUND: Pedestrians distracted by digital devices or other activities are at a higher risk of injury as they cross streets. We sought to describe the incidence of pedestrians distracted by digital devices or other activities at two highly traveled urban intersections after the implementation of a pedestrian safety intervention at one of the intersections. METHODS: This was an observational field study of two urban intersections. Two investigators were stationed at each of the four corners of the intersection...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Regan W Bergmark, Emily Gliklich, Rong Guo, Richard E Gliklich
BACKGROUND: Texting while driving and other cell-phone reading and writing activities are high-risk activities associated with motor vehicle collisions and mortality. This paper describes the development and preliminary evaluation of the Distracted Driving Survey (DDS) and score. METHODS: Survey questions were developed by a research team using semi-structured interviews, pilot-tested, and evaluated in young drivers for validity and reliability. Questions focused on texting while driving and use of email, social media, and maps on cellular phones with specific questions about the driving speeds at which these activities are performed...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
L H Dünnweber, R Rödl, G Gosheger, F M Schiedel
Although clear advances have been made during the last 5 years, practical difficulties persist for patients and surgeons in procedures for intramedullary lengthening of long bones. In particular, precise adjustment of the desired amount of lengthening and technically reliable checking of the length actually achieved are problematic. An intramedullary nail with a new type of drive that exploits the shape memory effect has been constructed. The drive technology and the behavior of the intramedullary nail in situ were evaluated in a cadaver experiment...
October 10, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
Martina Starc, John D Murray, Nicole Santamauro, Aleksandar Savic, Caroline Diehl, Youngsun T Cho, Vinod Srihari, Peter T Morgan, John H Krystal, Xiao-Jing Wang, Grega Repovs, Alan Anticevic
Schizophrenia is associated with severe cognitive deficits, including impaired working memory (WM). A neural mechanism that may contribute to WM impairment is the disruption in excitation-inhibition (E/I) balance in cortical microcircuits. It remains unknown, however, how these alterations map onto quantifiable behavioral deficits in patients. Based on predictions from a validated microcircuit model of spatial WM, we hypothesized two key behavioral consequences: i) increased variability of WM traces over time, reducing performance precision; and ii) decreased ability to filter out distractors that overlap with WM representations...
October 10, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Wendy S Francis, Colin M MacLeod, Randolph S Taylor
We conducted four Stroop color-word experiments to examine how multiple stimuli influence interference. Experiments 1a and 1b showed that interference was strong when the word and color were integrated, and that visual and auditory words made independent contributions to interference when these words had different meanings. Experiments 2 and 3 confirmed this pattern when the word information and color information were not integrated, and hence when overall interference was substantially less. Auditory and visual interference effects are comparable except when the visual distracter is integrated with the color, in which case interference is substantially enhanced...
October 14, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Tania Perich, Andrew Frankland, Gloria Roberts, Florence Levy, Rhoshel Lenroot, Philip B Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is a newly proposed childhood disorder included in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition to describe children ⩽18 years of age with chronic irritability/temper outbursts. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, severe mood dysregulation and chronic irritability in an Australian study of young people at increased familial risk of developing bipolar disorder ('HR' group) and controls ('CON' group)...
October 14, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Katja Kircher, Christer Ahlstrom
OBJECTIVE: To propose a driver attention theory based on the notion of driving as a satisficing and partially self-paced task and, within this framework, present a definition for driver inattention. BACKGROUND: Many definitions of driver inattention and distraction have been proposed, but they are difficult to operationalize, and they are either unreasonably strict and inflexible or suffer from hindsight bias. METHOD: Existing definitions of driver distraction are reviewed and their shortcomings identified...
October 13, 2016: Human Factors
Emmanuel Ducrocq, Mark Wilson, Sam Vine, Nazanin Derakshan
Attentional control is a necessary function for the regulation of goal-directed behavior. In three experiments we investigated whether training inhibitory control using a visual search task could improve task specific measures of attentional control and performance. In experiment 1 results revealed that training elicited a near-transfer effect; improving performance on a cognitive (antisaccade) task assessing inhibitory control. In Experiment 2 an initial far-transfer effect of training was observed on an index of attentional control validated for tennis...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Elke Godefroid, Jan R Wiersema
The current study examined the mechanisms of attention allocation in adult ADHD to investigate the frequently reported diminished target processing in ADHD as well as the less consistently observed increased distractibility by task-irrelevant distracting stimuli. To this end, while high-density EEG was recorded, 25 adults with ADHD and 23 healthy controls completed a 4-stimulus oddball task that comprised a frequently presented standard stimulus and 3 different categories of equally infrequent stimuli: task-relevant targets, task-irrelevant nontargets, and task-irrelevant unfamiliar novels...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Volker Thoma, Neil Ward, Jan W de Fockert
Previous research using flanker paradigms suggests that peripheral distracter faces are automatically processed when participants have to classify a single central familiar target face. These distracter interference effects disappear when the central task contains additional anonymous (non-target) faces that load the search for the face target, but not when the central task contains additional non-face stimuli, suggesting there are face-specific capacity limits in visual processing. Here we tested whether manipulating the format of non-target faces in the search task affected face-specific capacity limits...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Zi-Chao Zhou, Lei Che, Liang Kong, De-Lin Lei, Rui Liu, Xin-Jie Yang
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects and possible molecular mechanism of casein kinase-2 interacting protein-1 (CKIP-1) silencing on bone regeneration during rat mandibular distraction osteogenesis (DO). STUDY DESIGN: CKIP-1 silencing by chitosan/si-CKIP-1 was employed and analyzed both in rat mandibular DO models in vivo and in cultured rat mandible bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro. RESULTS: Gross observation, micro-computed tomography analysis, and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining revealed that new bone formation in the distraction gap of the chitosan/si-CKIP-treated group was better compared with the chitosan/si-NC and phosphate buffered saline-treated groups in both quantity and quality...
July 30, 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Jonathan M Weimer, Martin Marinov, Rafi Avitsian
A 58-year old male with grade II L4-L5 spondylolisthesis and degenerative changes presented for single level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. During decompression of the L4 foramina, distraction of the disc space, and placement of the interbody cage and pedicle screws, episodes of extreme bradycardia with up to 5 seconds of asystole were detected on both EKG and invasive hemodynamic monitoring. The events correlated with and could possibly be a result of traction on the dura. Lumbar spinal surgery may be associated with electrophysiological and hemodynamic abnormalities, and anesthesia providers should be aware of such possibilities and the need to respond appropriately with sympathomimetic or vagolytic interventions...
October 7, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Bhavisha Vegada, Apexa Shukla, Ajeetkumar Khilnani, Jaykaran Charan, Chetna Desai
BACKGROUND: Most of the academic teachers use four or five options per item of multiple choice question (MCQ) test as formative and summative assessment. Optimal number of options in MCQ item is a matter of considerable debate among academic teachers of various educational fields. There is a scarcity of the published literature regarding the optimum number of option in each item of MCQ in the field of medical education. OBJECTIVES: To compare three options, four options, and five options MCQs test for the quality parameters - reliability, validity, item analysis, distracter analysis, and time analysis...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
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