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Pulsed electromagnetic field

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208417/terahertz-generation-from-laser-driven-ultrafast-current-propagation-along-a-wire-target
#1
H B Zhuo, S J Zhang, X H Li, H Y Zhou, X Z Li, D B Zou, M Y Yu, H C Wu, Z M Sheng, C T Zhou
Generation of intense coherent THz radiation by obliquely incidenting an intense laser pulse on a wire target is studied using particle-in-cell simulation. The laser-accelerated fast electrons are confined and guided along the surface of the wire, which then acts like a current-carrying line antenna and under appropriate conditions can emit electromagnetic radiation in the THz regime. For a driving laser intensity ∼3×10^{18}W/cm^{2} and pulse duration ∼10 fs, a transient current above 10 KA is produced on the wire surface...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201884/equation-of-motion-for-the-solvent-polarization-apparent-charges-in-the-polarizable-continuum-model-application-to-time-dependent-ci
#2
Silvio Pipolo, Stefano Corni, Roberto Cammi
The dynamics of the electrons for a molecule in solution is coupled to the dynamics of its polarizable environment, i.e., the solvent. To theoretically investigate such electronic dynamics, we have recently developed equations of motion (EOM) for the apparent solvent polarization charges that generate the reaction field in the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) for solvation and we have coupled them to a real-time time-dependent density functional theory (RT TDDFT) description of the solute [S. Corni et al., J...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197174/extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-stimulation-modulates-autoimmunity-and-immune-responses-a-possible-immuno-modulatory-therapeutic-effect-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Fabio Guerriero, Giovanni Ricevuti
Increasing evidence shows that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) stimulation is able to exert a certain action on autoimmunity and immune cells. In the past, the efficacy of pulsed ELF-EMFs in alleviating the symptoms and the progression of multiple sclerosis has been supported through their action on neurotransmission and on the autoimmune mechanisms responsible for demyelination. Regarding the immune system, ELF-EMF exposure contributes to a general activation of macrophages, resulting in changes of autoimmunity and several immunological reactions, such as increased reactive oxygen species-formation, enhanced phagocytic activity and increased production of chemokines...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194649/numerical-modeling-of-percutaneous-auricular-vagus-nerve-stimulation-a-realistic-3d-model-to-evaluate-sensitivity-of-neural-activation-to-electrode-position
#4
Amine M Samoudi, Stefan Kampusch, Emmeric Tanghe, Jozsef C Széles, Luc Martens, Eugenijus Kaniusas, Wout Joseph
OBJECTIVE: Percutaneous stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (pVNS) by miniaturized needle electrodes in the auricle gained importance as a treatment for acute and chronic pain. The objective is to establish a realistic numerical model of pVNS and investigate the effects of stimulation waveform, electrodes' depth, and electrodes' position on nerve excitation threshold and the percentage of stimulated nerves. METHODS: Simulations were performed with Sim4Life...
February 13, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187249/parallel-transmission-rf-pulse-design-with-strict-temperature-constraints
#5
Cem M Deniz, Giuseppe Carluccio, Christopher Collins
RF safety in parallel transmission (pTx) is generally ensured by imposing specific absorption rate (SAR) limits during pTx RF pulse design. There is increasing interest in using temperature to ensure safety in MRI. In this work, we present a local temperature correlation matrix formalism and apply it to impose strict constraints on maximum absolute temperature in pTx RF pulse design for head and hip regions. Electromagnetic field simulations were performed on the head and hip of virtual body models. Temperature correlation matrices were calculated for four different exposure durations ranging between 6 and 24 min using simulated fields and body-specific constants...
February 10, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173722/effect-of-a-low-frequency-pulsed-electromagnetic-field-on-expression-and-secretion-of-il-1%C3%AE-and-tnf-%C3%AE-in-nucleus-pulposus-cells
#6
Jun Zou, Yufeng Chen, Jiale Qian, Huilin Yang
Objective To investigate changes in nucleus pulposus cell expression and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α following stimulation with a low-frequency (LF) pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF). Methods Primary rat nucleus pulposus cells were isolated and cultured in vitro, followed by stimulation with LF-PEMFs at a frequency of 2 Hz and different intensities, ranging from 0.5-3.0 A/m. Cells were observed for morphological changes, and proliferation rates were measured by cell viability counts...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157854/time-domain-electromagnetic-scattering-by-a-sphere-in-uniform-translational-motion
#7
Timothy J Garner, Akhlesh Lakhtakia, James K Breakall, Craig F Bohren
Scattering by a uniformly translating sphere of a pulse that modulates the amplitude of a linearly polarized plane wave was formulated using the frame-hopping method involving a laboratory inertial reference frame and the sphere's comoving inertial reference frame. The incident signal was defined in the laboratory frame and transformed to the comoving frame with the Lorentz transformation, thereby altering the incident signal's spectrum, direction of propagation of the carrier plane wave, and the direction of the incident electric field, depending on the sphere's velocity...
February 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144594/effects-of-rf-emf-exposure-from-gsm-mobile-phones-on-proliferation-rate-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-an-in-vitro-study
#8
D Shahbazi-Gahrouei, B Hashemi-Beni, Z Ahmadi
BACKGROUND: As the use of mobile phones is increasing, public concern about the harmful effects of radiation emitted by these devices is also growing. In addition, protection questions and biological effects are among growing concerns which have remained largely unanswered. Stem cells are useful models to assess the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on other cell lines. Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells...
December 2016: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102239/subcycle-quantum-electrodynamics
#9
C Riek, P Sulzer, M Seeger, A S Moskalenko, G Burkard, D V Seletskiy, A Leitenstorfer
Squeezed states of electromagnetic radiation have quantum fluctuations below those of the vacuum field. They offer a unique resource for quantum information systems and precision metrology, including gravitational wave detectors, which require unprecedented sensitivity. Since the first experiments on this non-classical form of light, quantum analysis has been based on homodyning techniques and photon correlation measurements. These methods currently function in the visible to near-infrared and microwave spectral ranges...
January 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096849/assessment-of-the-effects-of-extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-on-toxoplasma-gondii
#10
Sercin Ozlem-Caliskan, Hatice Ertabaklar, Mehmet Dincer Bilgin, Sema Ertug
BACKGROUND: The effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on Toxoplasma gondii have not been explained yet. The aim of this study was to assess the possible effects of ELF-EMF on growth, survival time and viability of Toxoplasma gondii. In addition, the life span of Toxoplasma infected animals was investigated. METHODS: Sixty adult male BALB/c mice were used for in vivo and in vivo experiments in Laboratory of Biopyhsics and Parasitology of Medical Faculty, Adnan Menderes University, Turkey, in 2010...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064222/pulsed-electromagnetic-field-stimulation-promotes-anti-cell-proliferative-activity-in-doxorubicin-treated-mouse-osteosarcoma-cells
#11
Yoshitaka Muramatsu, Takuya Matsui, Masataka Deie, Keiji Sato
AIM: We aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) and doxorubicin therapy in a mouse osteosarcoma cell line (LM8 cells) in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of PEMF (5 mT, 200 Hz) of different durations and doxorubicin on the proliferative activity of LM8 cells were measured by the MTT assay. Apoptotic-related factors such as cell-cycle phase, mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase 3/7 activity were investigated using 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and apoptosis kits...
2, 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060214/pulsed-electromagnetic-fields-for-postsurgical-pain-management-in-women-undergoing-cesarean-section-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#12
Maryam Khooshideh, Seyedeh Sakineh Latifi Rostami, Mahdi Sheikh, Batool Ghorbani Yekta, Ali Shahriari
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) in relation to reducing postoperative pain, analgesic use, and wound healing in patients undergoing Cesarean section (C-section). METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated 72 women who underwent elective C-section. Thirty-six patients were assigned to the active-PEMF and 36 to the sham-PEMF groups. The participants were asked to report their pain intensity on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours and 2, 4, and 7 days after surgery...
February 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047458/mo-ab-bra-08-a-modular-multi-source-x-ray-tube-for-novel-computed-tomography-applications
#13
B Walker, J Radtke, G Petry, R Swader, G Chen, K Eliceiri, T Mackie
PURPOSE: To develop and build a practical implementation of an x-ray line source for the rapidly increasing number of multi-source imaging applications in CT. METHODS: An innovative x-ray tube was designed using CST Particle Studio, ANSYS, and SolidWorks. A slowly varying magnetic field is synchronized with microsecond gating of multiple thermionic electron sources. Electrostatic simulations were run to optimize the geometry of the optics and prevent electrode arcing...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026095/pulsed-electromagnetic-field-at-different-stages-of-knee-osteoarthritis-in-rats-induced-by-low-dose-monosodium-iodoacetate-effect-on-subchondral-trabecular-bone-microarchitecture-and-cartilage-degradation
#14
Xiaotian Yang, Hongchen He, Yuan Zhou, Yujing Zhou, Qiang Gao, Pu Wang, Chengqi He
The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of pre-emptive, early, and delayed pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatment on cartilage and subchondral trabecular bone in knee osteoarthritis (OA) rats induced by low-dose monosodium iodoacetate (MIA). Seventy-five 12-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to five groups: OA (n = 30), pre-emptive PEMF (n = 10), early PEMF (n = 10), delayed PEMF (n = 10), and control (n = 15). Osteoarthritis was induced by injecting 0.2 mg MIA in rat's right knee joint...
December 27, 2016: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011957/effect-of-pulsed-electromagnetic-fields-on-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#15
E Keczan, G Keri, G Banhegyi, I Stiller
The maintenance of protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is crucial in cell life. Disruption of proteostasis results in ER stress that activates the unfolded protein response (UPR); a signalling network assigned to manage the accumulated misfolded or unfolded proteins. Prolonged or unresolved ER stress leads to apoptotic cell death that can be the basis of many serious diseases. Our aim was to study the effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF), an alternative, non-invasive therapeutic method on ER stressed cell lines...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005857/improving-time-and-space-resolution-in-electro-optic-sampling-for-near-field-terahertz-imaging
#16
François Blanchard, Koichiro Tanaka
In this Letter, we present a significant improvement to time and space resolutions in electro-optic sampling (EO) for two-dimensional terahertz (THz) near-field imaging. Using a THz microscope, we readapt a recent EO sampling scheme based on optical probe spectrum filtering. Combined with an ultra-thin EO crystal, we achieve record broadband video-rate THz near-field imaging. Particularly, this new scheme improves the THz bandwidth, the imaging contrast, and the spatial resolution. To validate our method, we show THz near-field images ranging from 100 GHz to 4 THz with a spatial resolution up to λ/600 at 100 GHz...
October 15, 2016: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992333/continuous-subresolution-displacements-in-finite-difference-simulations-of-ultrasound-propagation-and-imaging
#17
Gianmarco Pinton
Time domain finite difference simulations are used extensively to simulate wave propagation. They approximate the wave field on a discrete domain with a grid spacing that is typically on the order of a tenth of a wavelength. The smallest displacements that can be modeled by this type of simulation are thus limited to discrete values that are integer multiples of the grid spacing. This paper presents a method to represent continuous and subresolution displacements by varying the impedance of individual elements in a multi-element scatterer...
December 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992070/exercise-for-haemophilia
#18
REVIEW
Karen Strike, Kathy Mulder, Rojer Michael
BACKGROUND: Haemophilia is a bleeding disorder associated with haemorrhaging into joints and muscles. Exercise is often used to aid recovery after bleeds, and to improve joint function in the presence of arthropathy. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to systematically review the available evidence on the safety and effectiveness of exercise for people with haemophilia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Coagulopathies Trials Register and electronic databases PubMed, OVID-Embase, and CINAHL...
19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986082/mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-therapeutic-target-of-biophysical-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-musculoskeletal-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Marco Viganò, Valerio Sansone, Maria Cristina d'Agostino, Pietro Romeo, Carlotta Perucca Orfei, Laura de Girolamo
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders are regarded as a major cause of worldwide morbidity and disability, and they result in huge costs for national health care systems. Traditional therapies frequently turned out to be poorly effective in treating bone, cartilage, and tendon disorders or joint degeneration. As a consequence, the development of novel biological therapies that can treat more effectively these conditions should be the highest priority in regenerative medicine. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent one of the most promising tools in musculoskeletal tissue regenerative medicine, thanks to their proliferation and differentiation potential and their immunomodulatory and trophic ability...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980864/pulsed-magnetic-field-versus-ultrasound-in-the-treatment-of-postnatal-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-the-women-of-an-egyptian-population
#20
Dalia M Kamel, Nashwa S Hamed, Neveen A Abdel Raoof, Sayed A Tantawy
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field versus pulsed ultrasound in treating patients with postnatal carpal tunnel syndrome. The study was a randomized, double-blinded trial. Forty postnatal female patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome were divided randomly into two equal groups. One group received pulsed electromagnetic field, with nerve and tendon gliding exercises for the wrist, three times per week for four weeks. The other group received pulsed ultrasound and the same wrist exercises...
January 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
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