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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107768/arabidopsis-protein-s-acyl-transferase4-mediates-root-hair-growth
#1
Zhi-Yuan Wan, Sen Chai, Fu-Rong Ge, Qiang-Nan Feng, Yan Zhang, Sha Li
Polar growth of root hairs is critical for plant survival and necessitates fine-tuned ROP signaling. Multiple ROP regulators participate in root hair growth. However, protein S-acyl transferases (PATs), mediating the S-acylation and membrane partitioning of ROPs, are yet to be found. By using a reverse genetic approach, combining fluorescence probes, pharmacological drugs, site-directed mutagenesis, and genetic analysis with related root-hair mutants, we have identified and characterized an Arabidopsis PAT, which may be responsible for ROP2 S-acylation in root hairs...
January 20, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107750/effect-of-clinically-approved-hdac-inhibitors-on-plasmodium-leishmania-and-schistosoma-parasite-growth
#2
Ming Jang Chua, Megan S J Arnold, Weijun Xu, Julien Lancelot, Suzanne Lamotte, Gerald F Späth, Eric Prina, Raymond J Pierce, David P Fairlie, Tina S Skinner-Adams, Katherine T Andrews
Malaria, schistosomiasis and leishmaniases are among the most prevalent tropical parasitic diseases and each requires new innovative treatments. Targeting essential parasite pathways, such as those that regulate gene expression and cell cycle progression, is a key strategy for discovering new drug leads. In this study, four clinically approved anti-cancer drugs (Vorinostat, Belinostat, Panobinostat and Romidepsin) that target histone/lysine deacetylase enzymes were examined for in vitro activity against Plasmodium knowlesi, Schistosoma mansoni, Leishmania amazonensis and L...
December 23, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107705/incorporation-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-nanostructured-lipid-membrane-mimetic-bilayer-cubosomes
#3
Thomas G Meikle, Alexandru Zabara, Lynne J Waddington, Frances Separovic, Calum J Drummond, Charlotte E Conn
The inverse bicontinuous lipidic cubic phase offers a simple and robust membrane mimetic with the ability to encapsulate peptides, potentially increasing bioavailability, while also offering a platform from which functionalized, targeted nanoparticles can be developed. Herein we have investigated the use of a number of cubic phase nanoparticle systems with encapsulated antimicrobial peptides gramicidin A', melittin, and alamethicin. The optimal peptide loading ranges, over which cubic symmetry was retained, were determined using small angle X-ray scattering...
January 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107700/comparative-pharmacokinetics-of-eight-major-bioactive-components-in-normal-and-bacterial-diarrhea-mini-pigs-after-oral-administration-of-gegen-qinlian-decoction
#4
Xiao Ling, Yuqiang Xiang, Qingfa Tang, Feilong Chen, Xiaomei Tan
Healthy animals are most widely used in current pharmacokinetic(PK) studies. However, neglecting the effects of specific diseases on drug absorption results in the PK parameters of those experiments not accurately reflecting in vivo drug concentration changes during treatment. In this study, an E. coli infective diarrheal minipig model was applied to explore the pharmacokinetics of Gegen Qinlian decoction (GQD). A simple and rapid ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine the concentrations of the eight GQD components in minipig plasma after intragastric administration of GQD...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107698/the-natural-flavonoid-apigenin-sensitizes-human-cd44-prostate-cancer-stem-cells-to-cisplatin-therapy
#5
Suat Erdogan, Kader Turkekul, Rıza Serttas, Zeynep Erdogan
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common type of cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death among men. Development of chemoresistance, tumor relapse and metastasis remain major barriers to effective treatment and all been identified to be associated with cancer stem cells (CSCs). Natural flavonoids such as apigenin have been shown to have the ability to improve the therapeutic efficacy of common chemotherapy agents through CSCs sensitization. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of apigenin with cisplatin on CD44(+) PCa stem cell growth and migration...
January 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107695/antibacterial-activity-computational-analysis-and-host-toxicity-study-of-thymol-sulfonamide-conjugates
#6
Shasank S Swain, Sudhir K Paidesetty, Rabindra N Padhy
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) are notorious pathogenic multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in both hospital and community sectors, and today the first antibacterial drug sulfamethoxazole is ineffective. The monoterpene phenol, thymol was conjugated with seven sulfa drug derivatives individually, adopting the dye-azo synthesis protocol, and conjugates were characterized using spectral analysis techniques such as, UV, FTIR, MS, HPLC, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and SEM...
January 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107624/tocilizumab-alendronate-conjugate-for-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
Hwiwon Lee, Suk Ho Bhang, Jeong Ho Lee, Hyemin Kim, Sei Kwang Hahn
An autoimmune disease of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) causes severe inflammation on the synovial membrane, which results in the destruction of articular cartilage and bone. Here, Tocilizumab (TCZ) - Alendronate (ALD) conjugate is synthesized for the early intervention of RA. A humanized monoclonal antibody of TCZ shows an immunosuppressive effect, targeting interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor in the RA pathogenesis. ALD is an anti-inflammatory bisphosphonate drug which can bind to the exposed bone surface. ALD is conjugated selectively to N-glycan on Fc region of TCZ using a chemical linker of 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionyl hydrazide (PDPH) - poly(ethylene glycol) - N-hydroxysuccinimide (PDPH-PEG-NHS)...
January 20, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107585/treatment-and-primary-prevention-in-people-who-inject-drugs-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-is-elimination-possible-in-a-high-prevalence-setting
#8
I Gountas, V Sypsa, O Anagnostou, N K Martin, P Vickerman, E Kafetzopoulos, A Hatzakis
AIMS: To project the impact of scaling up oral antiviral therapy and harm reduction on chronic hepatitis C (CHC) prevalence and incidence among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Greece, to estimate the relationship between required treatment levels and expansion of harm reduction programs to achieve specific targets and to examine whether hepatitis C viruse (HCV) elimination among PWID is possible in this high prevalence setting. DESIGN: A dynamic discrete time, stochastic individual-based model was developed to simulate HCV transmission among PWID incorporating the effect of HCV treatment and harm reduction strategies, and allowing for reinfection following treatment...
January 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107458/neuropilin-1-involvement-in-choroidal-and-retinal-neovascularisation
#9
Patricia Fernández-Robredo, Senthil Selvam, Michael B Powner, Dawn A Sim, Marcus Fruttiger
PURPOSE: Inhibiting VEGF is the gold standard treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). It is also effective in preventing retinal oedema and neovascularisation (NV) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinal vein occlusions (RVO). Neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) is a co-receptor for VEGF and many other growth factors, and therefore a possible alternative drug target in intra ocular neovascular disease. Here we assessed choroidal and retinal NV in an inducible, endothelial specific knock out model for Nrp1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107434/anti-mrka-monoclonal-antibodies-reveal-distinct-structural-and-antigenic-features-of-mrka
#10
Qun Wang, Yan Chen, Romana Cvitkovic, Meghan E Pennini, Chew Shun Chang, Mark Pelletier, Jessica Bonnell, Adem C Koksal, Herren Wu, William F Dall'Acqua, C Kendall Stover, Xiaodong Xiao
Antibody therapy against antibiotics resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections represents a promising strategy, the success of which depends critically on the ability to identify appropriate antibody targets. Using a target-agnostic strategy, we recently discovered MrkA as a potential antibody target and vaccine antigen. Interestingly, the anti-MrkA monoclonal antibodies isolated through phage display and hybridoma platforms all recognize an overlapping epitope, which opens up important questions including whether monoclonal antibodies targeting different MrkA epitopes can be generated and if they possess different protective profiles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107379/experimental-and-in-silico-investigation-of-anti-microbial-activity-of-1-chloro-2-isocyanatoethane-derivatives-of-thiomorpholine-piperazine-and-morpholine
#11
Charles O Nwuche, Oguejiofo T Ujam, Akachukwu Ibezim, Ifeoma B Ujam
The Antibiogram properties of 1-chloro-2-isocyanatoethane derivatives of thiomorpholine (CTC), piperazine (CPC) and morpholine (CMC) were evaluated by the approved agar well diffusion, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and in silico techniques. A total of fourteen microbial cultures consisting of ten bacteria and four yeast strains were used in the biological study while affinity of the compounds for DNA gyrase, a validated antibacterial drug target, was investigated by docking method. Results indicate that both thiomorpholine and piperazine had zero activity against the Gram negative organisms tested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107347/whole-genome-amplification-and-reduced-representation-genome-sequencing-of-schistosoma-japonicum-miracidia
#12
Jonathan A Shortt, Daren C Card, Drew R Schield, Yang Liu, Bo Zhong, Todd A Castoe, Elizabeth J Carlton, David D Pollock
BACKGROUND: In areas where schistosomiasis control programs have been implemented, morbidity and prevalence have been greatly reduced. However, to sustain these reductions and move towards interruption of transmission, new tools for disease surveillance are needed. Genomic methods have the potential to help trace the sources of new infections, and allow us to monitor drug resistance. Large-scale genotyping efforts for schistosome species have been hindered by cost, limited numbers of established target loci, and the small amount of DNA obtained from miracidia, the life stage most readily acquired from humans...
January 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106955/cypate-mediated-thermosensitive-nanoliposome-for-tumor-imaging-and-photothermal-triggered-drug-release
#13
Zhihao Han, Liwei Lv, Yi Ma, Zhaohui Wang, Yuxi Liu, Min Zhang, Siwen Li, Yueqing Gu
It is an emerging focus to explore controlled release drug delivery systems for simultaneous cancer imaging and therapy. Herein, we synthesized a photothermal sensitive multifunctional nano-liposome drug delivery system, with doxorubicin wrapped in the hydropholic layer as the therapeutical agent and cypate doped in the hydrophobic layer as the diagnostic agent. A series of in vitro and in vivo characterization demonstrated the stability of synthesized liposome, as the DL% was 9 ± 1.5 and the EE% was 82.7 ± 2...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106876/inhibition-of-innate-immune-cytosolic-surveillance-by-an-m-tuberculosis-phosphodiesterase
#14
Ruchi Jain Dey, Bappaditya Dey, Yue Zheng, Laurene S Cheung, Jie Zhou, David Sayre, Pankaj Kumar, Haidan Guo, Gyanu Lamichhane, Herman O Sintim, William R Bishai
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection leads to cytosolic release of the bacterial cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) c-di-AMP and a host-generated CDN, cGAMP, both of which trigger type I interferon (IFN) expression in a STING-dependent manner. Here we report that M. tuberculosis has developed a mechanism to inhibit STING activation and the type I IFN response via the bacterial phosphodiesterase (PDE) CdnP, which mediates hydrolysis of both bacterial-derived c-di-AMP and host-derived cGAMP. Mutation of cdnP attenuates M...
February 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106826/colorectal-carcinoma-a-general-overview-and-future-perspectives-in-colorectal-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Inés Mármol, Cristina Sánchez-de-Diego, Alberto Pradilla Dieste, Elena Cerrada, María Jesús Rodriguez Yoldi
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death. Most cases of CRC are detected in Western countries, with its incidence increasing year by year. The probability of suffering from colorectal cancer is about 4%-5% and the risk for developing CRC is associated with personal features or habits such as age, chronic disease history and lifestyle. In this context, the gut microbiota has a relevant role, and dysbiosis situations can induce colonic carcinogenesis through a chronic inflammation mechanism...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106797/the-complex-relationship-between-virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance
#16
REVIEW
Meredith Schroeder, Benjamin D Brooks, Amanda E Brooks
Antibiotic resistance, prompted by the overuse of antimicrobial agents, may arise from a variety of mechanisms, particularly horizontal gene transfer of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes, which is often facilitated by biofilm formation. The importance of phenotypic changes seen in a biofilm, which lead to genotypic alterations, cannot be overstated. Irrespective of if the biofilm is single microbe or polymicrobial, bacteria, protected within a biofilm from the external environment, communicate through signal transduction pathways (e...
January 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106782/from-clinical-standards-to-translating-next-generation-sequencing-research-into-patient-care-improvement-for-hepatobiliary-and-pancreatic-cancers
#17
REVIEW
Ioannis D Kyrochristos, Georgios K Glantzounis, Demosthenes E Ziogas, Ioannis Gizas, Dimitrios Schizas, Efstathios G Lykoudis, Evangelos Felekouras, Anastasios Machairas, Christos Katsios, Theodoros Liakakos, William C Cho, Dimitrios H Roukos
Hepatobiliary and pancreatic (HBP) cancers are associated with high cancer-related death rates. Surgery aiming for complete tumor resection (R0) remains the cornerstone of the treatment for HBP cancers. The current progress in the adjuvant treatment is quite slow, with gemcitabine chemotherapy available only for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). In the advanced and metastatic setting, only two targeted drugs have been approved by the Food & Drug Administration (FDA), which are sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma and erlotinib for PDA...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106753/naphthalimides-selectively-inhibit-the-activity-of-bacterial-replicative-dna-ligases-and-display-bactericidal-effects-against-tubercle-bacilli
#18
Malgorzata Korycka-Machala, Marcin Nowosielski, Aneta Kuron, Sebastian Rykowski, Agnieszka Olejniczak, Marcin Hoffmann, Jaroslaw Dziadek
The DNA ligases, enzymes that seal breaks in the backbones of DNA, are essential for all organisms, however bacterial ligases essential for DNA replication use β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as their co-factor, whereas those that are essential in eukaryotes and viruses use adenosine-5'-triphosphate. This fact leads to the conclusion that NAD⁺-dependent DNA ligases in bacteria could be targeted by their co-factor specific inhibitors. The development of novel alternative medical strategies, including new drugs, are a top priority focus areas for tuberculosis research due to an increase in the number of multi-drug resistant as well as totally drug resistant tubercle bacilli strains...
January 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106744/oligonucleotide-therapy-for-obstructive-and-restrictive-respiratory-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Wupeng Liao, Jinrui Dong, Hong Yong Peh, Lay Hong Tan, Kah Suan Lim, Li Li, Wai-Shiu Fred Wong
Inhaled oligonucleotide is an emerging therapeutic modality for various common respiratory diseases, including obstructive airway diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and restrictive airway diseases like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The advantage of direct accessibility for oligonucleotide molecules to the lung target sites, bypassing systemic administration, makes this therapeutic approach promising with minimized potential systemic side effects. Asthma, COPD, and IPF are common chronic respiratory diseases, characterized by persistent airway inflammation and dysregulated tissue repair and remodeling, although each individual disease has its unique etiology...
January 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106378/cell-selective-apoptosis-induced-by-polymorphic-alteration-of-self-assembled-silica-nano-webs
#20
Meysam Keshavarz, Bo Tan, Krishnan Venkatakrishnan
The biocompatibility of silicon-based nanomaterial makes it suitable for biophysical and biomedical applications. However, the application of silicon-based nanomaterials has been mainly restricted to nanoparticles (NPs) as a potential drug carrier and the extracellular matrix (ECM) as a platform for cell adhesion and proliferation. Here, we introduced silica NPs self-assembled into a 3D nano-web architecture that was shown to inherit the therapeutic and proliferative attributes of both NPs and ECMs. The self-assembled silica nano-web (SNW) has, therefore, not only shown targeted drug-like behavior in HeLa cells without the use of bio-markers but also has shown ECM characteristics...
January 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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