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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919354/ldl-cholesterol-in-early-pregnancy-and-offspring-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors
#1
Jacob J Christensen, Kjetil Retterstøl, Kristin Godang, Marie Cecilie Paasche Roland, Elisabeth Qvigstad, Jens Bollerslev, Thor Ueland, Tore Henriksen, Kirsten B Holven
BACKGROUND: Vast amounts of data show associations between maternal obesity, dysglycemia, diabetes, and undernutrition during pregnancy and increased cardiovascular disease risk in offspring. However, elevated maternal LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) in pregnancy and offspring cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has scarcely been studied. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the associations between elevated maternal LDL-C in pregnancy and CVD risk factors in 6-to-13-year-old offspring...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919310/indicators-of-fetal-growth-and-adult-liver-enzymes-the-bogalusa-heart-study-and-the-cardiovascular-risk-in-young-finns-study
#2
E W Harville, W Chen, L Bazzano, M Oikonen, N Hutri-Kähönen, O Raitakari
Despite the interest in the relationship of fetal exposures to adult cardiovascular disease, few studies have examined indicators of adult fatty liver disease as an outcome. Previous results are inconsistent, and indicate possible variation by sex. Adult liver enzymes [γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartase transaminase (AST)] were measured in two cohort studies: the Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS; n=1803) and the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns (YF; n=3571) study, which also had ultrasound measures of liver fat (n=2546)...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915320/retinopathy-of-prematurity-aiims-new-delhi-experience
#3
Sindhu Sivanandan, Parijat Chandra, Ashok K Deorari, Ramesh Agarwal
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a leading cause of potentially avoidable childhood blindness worldwide. With improvement in neonatal care, more preterm infants are surviving with a resultant increase in the number of ROP cases. In low-middle income countries, the disease epidemiology is characterized by the occurrence of ROP at higher birthweight in premature babies with greater severity at presentation. In this article, we describe the ROP screening and management program at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi that has evolved over last three decades...
November 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907284/working-memory-in-very-low-birthweight-children-at-the-age-of-11-years
#4
Satu Korpela, Anna Nyman, Petriina Munck, Annarilla Ahtola, Jaakko Matomäki, Tapio Korhonen, Riitta Parkkola, Leena Haataja
The aim of this study is to investigate the working memory (WM) of very-low-birthweight (VLBW, ≤ 1500 g) children at the age of 11 years using Baddeley's WM model. A regional cohort of 95 VLBW children was assessed for the domains of the WM model (central executive [CE], visuospatial sketchpad [VS], and phonological loop [PL]) using subtests from the Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). VLBW children were categorized into three groups according to their degree of brain pathology (normal, minor, or major) in neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging at the term age, and the WM performance was compared between groups to test norms...
December 1, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905150/genetic-parameter-estimates-for-prenatal-and-postnatal-mortality-in-nellore-cattle
#5
L C Magalhães Silva, F Baldi, C Aboujaoude, G C Venturini, L G Albuquerque, M J R Paranhos da Costa
The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for prenatal (PRE) and postnatal (POS) mortality in Nellore cattle. A total of 13 141 (PRE) and 17 818 (POS) records from Nellore females were used. PRE and POS were recorded using binary scale scores: a score of '1' was given to calves that were born alive (PRE) and those that were alive at weaning (POS), and a score of '0' was given to calves that were not alive at or around birth (PRE), as well as to those weighed at birth but not at weaning (POS)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885583/using-gis-mapping-to-target-public-health-interventions-examining-birth-outcomes-across-gis-techniques
#6
E L MacQuillan, A B Curtis, K M Baker, R Paul, Y O Back
With advances in spatial analysis techniques, there has been a trend in recent public health research to assess the contribution of area-level factors to health disparity for a number of outcomes, including births. Although it is widely accepted that health disparity is best addressed by targeted, evidence-based and data-driven community efforts, and despite national and local focus in the U.S. to reduce infant mortality and improve maternal-child health, there is little work exploring how choice of scale and specific GIS visualization technique may alter the perception of analyses focused on health disparity in birth outcomes...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882544/prospective-evaluation-of-the-ages-and-stages-questionnaire-3rd-edition-in-very-low-birthweight-infants
#7
Pratibha K Agarwal, Luming Shi, Lourdes M Daniel, Phey Hong Yang, Poh Choo Khoo, Bin Huey Quek, Qishi Zheng, Victor S Rajadurai
AIM: To evaluate the predictive and concurrent diagnostic agreement of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3rd Edition (ASQ-3) with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd Edition (Bayley-III) in infants born preterm and very-low-birthweight (PT/VLBW; ≤1250g). METHOD: We evaluated 141 PT/VLBW infants (68 males, 73 females) born at the KK Women's and Children's Hospital between January 2010 and December 2011, to determine predictive and concurrent diagnostic agreement between the ASQ-3 at 9, 12, 18, and 24 months corrected age and Bayley-III at 24 months...
November 24, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879380/performance-of-leak-compensation-in-all-age-icu-ventilators-during-volume-targeted-neonatal-ventilation-a-lung-model-study
#8
Taiga Itagaki, Desmond J Bennett, Christopher T Chenelle, Daniel F Fisher, Robert M Kacmarek
BACKGROUND: Volume-targeted ventilation is increasingly used in low birthweight infants because of the potential for reducing volutrauma and avoiding hypocapnea. However, it is not known what level of air leak is acceptable during neonatal volume-targeted ventilation when leak compensation is activated concurrently. METHODS: Four ICU ventilators (Servo-i, PB980, V500, and Avea) were compared in available invasive volume-targeted ventilation modes (pressure control continuous spontaneous ventilation [PC-CSV] and pressure control continuous mandatory ventilation [PC-CMV])...
November 22, 2016: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876554/interaction-between-excess-folate-and-low-vitamin-b12-status
#9
REVIEW
Ligi Paul, Jacob Selhub
Current epidemiological evidence suggests that an imbalance of high folate status and low vitamin B12 status is associated with negative health outcomes in older adults and children. Such an imbalance during pregnancy also predisposes women to diabetes and their offspring to insulin resistance and adiposity and low birthweight. In older adults, vitamin B12 status can remain low despite adequate intake due to age-related decline in vitamin B12 absorption. Pregnant women are exposed to folic acid at varying doses depending on the prenatal care prescribed in different countries...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876004/enoxaparin-for-the-prevention-of-preeclampsia-and-intrauterine-growth-restriction-in-women-with-a-prior-history-an-open-label-randomised-trial-the-eppi-trial-study-protocol
#10
K M Groom, L M McCowan, P R Stone, L C Chamley, C McLintock
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia and intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) are two of the most common causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Current methods of predicting those at most risk of these conditions remain relatively poor, and in clinical practice past obstetric history remains the most commonly used tool. Aspirin and, in women at risk of preeclampsia only, calcium have been demonstrated to have a modest effect on risk reduction. Several observational studies and randomised trials suggest that low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) therapy may confer some benefit...
November 22, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874218/supplementation-of-distiller-s-grains-during-late-gestation-in-beef-cows-consuming-low-quality-forage-decreases-uterine-but-not-mammary-blood-flow
#11
B R Mordhorst, C A Zimprich, L E Camacho, M L Bauer, K A Vonnahme
Positive effects have been observed in offspring from beef cows supplemented with corn dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) during late gestation. The hypothesis of this study was that late gestational DDGS supplementation to beef cows would increase blood flow (BF) to the gravid uterus and mammary gland thus impacting birthweight and post-natal growth of the offspring. Experiment 1 investigated mammary gland BF in multiparous cows during late pregnancy. Beef cows were fed a control (CON1) diet of low-quality hay (n = 5) or a supplement diet (SUP1) of low-quality hay with DDGS [1...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873371/getting-a-sporting-chance-title-ix-and-the-intergenerational-transmission-of-health
#12
Lisa Schulkind
We know that healthier mothers tend to have healthier infants, but we do not know how much of that relationship reflects the intergenerational transmission of genetic attributes versus environmental influences. From a policy perspective, it is crucial to understand which environmental influences are important and whether investments in one generation affect outcomes for the next. I use variation in the implementation of Title IX to measure the effects of increased athletic opportunities on the health of infants...
November 22, 2016: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870876/reduced-picd-in-monocytes-mounts-altered-neonate-immune-response-to-candida-albicans
#13
Stephan Dreschers, Peter Saupp, Mathias Hornef, Andrea Prehn, Christopher Platen, Joachim Morschhäuser, Thorsten W Orlikowsky
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections with Candida albicans (C. albicans) occur frequently in extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants and are associated with poor outcome. Phagocytosis of C.albicans initializes apoptosis in monocytes (phagocytosis induced cell death, PICD). PICD is reduced in neonatal cord blood monocytes (CBMO). HYPOTHESIS: Phagocytosis of C. albicans causes PICD which differs between neonatal monocytes (CBMO) and adult peripheral blood monocytes (PBMO) due to lower stimulation of TLR-mediated immune responses...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864302/interpregnancy-interval-following-miscarriage-and-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Chrishny Kangatharan, Saffi Labram, Sohinee Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: A short interpregnancy interval (IPI) following a delivery is believed to be associated with adverse outcomes in the next pregnancy. The optimum IPI following miscarriage is controversial. Based on a single large-scale study in Latin and South America, the World Health Organization recommends delaying pregnancy for 6 months after a miscarriage to achieve optimal outcomes in the next pregnancy. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Our aim was to determine if a short IPI (<6 months) following miscarriage is associated with adverse outcomes in the next pregnancy...
November 17, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864000/timing-of-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-and-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Olalekan A Uthman, Jean B Nachega, Jean Anderson, Steve Kanters, Edward J Mills, Françoise Renaud, Shaffiq Essajee, Meg C Doherty, Lynne M Mofenson
BACKGROUND: Although lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all individuals with HIV, few data exist for pregnancy outcomes associated with ART initiation before conception. We assessed adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with ART initiated before conception compared with that of ART started after conception. METHODS: We did a systematic review of studies from low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, LILACS, MEDLINE, Toxline, Web of Knowledge, and WHO Global Index Medicus and trials in progress (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform) for randomised trials, quasi-randomised trials, and prospective cohort studies done between Jan 1, 1980, and June 1, 2016, in which timing of ART initiation in pregnant women living with HIV was reported...
November 15, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863167/influence-of-maternal-physical-activity-on-infant-s-body-composition
#16
M Bisson, F Tremblay, O St-Onge, J Robitaille, E Pronovost, D Simonyan, I Marc
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) during pregnancy might contribute to reduce neonatal adiposity, a predictor of metabolic disturbances. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between maternal PA intensity and neonatal body composition. METHODS: Maternal PA measured by accelerometry and nutrition were documented during pregnancy, as well as neonatal body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following delivery...
November 14, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861703/short-and-long-term-perinatal-outcome-in-twin-pregnancies-affected-by-weight-discordance
#17
Cathrine Vedel, Anna Oldenburg, Katharina Worda, Helle Larsen, Anni Holmskov, Kirsten Riis Andreasen, Niels Uldbjerg, Jan Ramb, Birgit Bødker, Lillian Skibsted, Lene Sperling, Stefan Hinterberger, Lone Krebs, Helle Zingenberg, Eva-Christine Weiss, Isolde Strobl, Lone Laursen, Jeanette Tranberg Christensen, Vibeke Ersbak, Inger Stornes, Elisabeth Krampl-Bettelheim, Ann Tabor, Line Rode
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between chorionicity-specific intertwin birthweight (BW) discordance and adverse outcomes including long-term follow-up at 6, 18, and 48-60 months after term via Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this secondary analysis of a cohort study (Oldenburg et al,n=1688) and a randomized controlled trial (PREDICT study,n=1045) twin pairs were divided into three groups according to chorionicity-specific BW discordance; <75(th) -percentile, 75(th) -90(th) -percentile and >90(th) -percentile...
November 18, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859847/the-association-of-low-birth-weight-with-serum-c-reactive-protein-in-3-year-old-children-living-in-cuba-a-population-based-prospective-study
#18
Silvia Josefina Venero-Fernández, Hermes Fundora-Hernández, Lourdes Batista-Gutierrez, Ramón Suárez-Medina, Esperanza de la C Mora-Faife, Gladys García-García, Ileana Del Valle-Infante, Liem Gómez-Marrero, John Britton, Andrew W Fogarty
OBJECTIVE: Low birthweight is associated with a decreased risk of childhood leukemia and an increased risk of both cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in adult life. Possible biological mediators include systemic innate immunity and inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that birthweight was inversely associated with serum high sensitivity C reactive protein assay (hsCRP), a measure of both innate immunity and systemic inflammation. METHODS: Data on birthweight and current anthropometric measures along with a range of exposures were collected at 1 and 3 years of age in a population-based cohort study of young children living in Havana, Cuba...
November 18, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852109/a-review-of-recent-literature-on-materialist-and-psychosocial-models-for-racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-birth-outcomes-in-the-us-2000-2014
#19
Miriam Mutambudzi, John D Meyer, Susan Reisine, Nicholas Warren
OBJECTIVE: Material and psychosocial factors exacerbate racial disparities in health outcomes. This review sought to ascertain recent knowledge of the effects of materialist and psychosocial factors on differences in low birthweight (LBW) and preterm delivery (PTD) outcomes between Black and White mothers. DESIGN: Search and review was conducted for studies that examined: (a) neighborhood-level deprivation as an indicator of material conditions, and (b) racial discrimination or occupational stressors as indicators of psychosocial stress...
November 16, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832834/multigenerational-cardiometabolic-risk-as-a-predictor-of-birth-outcomes-the-bogalusa-heart-study
#20
Emily W Harville, Marni B Jacobs, Lu Qi, Wei Chen, Lydia A Bazzano
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between generation 1 (grandmaternal) cardiometabolic risk factors and generation 3 (grandchild's) birthweight and gestational age. STUDY DESIGN: Mother-daughter pairs in the Bogalusa Heart Study (1973-present) were linked to their children's birth certificates; women were also interviewed about their reproductive histories, creating a 3-generation linkage including 177 generation 1 (grandmothers), 210 generation 2 (mothers), and 424 generation 3 (children)...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
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