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Robherson Wector de Sousa Costa, Giovanni Lucca França da Silva, Antonio Oseas de Carvalho Filho, Aristófanes Corrêa Silva, Anselmo Cardoso de Paiva, Marcelo Gattass
Lung cancer presents the highest cause of death among patients around the world, in addition of being one of the smallest survival rates after diagnosis. Therefore, this study proposes a methodology for diagnosis of lung nodules in benign and malignant tumors based on image processing and pattern recognition techniques. Mean phylogenetic distance (MPD) and taxonomic diversity index (Δ) were used as texture descriptors. Finally, the genetic algorithm in conjunction with the support vector machine were applied to select the best training model...
May 23, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Matthew C Velasco
OBJECTIVES: In the Late Intermediate Period Andes (AD 1100-1450), the proliferation of above-ground sepulchers reconfigured social boundaries within and between communities engaged in protracted conflict. However, the biosocial dimensions of these mortuary practices, and their implications for conflict and alliance formation, remain unexplored. This study examines patterns of phenotypic variation to: (1) evaluate if open sepulchers were organized on the basis of biological relatedness, and (2) explore if sex-specific phenotypic variability conforms to models of postmarital residence...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Tetsunosuke Shimizu, Hirotada Kittaka, Kohei Taniguchi, Kazuhisa Uchiyama, Hiroshi Akimoto
Pancreatic complex deep injury extending to the main pancreatic duct (MPD), caused by strong external forces such as traffic accidents, is lethal without emergency surgery. However, the best surgical procedure for this serious injury has not been established. The Bracey procedure is a relatively simple reconstructive technique involving pancreaticogastrostomy, but it is often followed by postoperative complications, such as dilatation of the MPD caused by anastomotic stenosis, as well as subsequent serious sequela such as repetitive pancreatitis and new-onset pancreatic diabetes...
May 11, 2018: Surgery Today
Yunfei Shi, Lijuan Deng, Yuqin Song, Dongmei Lin, Yumei Lai, LiXin Zhou, Lei Yang, Xianghong Li
To investigate the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating T-cell density and programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). One-hundred-twenty-five Chinese DLBCL patients were enrolled in our study and provided samples; 76 of all cases were treated with rituximab (R). Tumor tissues were immunostained and analyzed for CD3+ and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating T-cell density, tumoral PD-L1, and microenvironmental PD-L1 (mPD-L1). The density of CD3 was rated as high in 33.6% cases, while 64...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Hematology
LianYu Chen, Chien-Shan Cheng, HuiFeng Gao, Ling Zhan, FengJiao Wang, Chao Qu, Ye Li, Peng Wang, Hao Chen, ZhiQiang Meng, LuMing Liu, HaiFeng Chen, Zhen Chen
Methyl protodioscin (MPD) is one of the main bioactive components in the plant of Dioscoreaceae. MPD has been demonstrated to possess antitumor activities. However, its role in pancreatic cancer and the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. In the present study, we demonstrated that MPD inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis of pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that MPD decreased oncogene c-Myc in protein level and resulted in concomitant reduction in glycolysis...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Mike Becquet, Laurent Laborde, Celine Texier, Dario Sterker, Hans-Peter Gschwind, Ulrike Pfaar, Markus Wartmann, Terry M O'Reilly, Paul M McSheehy
Patupilone is a microtubule-targeted cytotoxic agent with clinical efficacy, but causes diarrhoea in more than 80% of patients. The efficacy and tolerability of patupilone delivered continuously by subcutaneous (s.c.) mini-pumps [(mini-pump dose (MPD)] or by intravenous bolus administration [intravenous bolus dose (IVBD)] were compared preclinically to determine whether the therapeutic index could be improved. The antiproliferative potency in vitro of patupilone was determined by measuring total cell protein...
May 4, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Mohamed H Aboumanei, Aly A Abdelbary, Ismail T Ibrahim, Mina I Tadros, Mohamed T El-Kolaly
A10, (3-phenylacetylamino-2,6-piperidinedione), is a natural peptide with broad antineoplastic activity. Recently, in vitro antitumor effect of a new A10 analog [3-(4-methoxybenzoylamino)-2,6-piperidinedione] (MPD) has been verified. However, poor aqueous solubility represents an obstacle towards intravenous formulation of MPD and impedes successful in vivo antitumor activity. To surmount such limitation, MPD microemulsion (MPDME) was developed. A 31 22 full factorial design using Design-Expert® software was adopted to study the influence of different parameters and select the optimum formulation (MPDME1)...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Emily B Sessa, Sally M Chambers, Daijiang Li, Lauren Trotta, Lorena Endara, J Gordon Burleigh, Benjamin Baiser
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Many ecological and evolutionary processes shape the assembly of organisms into local communities from a regional pool of species. We analyzed phylogenetic and functional diversity to understand community assembly of the ferns of Florida at two spatial scales. METHODS: We built a phylogeny for 125 of the 141 species of ferns in Florida using five chloroplast markers. We calculated mean pairwise dissimilarity (MPD) and mean nearest taxon distance (MNTD) from phylogenetic distances and functional trait data for both spatial scales and compared the results to null models to assess significance...
May 5, 2018: American Journal of Botany
M A Fagundes, S Y Yang, J-S Eun, J O Hall, J O Moon, J S Park
The present study investigated production responses and ruminal fermentation characteristics of lactating dairy cows when supplemented with N-acetyl-l-Met (NALM) as a source of rumen-protected Met in metabolizable protein (MP)-deficient (MPD) or MP-adequate diet (MPA). Eight lactating dairy cows (53 ± 10.4 d in milk, average ± standard deviation) were blocked by parity and days in milk, and the experiment was performed in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Within each square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets during each of the four 21-d periods (14 d of treatment adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling)...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Harris Hyun-Soo Kim, JongSerl Chun
Research indicates that mobile phone dependency (MPD) is associated with various behavioral and internalizing problems. While a significant amount of findings points to its negative outcomes, there is a dearth of evidence concerning the determinants of MPD. This study focuses on this critical, yet understudied, subject by analyzing the associations between abusive parenting style, neighborhood characteristics, and MPD among youths in South Korea, a country with one of the highest mobile broadband penetration rates in the world...
2018: PloS One
Timothy J Tyree, Ritwik Dan, Robert E Thorne
The glass-phase densities at T = 77 K of aqueous solutions of the common cryoprotective agents (CPAs) methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, glycerol, 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD), ethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 200 and polypropylene glycol 425 were measured as a function of CPA concentration. Individual drops with volumes as small as ∼65 pl were rapidly cooled to achieve the glass phase, and their densities at T = 77 K were determined by cryoflotation. These densities were used to determine the glass-phase electron density of each solution and its volume thermal contraction between room temperature and 77 K...
May 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
A D Patel, M Sharma, N Ramasubramanian, R Ganesh, P K Chattopadhyay
A new multi-line cusp magnetic field plasma device consisting of electromagnets with core material has been constructed with a capability to experimentally control the relative volume fractions of magnetized to unmagnetized plasma volume as well as accurate control on the gradient length scales of mean density and temperature profiles. Argon plasma has been produced using a hot tungsten cathode over a wide range of pressures 5 × 10-5 -1 × 10-3 mbar, achieving plasma densities ranging from 109 to 1011 cm-3 and the electron temperature in the range 1-8 eV...
April 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Yukitoshi Matsunami, Takao Itoi, Atsushi Sofuni, Takayoshi Tsuchiya, Kentaro Kamada, Reina Tanaka, Ryosuke Tonozuka, Mitsuyoshi Honjo, Shuntaro Mukai, Mitsuru Fujita, Kenjiro Yamamoto, Yasutsugu Asai, Takashi Kurosawa, Shingo Tachibana, Yuichi Nagakawa
Background and study aims:  Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided pancreatic duct drainage (EUS-PD) has been reported as an alternative for failed conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, there are few dedicated devices for EUS-PD. Recently, we have developed a new plastic stent dedicated to EUS-PD and have conducted a feasibility study to evaluate its efficacy. In the current study, we evaluated the long-term efficacy of this new plastic stent. Patients and methods:  Thirty patients (61 ± 14...
May 2018: Endoscopy International Open
Luciano F L Oliveira, James T Thackeray, José A Marin Neto, Minna M D Romano, Eduardo E V Carvalho, Jorge Mejia, Denise M Tanaka, Grace K Silva, Douglas R Abdalla, Carlos Malamut, Frank M Bengel, Maria L Higuchi, André Schmidt, Edécio Cunha-Neto, Marcus V Simões
Background: Altered myocardial perfusion is a common finding in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), but its underlying histologic changes have not been elucidated. We investigated the occurrence of myocardial perfusion defects (MPD) and the correlated regional changes to histology in an experimental model of CCC in hamsters. Methods: Female Syrian hamsters ( n = 34) were infected with 3.5x104 to 105 trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi Y-strain and 6 to 10 months afterwards were submitted to in vivo imaging including: rest 99m Tc-sestamibi SPECT imaging, segmental and global left ventricular (LV) function assessment by using 2D-echocardiogram, and 18 F-FDG PET for evaluation of myocardial viability...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Sara Miranda Almeida, Leandro Juen, Fernando Landa Sobral, Marcos Pérsio Dantas Santos
Passeriformes is the largest and most diverse avian order in the world and comprises the Passeri and Tyranni suborders. These suborders constitute a monophyletic group, but differ in their ecology and history of occupation of South America. We investigated the influence of biogeographic history on functional and phylogenetic diversities of Passeri and Tyranni in forest and savanna habitats in the Brazilian Amazon. We compiled species composition data for 34 Passeriformes assemblages, 12 in savannas and 22 in forests...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Abdulkerim Yildiz, Melike Güryildirim, Mehmet Sezgin Pepeler, Merve Yazol, Suna Özhan Oktar, Kadir Acar
BACKGROUND: Thrombosis is the most important cardiovascular complication of classical myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs). Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is known to play a major role in the mechanism of thrombophilia in MPDs. METHODS: Endothelial dysfunction and its associations with other parameters were investigated. A total of 18 patients with polycythemia vera (PV), 24 with essential thrombocytosis (ET), 7 with primary myelofibrosis (PMF), and 30 healthy patients as a control group were included in the study...
January 1, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
Zhonghao Wan, Meng Li, Qian Zhang, Zixi Fan, Francis Verpoort
Magnetic chitosan particles (MCS) were chemically grafted by m-phenylenediamine (mPD) forming a distinctive shell layer with abundant nitrogenous functional groups and used as an adsorbent for the effective removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. By interaction among functional groups in the facile oxidative polymerization process, the grafting of mPD and its polymers on MCS surface was innovatively realized. Through Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, etc...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tong Chen, Zhenghong Wu, Le Wang
In the Network Era, with the emergence of various instant communication tools, the public are easier to be disseminators than ever. But we have often heard that silence is golden. Inspired by this fact, we investigate that whether the existence of disseminators is beneficial to promote cooperation in the provision of public culture services. To answer this interesting question, we classify disseminators as neutral disseminators, positive disseminators and negative disseminators. And four models are set up, namely, neutral disseminator model (MBD), positive disseminator model (MPD), negative disseminator model (MND) and silencer model (MS)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Zhi-Rui Yang, Hai-Yan Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ruxolitinib in treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasm. METHODS: Random clinical trials (~September 30, 2017) were identified from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Clinical Trials, CBM and Chinese Journal Full-text Database. The quality of RCT was assessed by Cochrane risk bias. Meta analysis was performed with Revman 5.3. RESULTS: Ruxolitinib was efficacious in relieving splenomegaly (RR 49...
April 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Yu Shi, Ying Liu, Feng Gao, Yanqing Liu, Shengzhen Tao, Yue Li, Kevin J Glaser, Richard L Ehman, Qiyong Guo
Purpose To describe the relationship between conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging parameters and MR elastography of the pancreas in association with pancreatic histologic features and occurrence of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). Materials and Methods Patients who underwent preoperative MR imaging (MR elastography and diffusion-, T1-, and T2-weighted imaging) followed by pancreatectomy with pancreaticoenteric anastomosis were included. The relationships between preoperative MR imaging parameters, demographic data, and intraoperative factors with POPF risk were analyzed with logistic regression analyses...
April 17, 2018: Radiology
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