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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535162/examining-the-social-context-of-injection-drug-use-social-proximity-vs-geographic-proximity-to-others-who-inject-drugs
#1
Abby E Rudolph, April M Young, Jennifer R Havens
This analysis uses social network and spatial data to examine associations between one's injection status and social and/or spatial proximity to others who inject. 503 rural persons who use drugs were recruited to participate in the Social Networks among Appalachian People (SNAP) Study (2008-2010). Interviewer-administered surveys collected information on recent sex, drug use, and social support network members (n = 897 ties). Using network simulations, we determined a threshold for the association between social proximity to others who inject and recent injection status ('socially proximal' defined by shortest path≤2)...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533612/should-high-power-posing-be-integrated-in-physical-therapy
#2
Weiqing Ge, Teale K Bennett, Jeremy C Oller
[Purpose] Postural assessment and correction is a common approach in patient management to decrease symptoms and improve function for patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-power posing on muscle strength and pain threshold. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one subjects, 16 females and 15 males, mean age 28.9 (SD 10.8) years old, were recruited through a convenience sampling on the university campus. The research design was a randomized controlled trial. In the experimental group, the subjects were instructed to stand in a high-power posture...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532974/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-corneal-collagen-crosslinking-for-progressive-keratoconus
#3
Daniel A Godefrooij, Marie-Josee J Mangen, Elsie Chan, David P S O'Brart, Saskia M Imhof, G Ardine de Wit, Robert P L Wisse
PURPOSE: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) for progressive keratoconus from the healthcare payer's perspective. DESIGN: A probabilistic Markov-type model using data from published clinical trials and cohort studies. PARTICIPANTS: Two identical cohorts, each comprising 1000 virtual patients with progressive bilateral keratoconus, were modeled; one cohort underwent CXL and the other cohort received no intervention...
May 19, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532891/the-acute-effects-of-integrated-myofascial-techniques-on-lumbar-paraspinal-blood-flow-compared-with-kinesio-taping-a-pilot-study
#4
Yusuf Shah, Marco Arkesteijn, Dexter Thomas, Jemma Whyman, Louis Passfield
BACKGROUND: Myofascial techniques and Kinesio Taping are therapeutic interventions used to treat low back pain. However, limited research has been conducted into the underlying physiological effects of these types of treatments. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of integrated myofascial techniques (IMT) and Kinesio Tape (KT) on blood flow at the lumbar paraspinal musculature. METHODS: Forty-four healthy participants (18 male and 26 female) (age, 26 ± SD 7) volunteered for this study and were randomly assigned to one of three interventions, IMT, KT or a control group (Sham TENS)...
April 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532442/an-integrated-enhancement-and-reconstruction-strategy-for-the-quantitative-extraction-of-actin-stress-fibers-from-fluorescence-micrographs
#5
Zhen Zhang, Shumin Xia, Pakorn Kanchanawong
BACKGROUND: The stress fibers are prominent organization of actin filaments that perform important functions in cellular processes such as migration, polarization, and traction force generation, and whose collective organization reflects the physiological and mechanical activities of the cells. Easily visualized by fluorescence microscopy, the stress fibers are widely used as qualitative descriptors of cell phenotypes. However, due to the complexity of the stress fibers and the presence of other actin-containing cellular features, images of stress fibers are relatively challenging to quantitatively analyze using previously developed approaches, requiring significant user intervention...
May 22, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532208/the-burden-of-and-risk-factors-for-trachoma-in-selected-districts-of-zimbabwe-results-of-16-population-based-prevalence-surveys
#6
Isaac Phiri, Portia Manangazira, Colin K Macleod, Takafira Mduluza, Tinashe Dhobbie, Shorai Grace Chaora, Chriswell Chigwena, Joshua Katiyo, Rebecca Willis, Ana Bakhtiari, Peter Bare, Paul Courtright, Boniface Macheka, Nicholas Midzi, Anthony W Solomon
BACKGROUND: Trachoma, a leading cause of blindness, is targeted for global elimination as a public health problem by 2020. In order to contribute to this goal, countries should demonstrate reduction of disease prevalence below specified thresholds, after implementation of the SAFE strategy in areas with defined endemicity. Zimbabwe had not yet generated data on trachoma endemicity and no specific interventions against trachoma have yet been implemented. METHODS: Two trachoma mapping phases were successively implemented in Zimbabwe, with eight districts included in each phase, in September 2014 and October 2015...
May 22, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531094/cost-effectiveness-of-a-community-exercise-and-nutrition-program-for-older-adults-texercise-select
#7
Olufolake Odufuwa Akanni, Matthew Lee Smith, Marcia G Ory
The wide-spread dissemination of evidence-based programs that can improve health outcomes among older populations often requires an understanding of factors influencing community adoption of such programs. One such program is Texercise Select, a community-based health promotion program previously shown to improve functional health, physical activity, nutritional habits and quality of the life among older adults. This paper assesses the cost-effectiveness of Texercise Select in the context of supportive environments to facilitate its delivery and statewide sustainability...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530327/-clinical-aspects-of-intrauterine-insemination
#8
REVIEW
Eliezer Girsh, Semion Meltzer, Buzhena Saar-Ryss, Gad Liberty, Jaakov Rabinson, Shevach Friedler
Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is an intervention performed frequently in the treatment of couples suffering from subfertility and women treated using donor sperm. The factors predicting its success include female parameters such as age and ovarian function and male parameters such as sperm quality. However, many details regarding its clinical application such as the methodology of sperm preparation, timing of IUI, the number of inseminations in the same cycle, the recommended number of cycles to be performed and the minimal threshold values of the sperm sample profile required are controversial...
August 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527687/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-typhoid-conjugate-vaccines-in-five-endemic-low-and-middle-income-settings
#9
Marina Antillón, Joke Bilcke, A David Paltiel, Virginia E Pitzer
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever remains endemic in low- and middle-income countries. Programmatic use of existing vaccines is limited, but upcoming typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) could warrant wider use. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of five TCV delivery strategies in three urban areas (Delhi and Kolkata, India and Nairobi, Kenya) and two rural settings (Lwak, Kenya and Dong Thap, Vietnam) with varying incidence. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated routine infant vaccination with and without catch-up campaigns among older individuals...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526850/drought-and-child-mortality-a-meta-analysis-of-small-scale-surveys-from-ethiopia
#10
Tefera Darge Delbiso, Chiara Altare, Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Llanes, Shannon Doocy, Debarati Guha-Sapir
Despite the intuitive connection between drought and mortality, we still lack a sound quantitative synthesis of evidence drawn from the available data. In this study, we estimate the pooled under-five death rates (U5DR) and assess the effect of drought on child death in Ethiopia. Small-scale mortality surveys were searched from the Complex Emergency Database and then aggregated spatially and temporally with drought exposure data from the Global Drought Monitor and food insecurity data from the Famine Early Warning Systems Network...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526355/drinking-beyond-the-binge-threshold-predictors-consequences-and-changes-in-the-u-s
#11
Ralph W Hingson, Wenxing Zha, Aaron M White
INTRODUCTION: Binge drinking, five or more drinks on an occasion for men and four or more for women, marks risky alcohol use. However, this dichotomous variable removes information about higher, more dangerous consumption. This paper examines predictors, consequences, and changes over a decade in drinking one to two times, two to three times, and three or more times standard gender-specific binge thresholds, labeled Levels I, II, and III. METHODS: In 2001-2002 and 2012-2013, respectively, 42,748 and 36,083 U...
June 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526255/associations-of-objective-and-subjective-sleep-disturbance-with-cognitive-function-in-older-men-with-comorbid-depression-and-insomnia
#12
Daniel J Biddle, Sharon L Naismith, Kathleen M Griffiths, Helen Christensen, Ian B Hickie, Nicholas S Glozier
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether poor objective and subjective sleep quality are differentially associated with cognitive function. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Participants were recruited from primary and secondary care, and directly from the community, in Sydney, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: The sample consisted of 74 men 50years and older (mean [SD], 58.4 [6.2] years), with comorbid depression and above-threshold insomnia symptoms, participating in a trial of online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia...
June 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525818/hypertension-update-jnc8-and-beyond
#13
REVIEW
Tara Shrout, David W Rudy, Michael T Piascik
Hypertension is the most preventable major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The etiology of elevated blood pressure is a complex process involving the interaction of genetics, demographics, comorbid disorders, and environmental influences. Effective hypertensive therapy has been shown to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. JNC reports have served as a valuable source of guidelines, and JNC 8 is the most recently updated guideline for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of hypertension...
May 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523988/myofascial-techniques-have-no-additional-beneficial-effects-to-a-standard-physical-therapy-programme-for-upper-limb-pain-after-breast-cancer-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
An De Groef, Marijke Van Kampen, Nele Vervloesem, Sophie De Geyter, Marie-Rose Christiaens, Patrick Neven, Lore Vos, Tessa De Vrieze, Inge Geraerts, Nele Devoogdt
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of myofascial techniques, in addition to a standard physical therapy programme for upper limb pain shortly after breast cancer surgery. DESIGN: Double-blinded (patient and assessor) randomized controlled trial with two groups. SETTING: University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium Patients: A total of 147 patients with unilateral axillary clearance for breast cancer. INTERVENTION: All participants received a standard physical therapy programme starting immediately after surgery for four months...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522735/d3-receptors-regulate-excitability-in-a-unique-class-of-prefrontal-pyramidal-cell
#15
Rebecca L Clarkson, Alayna T Liptak, Steven M Gee, Vikaas S Sohal, Kevin J Bender
The D3 dopamine receptor, a member of the Gi-coupled D2-family of dopamine receptors, is expressed throughout limbic circuits affected in neuropsychiatric disorders, including prefrontal cortex. These receptors are important for prefrontal executive function, as pharmacological and genetic manipulations that affect prefrontal D3 receptors alter anxiety, social interaction, and reversal learning. And yet, the mechanisms by which D3 receptors regulate prefrontal circuits, and whether D3 receptors regulate specific prefrontal subnetworks, remain unknown...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522352/immune-plasma-for-the-treatment-of-severe-influenza-an-open-label-multicentre-phase-2-randomised-study
#16
John H Beigel, Pablo Tebas, Marie-Carmelle Elie-Turenne, Ednan Bajwa, Todd E Bell, Charles B Cairns, Shmuel Shoham, Jaime G Deville, Eric Feucht, Judith Feinberg, Thomas Luke, Kanakatte Raviprakash, Janine Danko, Dorothy O'Neil, Julia A Metcalf, Karen King, Timothy H Burgess, Evgenia Aga, H Clifford Lane, Michael D Hughes, Richard T Davey
BACKGROUND: Influenza causes substantial morbidity and mortality despite available treatments. Anecdotal reports suggest that plasma with high antibody titres to influenza might be of benefit in the treatment of severe influenza. METHODS: In this randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial, 29 academic medical centres in the USA assessed the safety and efficacy of anti-influenza plasma with haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres of 1:80 or more to the infecting strain...
May 15, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520618/defining-a-cut-off-for-atazanavir-in-hair-samples-associated-with-virological-failure-among-adolescents-failing-second-line-antiretroviral-treatment
#17
Tariro Dianah Chawana, Monica Gandhi, Kusum Nathoo, Bernard Ngara, Alexander Louie, Howard Horng, David Katzenstein, John Metcalfe, Charles Fungai Brian Nhachi
BACKGROUND: Adequate antiretroviral exposure is crucial for virological suppression. We assessed the relationship between atazanavir hair levels with self-reported adherence, virological outcomes, and the effect of a home-based adherence intervention in HIV-infected adolescents failing 2-line antiretroviral treatment in Zimbabwe. METHODS: HIV-infected adolescents on atazanavir/ritonavir-based 2-line treatment for ≥6 months with viral load (VL) >1,000 copies/ml were randomised to either standard care (control) or standard care plus modified directly administered antiretroviral therapy (mDAART) (intervention)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515979/comparison-of-video-guided-live-instructed-and-self-guided-foam-roll-interventions-on-knee-joint-range-of-motion-and-pressure-pain-threshold-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Scott W Cheatham, Morey J Kolber, Matt Cain
BACKGROUND: The use of foam rollers to provide tissue massage is a commonly used intervention by rehabilitation professionals for their patients and clients. Currently, there is no consensus on the optimal foam rolling treatment approach. Of particular interest are the effects of different instructional methods of foam rolling, as individuals ultimately perform these interventions independently outside of formal care. Finding the optimal instructional method may help improve the individual's understanding of the technique, allowing for a safe and effective intervention...
April 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515794/influence-of-a-home-based-exercise-program-on-the-urine-ph-in-elderly-female-subjects-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Yuichiro Nishida, Keitaro Tanaka, Megumi Hara, Noriko Hirao, Hiroaki Tanaka, Takuro Tobina, Masaharu Ikeda, Hiroshi Yamato, Masanori Ohta
BACKGROUND: A low urine pH is a characteristic metabolic feature of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week home-based bench step exercise on the urine pH status of elderly female subjects. METHODS: The current study is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in which 59 postmenopausal female subjects were randomized to either the exercise group (n = 29) or the control group (n = 30)...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515193/cost-effectiveness-of-telehealthcare-to-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-results-from-the-danish-telecare-north-cluster-randomised-trial
#20
Flemming Witt Udsen, Pernille Heyckendorff Lilholt, Ole Hejlesen, Lars Ehlers
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cost-effectiveness of a telehealthcare solution in addition to usual care compared with usual care. DESIGN: A 12-month cost-utility analysis conducted alongside a cluster-randomised trial. SETTING: Community-based setting in the geographical area of North Denmark Region in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 26 municipality districts define randomisation clusters with 13 districts in each arm. 1225 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were enrolled, of which 578 patients were randomised to telehealthcare and 647 to usual care...
May 17, 2017: BMJ Open
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