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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903216/treatment-and-response-to-statins-gender-related-differences
#1
Raparelli Valeria, Pannitteri Gaetano, Todisco Tommaso, Toriello Filippo, Napoleone Laura, Manfredini Roberto, Basili Stefania
Response to drug administration is a primary determinant for treatment success. Sex and gender disparities play a role in determining the efficacy and safety of the most common used medications suggesting the need for a sex-tailored approach in prescription. Statins are a cost-effective strategy for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. While statins are similarly effective in secondary CVD prevention, some concerns raised by conflicting data reported in primary CVD prevention clinical trials. The small representation of women in clinical trials and the fewer rates of events due to the lower female baseline CVD risk may have conditioned contradictory meta-analysis findings...
November 17, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895517/influence-of-curcumin-on-the-pharmacodynamics-and-pharmacokinetics-of-gliclazide-in-animal-models
#2
Leela Krishna Vatsavai, Eswar Kumar Kilari
PURPOSE: Patients suffering from obesity-related diseases use multiple prescription drugs to control their condition, and it is therefore essential to determine the safety and efficacy of any combination. Gliclazide is one of the most commonly used drug of choice for treatment of type 2 diabetes, and curcumin is a widely used herbal supplement to counter obesity condition. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oral administration of curcumin on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of gliclazide in rats and rabbits to further evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this combination...
2016: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880972/interferons-beta-versus-glatiramer-acetate-for-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#3
REVIEW
Loredana La Mantia, Carlo Di Pietrantonj, Marco Rovaris, Giulio Rigon, Serena Frau, Francesco Berardo, Anna Gandini, Anna Longobardi, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Alberto Vaona
BACKGROUND: Interferons-beta (IFNs-beta) and glatiramer acetate (GA) were the first two disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) approved 20 years ago for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). DMTs' prescription rates as first or switching therapies and their costs have both increased substantially over the past decade. As more DMTs become available, the choice of a specific DMT should reflect the risk/benefit profile, as well as the impact on quality of life. As MS cohorts enrolled in different studies can vary significantly, head-to-head trials are considered the best approach for gaining objective reliable data when two different drugs are compared...
November 24, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855628/treatment-and-response-to-statins-gender-related-differences
#4
Raparelli Valeria, Pannitteri Gaetano, Todisco Tommaso, Toriello Filippo, Napoleone Laura, Manfredini Roberto, Basili Stefania
Response to drug administration is a primary determinant for treatment success. Sex and gender disparities play a role in determining the efficacy and safety of the most common used medications suggesting the need for a sex-tailored approach in prescription. Statins are a cost-effective strategy for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. While statins are similarly effective in secondary CVD prevention, some concerns raised by conflicting data reported in primary CVD prevention clinical trials. The small representation of women in clinical trials and the fewer rates of events due to the lower female baseline CVD risk may have conditioned contradictory meta-analysis findings...
November 17, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848217/pregabalin-for-the-treatment-of-drug-and-alcohol-withdrawal-symptoms-a-comprehensive-review
#5
REVIEW
Rainer Freynhagen, Miroslav Backonja, Stephan Schug, Gavin Lyndon, Bruce Parsons, Stephen Watt, Regina Behar
Treatments for physical dependence and associated withdrawal symptoms following the abrupt discontinuation of prescription drugs (such as opioids and benzodiazepines), nicotine, alcohol, and cannabinoids are available, but there is still a need for new and more effective therapies. This review examines evidence supporting the potential use of pregabalin, an α2δ voltage-gated calcium channel subunit ligand, for the treatment of physical dependence and associated withdrawal symptoms. A literature search of the MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases up to and including 11 December 2015 was conducted...
November 16, 2016: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847132/weight-loss-drugs-and-lifestyle-modification-perceptions-among-a-diverse-adult-sample
#6
S Xing, L K Sharp, D R Touchette
OBJECTIVES: Explore how adults from diverse racial and socioeconomic backgrounds perceive the use of weight loss drugs (prescription, over-the counter, herbals and supplements) and lifestyle modification. METHODS: Individual, face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with persons presenting to an academic hospital-affiliated outpatient pharmacy serving ethnic minorities and low income individuals. RESULTS: Fifty persons were interviewed, including 21 African Americans, 11 Hispanics and 17 low-income individuals (annual income <$20,000), of whom 33 self-reported as overweight or obese...
November 9, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842443/clinical-update-on-benefit-versus-risks-of-oral-paracetamol-alone-or-with-codeine-still-a-good-option
#7
Hans Georg Kress, Gerald Untersteiner
BACKGROUND: After decades of worldwide use of paracetamol/acetaminophen as a popular and apparently safe prescription and over-the-counter medicine, the future role of this poorly understood analgesic has been seriously questioned by recent concerns about prenatal, cardiovascular (CV) and hepatic safety, and also about its analgesic efficacy. At the same time the usefulness of codeine in combination products has come under debate. METHODS: Based on a PubMed database literature search on the terms efficacy, safety, paracetamol, acetaminophen, codeine and their combinations up to and including June 2016, this clinical update reviews the current evidence of the benefit and risks of oral paracetamol alone and with codeine for mild-to-moderate pain in adults, and compares the respective efficacy and safety profiles with those of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)...
November 15, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812956/direct-oral-anticoagulants-use-in-antiphospholipid-syndrome-are-these-drugs-an-effective-and-safe-alternative-to-warfarin-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#8
REVIEW
Virginie Dufrost, Jessie Risse, Stéphane Zuily, Denis Wahl
BACKGROUND: The cornerstone of thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) patients' management is to prevent recurrent thrombosis by long-term anticoagulation. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to summarize available literature on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) use in APS patients through a systematic review and to determine factors associated with thrombosis recurrence. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent RAPS trial demonstrated that APS patients treated with rivaroxaban had a significant twofold-increased thrombin potential, suggesting a higher thrombotic risk, in comparison with warfarin users...
December 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611098/authentication-of-schisandra-chinensis-and-schisandra-sphenanthera-in-chinese-patent-medicines
#9
Pin Jiang, Yan Lu, Daofeng Chen
Authentication of species is crucial for ensuring the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. The fruits of Schisandra chinensis and S. sphenanthera have been used for the same traditional Chinese drug, Wuweizi, but are found to be quite different according to their constituents, pharmacological effects, and qualities. These two fruits have been recorded as Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus (Wuweizi) and Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus (Nan-wuweizi), respectively, by Chinese Pharmacopoeia, 2000 edition. However, Nan-wuweizi is often found to be taken as Wuweizi in some Chinese patent drugs intentionally or by mistake because of its lower price and similar characteristics to Wuweizi...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600795/a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-to-assess-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-ethyl-ester-omega-3-fatty-acid-in-taiwanese-hypertriglyceridemic-patients
#10
Ta-Chen Su, Juey-Jen Hwang, Kuo-Chin Huang, Fu-Tien Chiang, Kuo-Liong Chien, Kuo-Yang Wang, Min-Ji Charng, Wei-Chuan Tsai, Lian-Yu Lin, Runar Vige, José Emilio Ruiz Olivar, Chuen-Den Tseng
AIM: Information regarding the effects of omega-3 fatty acid on hypertriglyceridemic patients in Chinese is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of Omacor(®), a prescription ethyl-ester omega-3 fatty acid for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia, administered at doses of 2 g/day and 4 g/day to Taiwanese hypertriglyceridemic patients. METHODS: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study in adults with hypertriglyceridemia was conducted...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553375/efficacy-and-safety-of-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-with-and-without-ribavirin-in-patients-with-chronic-hcv-genotype-1-infection-receiving-opioid-substitution-therapy-analysis-of-phase-3-ion-trials
#11
Jason Grebely, Stefan Mauss, Ashley Brown, Jean-Pierre Bronowicki, Massimo Puoti, David Wyles, Macky Natha, Yanni Zhu, Junming Yang, Bruce Kreter, Diana M Brainard, Chohee Yun, Val Carr, Gregory J Dore
BACKGROUND:  Interferon-based hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy is safe and effective among people receiving opioid substitution therapy (OST), but treatment uptake remains low. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of OST and drug use during therapy on completion, adherence, sustained virologic response (SVR12), and safety of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir ± ribavirin. METHODS:  The phase 3 ION studies evaluated a fixed-dose combination of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir ± ribavirin administered for 8, 12, or 24 weeks in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1...
August 23, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500468/melatonin-as-an-antioxidant-under-promises-but-over-delivers
#12
REVIEW
Russel J Reiter, Juan C Mayo, Dun-Xian Tan, Rosa M Sainz, Moises Alatorre-Jimenez, Lilian Qin
Melatonin is uncommonly effective in reducing oxidative stress under a remarkably large number of circumstances. It achieves this action via a variety of means: direct detoxification of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species and indirectly by stimulating antioxidant enzymes while suppressing the activity of pro-oxidant enzymes. In addition to these well-described actions, melatonin also reportedly chelates transition metals, which are involved in the Fenton/Haber-Weiss reactions; in doing so, melatonin reduces the formation of the devastatingly toxic hydroxyl radical resulting in the reduction of oxidative stress...
October 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416308/topical-retinoids-for-acne
#13
Lindsey Yeh, Lauren Meshkov Bonati, Nanette B Silverberg
Topical retinoids are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acne vulgaris in nonpregnant, nonlactating patients 12 years of age and older. Their efficacy, safety, and tolerability are well documented for inflammatory and noninflammatory acne with studies repeatedly demonstrating a decrease in the number of lesions, significant improvement in acne severity, improvement in the cosmetic appearance of acne, and the prevention of acne lesions through microcomedone formation...
June 2016: Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398042/efficacy-safety-and-cost-of-regorafenib-in-patients-with-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-in-french-clinical-practice
#14
Fabien Calcagno, Sabrina Lenoble, Zaher Lakkis, Thierry Nguyen, Samuel Limat, Christophe Borg, Marine Jary, Stefano Kim, Virginie Nerich
BACKGROUND: Regorafenib is an orally administered multikinase inhibitor that has been approved for patients with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Even though regorafenib significantly improved survival in two international phase 3 trials (CORRECT and CONCUR), a high rate of treatment-related toxic effects and dose modifications were observed with a modest benefit. The aim of this study was to provide information concerning the efficacy, safety, and cost of regorafenib in patients with mCRC in clinical practice...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378916/pharmacotherapy-of-pain-in-the-older-population-the-place-of-opioids
#15
REVIEW
Milica Prostran, Katarina Savić Vujović, Sonja Vučković, Branislava Medić, Dragana Srebro, Nevena Divac, Radan Stojanović, Aleksandar Vujović, Lepa Jovanović, Ana Jotić, Nataša Cerovac
Pain is a common symptom in older people. It is possible that pain is underreported in older persons due to an incorrect belief that it is an inevitable part of aging. Opioid analgesics are potent medications, with confirmed efficacy for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. These drugs are commonly used in older persons. However, there is insufficient evidence regarding safety of opioids in older patients. One of the reasons for this is the lack of randomized, controlled clinical trials. People of advanced age often have comorbidites and use other prescription drugs, as well as over-the-counter (OTC) compounds, thus making them more suceptible to the risk of interactions with opioids...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335428/are-antihistamines-effective-in-children-a-review-of-the-evidence
#16
Pauline De Bruyne, Thierry Christiaens, Koen Boussery, Els Mehuys, Myriam Van Winckel
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During the last decades, much attention has been paid to off-label and unlicensed prescriptions in paediatrics. However, on-label prescribing can also cause health issues. In this paper, the case of first-generation H1-antihistamines is investigated, notably the range of indications for which products are licensed in different European countries and the evidence base (or lack thereof) for each indication, as well as reported adverse drug reactions. METHODS: Review of the Summary of Product Characteristics of first-generation H1-antihistamines with a focus on paediatric use...
June 22, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141307/mometasone-furoate-nasal-spray-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Desiderio Passali, Maria Carla Spinosi, Anna Crisanti, Luisa Maria Bellussi
UNLABELLED: The inflammatory diseases of the nose, rhino-pharynx and paranasal sinuses (allergic and non allergic rhinitis, NARES; rhinosinusitis with/without nasal polyposis, adenoidal hypertrophy with/without middle ear involvement) clinically manifest themselves with symptoms and complications severely affecting quality of life and health care expenditure. Intranasal administration of corticosteroids, being fast, simple, and not requiring cooperation, is the preferred way to treat the patients, to optimize their quality of life, at the same time minimizing the risk of exacerbations and complications...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102265/how-pharmacists-check-the-appropriateness-of-drug-therapy-observations-in-community-pharmacy
#18
Mohammad B Nusair, Lisa M Guirguis
BACKGROUND: In Alberta (Canadian province), the Chat Check Chart (CCC) model was developed to help pharmacists understand how patient care standards fit into routine practice. The CCC model outlines a process that covers the following: 1) Chart-asking three prime questions to gather information; 2) Check-perform pharmacotherapy workup by assessing prescription's indication, efficacy, safety and manageability; and 3) Chart-document findings of the pharmacotherapy workup. OBJECTIVES: To characterize how pharmacist collect patient information and apply the pharmacotherapy workup when evaluating routine prescriptions in community pharmacy settings...
March 21, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100358/effects-of-oral-anticoagulant-therapy-in-older-medical-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-a-prospective-cohort-observational-study
#19
Mario Bo, Federica Li Puma, Marco Badinella Martini, Yolanda Falcone, Marina Iacovino, Enrica Grisoglio, Elena Menditto, Gianfranco Fonte, Enrico Brunetti, Giovanni Carlo Isaia, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo, Fiorenzo Gaita
BACKGROUND: Uncertainties about efficacy and safety of oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) among older and frail medical patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) largely contribute to under-prescription of these drugs. AIMS: In this prospective observational cohort study, we investigated mortality, and ischemic and hemorrhagic events, in hospital-discharged older patients with AF. METHODS: Stroke and bleeding risk were evaluated using CHA2DS2-VASC and HAS-BLED scores...
April 21, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27064142/challenges-and-promises-of-pediatric-psychopharmacology
#20
REVIEW
Lisa L Giles, D Richard Martini
Most prescriptions for psychotropic medications are written by primary care physicians, yet pediatricians, many of whom are teaching residents and medical students about pediatric psychopharmacology, often feel inadequately trained to treat mental health concerns. Over the past several decades, the number, size, and quality of psychopharmacologic studies in youth has greatly increased. Here we review the current evidence for efficacy and safety of each of the major pharmacologic drug classes in youth (psychostimulants, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics)...
August 2016: Academic Pediatrics
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