Read by QxMD icon Read

Drug efficacy effectiveness prescription safety

Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, Sergey Motov, Lewis S Nelson
Hydromorphone (HM) is a potent opioid analgesic that is commonly administered in the emergency department (ED) and other acute care settings, such as medical surgical wards. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the ED administration of HM relative to other opioids. Although HM is an effective analgesic, its use has been commonly implicated in adverse drug events and medication errors. In addition, intravenous HM has potent euphoric effects that may contribute to its abuse liability. There are limited data regarding how acute parenteral administration of opioid analgesics in the setting of high rates of preexisting chronic opioid use (medical or nonmedical) may contribute to or reinforce addictive behavior, making the potential contribution of rising HM administration to subsequent prescription opioid abuse and overdose uncertain...
January 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Yosuke Sugiyama, Tomoya Kataoka, Yoshihiko Tasaki, Yuki Kondo, Noriko Sato, Taku Naiki, Nobuhiro Sakamoto, Tatsuo Akechi, Kazunori Kimura
Background: Cancer-related neuropathic pain is sometimes unresponsive to multidrug treatment. Novel drugs are required to treat such severe pain without necessitating the use of adjuvant analgesics. Tapentadol is a new drug that has a dual mechanism as both an opioid agonist and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor. The study objective was to investigate the effectiveness of oral tapentadol for relieving cancer-related neuropathic pain. Methods: A retrospective, single-center, open, non-randomized study was conducted at the Nagoya City University Hospital...
March 1, 2018: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Jun-Shuang Bai, Qing-Chuan Zhang, Dan-Dan Guo, Hu-Zhan Zheng, Jin-Li Shi, Jian-You Guo
This study was aimed to observe the clinical efficacy of anxiolytic compound prescription with Valerianae Jatamansi Rhizoma et Radix (ACPV) in treating liver Qi stagnation and feel ill at ease type generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Sixty-seven patients diagnosed as GAD with stagnation of liver Qi and feel ill at ease were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. Patients in treatment group (n=34) was treated with ACPV decoction, and patients in control group (n=33) were treated with deanxit...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
G J Webb, S R Rahman, C Levy, G M Hirschfield
BACKGROUND: The use of rifampicin for cholestatic pruritus is accompanied by concerns over safety, but the availability of real-world prescribing data is relatively limited. AIM: We sought to describe the rate and characteristics of rifampicin-induced hepatitis in a mixed aetiology cohort of patients with established liver disease and cholestatic pruritus. METHODS: Retrospective review of records for out-patients commenced on rifampicin for pruritus 2012-2016 inclusive...
February 22, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Luis Hernandez, Tereza Lanitis, Clifford Cele, Hector Toro-Diaz, Andrea Gibson, Andreas Kuznik
BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in the United States. The most severe vision loss occurs in patients with neovascular AMD, known as wet AMD (wAMD). The most commonly used antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies approved by the FDA to treat patients with wAMD are ranibizumab, 0.5 mg administered by intravitreal injection once a month (approximately every 28 days), and intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI), 2 mg every 4 weeks (monthly) for the first 12 weeks (3 months), followed by IAI 2 mg once every 8 weeks (2 months)...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Luke Mordecai, Carl Reynolds, Liam J Donaldson, Amanda C de C Williams
BACKGROUND: Opioids are a widely prescribed class of drug with potentially harmful short-term and long-term side effects. There are concerns about the amounts of these drugs being prescribed in England given that they are increasingly considered ineffective in the context of long-term non-cancer pain, which is one of the major reasons for their prescription. AIM: To assess the amount and type of opioids prescribed in primary care in England, and patterns of regional variation in prescribing...
February 12, 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
Alisha Couto, Emanuel Troullos, Jennifer Moon, Alberto Paredes-Diaz, Robert An
OBJECTIVES: Current osteoarthritis therapies aim to alleviate pain and maintain joint function. Non-prescription oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are frequently used alone for pain relief in osteoarthritis. This post hoc pooled analysis evaluated the analgesic efficacy and safety of two non-prescription doses of naproxen sodium for short-term use in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. A separate subgroup analysis of older patients who were administered a lower dose of naproxen sodium was performed...
February 2, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Dan Carter, Eytan Bardan, Ram Dickman
Background: Although guidelines have been published for the treatment of chronic constipation, little is known about the actual treatment strategies, the definitions of drug efficacy, the parameters for drug selection, and the conceived limitations of the available treatments. The purpose of this study was to address these issues by comparing treatment strategies among gastroenterology specialists (GIs) and general practitioners (GPs). Methods: An internet survey was sent nationwide and at random to GIs and GPs in order to define treatment strategies, drug efficacy, main parameters for drug selections and the main limitations of the available drug therapy...
January 2018: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
Doron Garfinkel
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of poly-de-prescribing (PDP) based on the Garfinkel method in older people with polypharmacy. Methods: A longitudinal, prospective, nonrandomized study in Israel was carried out between 2009 and 2016. Comprehensive geriatric assessments were performed at home in people age ⩾66 years consuming ⩾6 prescription drugs. Exclusion criteria were life expectancy <6 months and a seeming unwillingness to cooperate (poor compliance)...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
S Iskounen, G Simoneau, S Mouly
BACKGROUND: Many prescribers and patients remain reluctant to substitution to generics. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study, using semi-structured interviews adapted to identify factors independently associated with the acceptance of alternative to a generic drug by doctors and patients. RESULTS: Between December 2014 and August 2015, 108 patients and 73 private doctors from Île-de-France and Nord-Pas-de-Calais were enrolled...
December 28, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Arrigo F G Cicero, Marilisa Bove, Claudio Borghi
Hypercholesterolemia is the main modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis progression and cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. Its pharmacological management is usually based on the prescription of statins, that in some cases are not however fully effective to reach the desired Low-Density-Lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C) target, or are not tolerated by patients due to side effects. Areas covered: This manuscript summarizes the basic properties of the emerging new classes of lipid-lowering drugs such as ezetimibe, Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, and Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein (MTP) inhibitors, also citing new drugs in development...
January 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Mona Abdel-Tawab
Given the expanding market of plant food supplements (PFSs) not undergoing any pre-marketing authorization, the overall quality, safety and efficacy of PFSs were subjected to a critical examination. Although many high-quality PFSs exist on the legal market, quality concerns are in general justified. Besides economic adulteration, active ingredients dramatically differing from label claims and among products were reported in several studies. In addition, PFSs sold via the Internet may be intentionally adulterated with undeclared prescription drugs...
December 8, 2017: Planta Medica
Christina L Zuch de Zafra, Carrie G Markgraf, David R Compton, Thomas J Hudzik
The development of novel drug candidates involves the thorough evaluation of potential efficacy and safety. To facilitate the safety assessment in light of global increases in prescription drug misuse/abuse, health authorities have developed guidance documents which provide a framework for evaluating the abuse liability of candidate therapeutics. The guidances do not distinguish between small molecules and biologics/biotherapeutics; however, there are key differences between these classes of therapeutics which are important drivers of concern for abuse...
February 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Kao-Ping Chua, Mark G Shrime, Rena M Conti
BACKGROUND: In August 2012, the Food and Drug Administration investigated the safety of codeine use by children after tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy, culminating in a black box warning in February 2013. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the investigation and opioid prescribing to children undergoing these surgeries. METHODS: We identified 362 992 privately insured children in the 2010-2015 Truven MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database who underwent tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy...
December 2017: Pediatrics
Armando González-Stuart, José O Rivera
The Dietary Supplements and Health Education Act (DSHEA), passed by the United States Congress in October of 1994, defines herbal products as nutritional supplements, not medications. This opened the market for diverse products made from plants, including teas, extracts, essential oils, and syrups. Mexico and the United States share an extensive border, where diverse herbal products are available to the public without a medical prescription. Research undertaken in the neighboring cities of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas, USA, shows the use of herbs is higher in this border area compared to the rest of the United States...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Gui-Qian Wang, Yan-Ming Xie, Huan Liu, Yin Zhang, Ping-Ping Jia, Yan Zhuang
To explore the real world clinical medication and combination characteristics of Shenxiong glucose injection. The basic information of patients with Shenxiong glucose injection, traditional Chinese and western medicine diagnosis information, doctor advice information and laboratory test information from the hospital information system(HIS) of 19 tertiary hospitals in China. Apriori algorithm was adopted to establish the models, and Clementine 12.0 was used for correlation analysis to analyze the real world clinical medication and combination characteristics of Shenxiong glucose injection...
January 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Ravi Gupta, Sanket S Dhruva, Erin R Fox, Joseph S Ross
BACKGROUND: Hundreds of drug products are currently marketed in the United States without approval from the FDA. The 2006 Unapproved Drugs Initiative (UDI) requires manufacturers to remove these drug products from the market or obtain FDA approval by demonstrating evidence of safety and efficacy. Once the FDA acts against an unapproved drug, fewer manufacturers remain in the market, potentially enabling drug price increases and greater susceptibility to drug shortages. There is a need for systematic study of the UDI's effect on prices and shortages of all targeted drugs...
October 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Mindl M Messinger, Sunita N Misra, Gary D Clark, Shannon M DiCarlo
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric patients often require larger doses of antiepileptic drug (AED) than adults in order to attain therapeutic serum concentrations and/or achieve seizure control. Safety and efficacy data are often extrapolated from adult literature; hence, optimal dosage may only be determined anecdotally or based on expert opinion. With limited pediatric dosing guidelines, milligrams per day that are based on weight may exceed the maximum adult dose. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the safety of exceeding maximum doses as specified by the US Food and Drug Administration or manufacturers of commonly used AEDs in pediatric patients...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Sherry Levio, Brooks D Cash
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain associated with defecation with altered stool frequency or stool form. The global prevalence of IBS ranges from 10% to 15% and total healthcare cost attributable to IBS is significant. Among individuals with IBS, the condition has dramatic effects on health-related quality of life, work and school productivity, and activities of daily living. It may be diagnosed with confidence, based on symptom-based diagnostic criteria, exclusion of alarm features and directed diagnostic testing...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
F Mattioli, G Siri, F Castelli, M Puntoni, M L Zuccoli, A Stimamiglio, A Martelli
PURPOSE: Generic drugs use in the Liguria region is higher than the Italian average, but lower than in other European countries. No data exist about real-life prescription and level of awareness of generic drugs. In this study, we analyzed demographic, social, economic and cultural factors that may affect the level of awareness of generic drugs and their effective use. METHODS: We conducted a population survey using a structured questionnaire, administered to a sample of 8 outpatient clinics of general practitioners located in different districts of Genoa (Liguria, Italy)...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"