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Drug efficacy effectiveness prescription safety

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508787/the-importance-of-gene-drug-drug-interactions-in-pharmacogenomics-decision-support-an-analysis-based-on-austrian-claims-data
#1
Kathrin Blagec, Wolfgang Kuch, Matthias Samwald
While pharmacogenomic testing combined with clinical decision support has the potential to increase the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, the intake of multiple prescription drugs can - if not sufficiently addressed by decision support solutions - impair the effectiveness of such interventions by modulating the capacity of precisely those enzymes whose function pharmacogenomic tests try to predict. We quantified the potential extent of such drug-mediated mismatches between genotype-derived phenotypes and real phenotypes, commonly called "phenoconversion", by screening claims data from 1,587,829 Austrian health insurance holders of the years 2006 and 2007 for concomitant prescriptions of drugs that can be dosed based on pharmacogenomics, and drugs that modulate enzyme activity...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417456/interventions-to-improve-adherence-to-inhaled-steroids-for-asthma
#2
REVIEW
Rebecca Normansell, Kayleigh M Kew, Elizabeth Stovold
BACKGROUND: Despite its proven efficacy in improving symptoms and reducing exacerbations, many patients with asthma are not fully adherent to their steroid inhaler. Suboptimal adherence leads to poorer clinical outcomes and increased health service utilisation, and has been identified as a contributing factor to a third of asthma deaths in the UK. Reasons for non-adherence vary, and a variety of interventions have been proposed to help people improve treatment adherence. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of interventions intended to improve adherence to inhaled corticosteroids among people with asthma...
April 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395555/alirocumab-for-the-treatment-of-hypercholesterolaemia
#3
Giuseppe Della Pepa, Lutgarda Bozzetto, Giovanni Annuzzi, Angela Albarosa Rivellese
Prescription of statins for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction is the standard of care in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease; nevertheless, a large number of patients treated with statins are unable to reach the recommended LDL-C targets. Therefore, there is need for safe and effective novel therapies for the pharmacological management of hypercholesterolaemia, in addition or as alternative to lipid-lowering therapies (LLT) currently in use. Areas covered: In 2015, the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency approved alirocumab (Praluent®; Sanofi), a fully human monoclonal antibody against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemic patients unable to meet LDL-C targets, as an adjunct to diet in addition/alternative to LLT...
June 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395097/artesunate-to-treat-severe-malaria-in-travellers-review-of-efficacy-and-safety-and-practical-implications
#4
Camille Roussel, Eric Caumes, Marc Thellier, Papa Alioune Ndour, Pierre A Buffet, Stéphane Jauréguiberry
Background: Artesunate (AS) is the WHO first-line treatment of severe malaria in endemic countries, in adults and children. However, despite solid evidence that AS is safe and more effective than quinine in endemic areas, its deployment in non-endemic areas has been slow, due in part to the absence of a full good manufacturing practice (GMP) qualification (although prequalification has been granted in 2010). Prospective comparative trials were not conducted in travellers, but several retrospective studies and case reports are providing insights into the efficacy and safety of AS in imported severe malaria...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382197/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-medication-use-factors-involved-in-prescribing-safety-aspects-and-outcomes
#5
REVIEW
Jose Martinez-Raga, Amparo Ferreros, Carlos Knecht, Raquel de Alvaro, Eloisa Carabal
While treatment of patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is based on a multimodal approach that combines medication with specific psychological interventions, pharmacotherapy alone is generally considered an essential and cost-effective element. This paper aims to comprehensively and critically review factors involved in prescribing and medication use in individuals diagnosed with ADHD, focusing on the difficulties facing patients with ADHD seeking treatment, as well as the safety and tolerability aspects of ADHD pharmacotherapies, with particular attention on the cardiovascular adverse events and the potential risk of misuse or diversion of ADHD medications...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332372/efficacy-and-safety-of-different-aceclofenac-treatments-for-chronic-lower-back-pain-prospective-randomized-single-center-open-label-clinical-trials
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jae Ho Yang, Kyung Soo Suk, Byung Ho Lee, Woo Chul Jung, Young Mi Kang, Ji Hye Kim, Hak Sun Kim, Hwan Mo Lee, Seong Hwan Moon
PURPOSE: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are a mainstay for medical treatment of chronic lower back pain (CLBP). Increased dose intervals for medication have been associated with increased patient adherence to prescriptions. The purpose of this clinical trial was to compare the efficacy and safety of a once daily dose of aceclofenac controlled release (CR) and a twice daily dose of aceclofenac for CLBP management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, randomized, single center, open-label clinical trial was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of aceclofenac CR (200 mg once daily) to aceclofenac dose (100 mg twice daily)...
May 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274355/topical-treatments-for-acne
#7
Marita Kosmadaki, Andreas Katsambas
Topical drugs have been used successfully to treat acne for decades. This review discusses the use, efficacy, and safety of options available via prescription. Topical antibiotics, dapsone, benzyl peroxide, azelaic acid, and topical retinoids are included. Topical antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy but rather be combined with other agents to avoid resistant Propionibacterium acnes strains. Benzoyl peroxide is effective in preventing bacteria resistance. Topical retinoids address primarily the comedonal but also the inflammatory lesions of acne...
March 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264021/antimicrobial-use-in-paediatric-patients-in-a-teaching-hospital-in-ethiopia
#8
Hafte Kahsay Kebede, Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Tewodros Eyob Woldehaimanot, Kabaye Kumela Goro
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics use in in children are different from adults due to a lack of data on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of drugs, different physiological spectrum, pediatrics populations being vulnerable to the majority of the illnesses, and the adverse effect of their irrational use is more serious. However, antibiotic use is not explored much in a paediatric population. The current study focused on antibiotic use among pediatric population using data from a tertiary hospital in Ethiopia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144200/efficacy-and-safety-of-oral-spray-containing-lysozyme-and-cetylpyridinium-subjective-determination-of-patients-with-tonsillopharyngitis
#9
Tarik Catic, Meliha Mehic, Zahida Binakaj, Bilsena Sahman, Vedina Cordalija, Amra Kerla, Igor Martinovic, Hajra Eskic
INTRODUCTION: Tonsillopharyngitis (sore throat) is a common disease mainly related to the seasonal common cold. To relieve unpleasant symptoms and discomfort of acute tonsillopharyngitis associated with common cold, patients usually take some non-prescription drugs. THE AIM: The primary aim of this study was to assess subjective determinations of the efficacy and the safety/tolerability of an oral spray comprising a combination of lysozyme chloride and cetylpyridinium chloride in those patients...
December 2016: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005034/-treatment-for-acute-respiratory-viral-infection-and-influenza-in-daily-clinical-practice-results-of-the-multicenter-international-observational-flu-ee-study
#10
V Kh Fazylov, I G Sitnikov, E V Silina, S B Shevchenko, L N Mozhina, L L Zamyatina, G A Eganyan, L G Groppa, B M Korsantiya
PURPOSE: To study the clinical aspects of influenza and acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI) in routine clinical practice, with efficacy and safety of the antiviral therapy evaluation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In the large multicenter prospective observational study were enrolled 18,946 patients aged 18 to 93 years with previously determined diagnosis of influenza or ARVI from 262 outpatient sites in Russia, Armenia, Moldova and Georgia. According to study design, 3 visits were evaluated...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957697/benefit-of-slit-and-scit-for-allergic-rhinitis-and-asthma
#11
REVIEW
Giovanni Passalacqua, Giorgio Walter Canonica, Diego Bagnasco
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been in use since more than one century, when Leonard Noon experimentally proved its efficacy in hayfever (Noon, in Lancet 1:1572-3, 1911). Since then, AIT was administered only as subcutaneous injections (SCIT) until the sublingual route (SLIT) was proposed in 1986. The use of SLIT was proposed following several surveys from the USA and UK that repeatedly reported fatalities due to SCIT (Lockey et al. in J Allergy Clin Immunol 75(1): 166, 1985; Lockey et al. in J Allergy Clin Immunol 660-77, 1985; Committee on the safety of medicines...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903216/treatment-and-response-to-statins-gender-related-differences
#12
Raparelli Valeria, Pannitteri Gaetano, Todisco Tommaso, Toriello Filippo, Napoleone Laura, Manfredini Roberto, Basili Stefania
Response to drug administration is a primary determinant for treatment success. Sex and gender disparities play a role in determining the efficacy and safety of the most common used medications suggesting the need for a sex-tailored approach in prescription. Statins are a cost-effective strategy for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. While statins are similarly effective in secondary CVD prevention, some concerns raised by conflicting data reported in primary CVD prevention clinical trials. The small representation of women in clinical trials and the fewer rates of events due to the lower female baseline CVD risk may have conditioned contradictory meta-analysis findings...
November 17, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895517/influence-of-curcumin-on-the-pharmacodynamics-and-pharmacokinetics-of-gliclazide-in-animal-models
#13
Leela Krishna Vatsavai, Eswar Kumar Kilari
PURPOSE: Patients suffering from obesity-related diseases use multiple prescription drugs to control their condition, and it is therefore essential to determine the safety and efficacy of any combination. Gliclazide is one of the most commonly used drug of choice for treatment of type 2 diabetes, and curcumin is a widely used herbal supplement to counter obesity condition. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oral administration of curcumin on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of gliclazide in rats and rabbits to further evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this combination...
2016: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880972/interferons-beta-versus-glatiramer-acetate-for-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#14
REVIEW
Loredana La Mantia, Carlo Di Pietrantonj, Marco Rovaris, Giulio Rigon, Serena Frau, Francesco Berardo, Anna Gandini, Anna Longobardi, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Alberto Vaona
BACKGROUND: Interferons-beta (IFNs-beta) and glatiramer acetate (GA) were the first two disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) approved 20 years ago for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). DMTs' prescription rates as first or switching therapies and their costs have both increased substantially over the past decade. As more DMTs become available, the choice of a specific DMT should reflect the risk/benefit profile, as well as the impact on quality of life. As MS cohorts enrolled in different studies can vary significantly, head-to-head trials are considered the best approach for gaining objective reliable data when two different drugs are compared...
November 24, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855628/treatment-and-response-to-statins-gender-related-differences
#15
Valeria Raparelli, Gaetano Pannitteri, Tommaso Todisco, Filippo Toriello, Laura Napoleone, Roberto Manfredini, Stefania Basili
Response to drug administration is a primary determinant for treatment success. Sex and gender disparities play a role in determining the efficacy and safety of the most common used medications suggesting the need for a sex-tailored approach in prescription. Statins are a cost-effective strategy for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. While statins are similarly effective in secondary CVD prevention, some concerns raised by conflicting data reported in primary CVD prevention clinical trials. The small representation of women in clinical trials and the fewer rates of events due to the lower female baseline CVD risk may have conditioned contradictory meta-analysis findings...
November 17, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848217/pregabalin-for-the-treatment-of-drug-and-alcohol-withdrawal-symptoms-a-comprehensive-review
#16
REVIEW
Rainer Freynhagen, Miroslav Backonja, Stephan Schug, Gavin Lyndon, Bruce Parsons, Stephen Watt, Regina Behar
Treatments for physical dependence and associated withdrawal symptoms following the abrupt discontinuation of prescription drugs (such as opioids and benzodiazepines), nicotine, alcohol, and cannabinoids are available, but there is still a need for new and more effective therapies. This review examines evidence supporting the potential use of pregabalin, an α2δ voltage-gated calcium channel subunit ligand, for the treatment of physical dependence and associated withdrawal symptoms. A literature search of the MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases up to and including 11 December 2015 was conducted...
December 2016: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847132/weight-loss-drugs-and-lifestyle-modification-perceptions-among-a-diverse-adult-sample
#17
S Xing, L K Sharp, D R Touchette
OBJECTIVES: Explore how adults from diverse racial and socioeconomic backgrounds perceive the use of weight loss drugs (prescription, over-the counter, herbals and supplements) and lifestyle modification. METHODS: Individual, face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with persons presenting to an academic hospital-affiliated outpatient pharmacy serving ethnic minorities and low income individuals. RESULTS: Fifty persons were interviewed, including 21 African Americans, 11 Hispanics and 17 low-income individuals (annual income <$20,000), of whom 33 self-reported as overweight or obese...
March 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842443/clinical-update-on-benefit-versus-risks-of-oral-paracetamol-alone-or-with-codeine-still-a-good-option
#18
Hans Georg Kress, Gerald Untersteiner
BACKGROUND: After decades of worldwide use of paracetamol/acetaminophen as a popular and apparently safe prescription and over-the-counter medicine, the future role of this poorly understood analgesic has been seriously questioned by recent concerns about prenatal, cardiovascular (CV) and hepatic safety, and also about its analgesic efficacy. At the same time the usefulness of codeine in combination products has come under debate. METHODS: Based on a PubMed database literature search on the terms efficacy, safety, paracetamol, acetaminophen, codeine and their combinations up to and including June 2016, this clinical update reviews the current evidence of the benefit and risks of oral paracetamol alone and with codeine for mild-to-moderate pain in adults, and compares the respective efficacy and safety profiles with those of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)...
February 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812956/direct-oral-anticoagulants-use-in-antiphospholipid-syndrome-are-these-drugs-an-effective-and-safe-alternative-to-warfarin-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
Virginie Dufrost, Jessie Risse, Stéphane Zuily, Denis Wahl
BACKGROUND: The cornerstone of thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) patients' management is to prevent recurrent thrombosis by long-term anticoagulation. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to summarize available literature on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) use in APS patients through a systematic review and to determine factors associated with thrombosis recurrence. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent RAPS trial demonstrated that APS patients treated with rivaroxaban had a significant twofold-increased thrombin potential, suggesting a higher thrombotic risk, in comparison with warfarin users...
December 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611098/authentication-of-schisandra-chinensis-and-schisandra-sphenanthera-in-chinese-patent-medicines
#20
Pin Jiang, Yan Lu, Daofeng Chen
Authentication of species is crucial for ensuring the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. The fruits of Schisandra chinensis and S. sphenanthera have been used for the same traditional Chinese drug, Wuweizi, but are found to be quite different according to their constituents, pharmacological effects, and qualities. These two fruits have been recorded as Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus (Wuweizi) and Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus (Nan-wuweizi), respectively, by Chinese Pharmacopoeia, 2000 edition. However, Nan-wuweizi is often found to be taken as Wuweizi in some Chinese patent drugs intentionally or by mistake because of its lower price and similar characteristics to Wuweizi...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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