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Diarrhea hospital review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543045/colonic-or-ileocecocolic-volvulus-in-13-dogs-2005-2016
#1
Tanja Plavec, Stefan Rupp, Martin Kessler
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and clinicopathological features of colonic or ileocecocolic volvulus (CV/ICV) in dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: Thirteen dogs with surgically confirmed CV/ICV. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed for signalment, medical history, clinical signs, laboratory data, radiographic findings, treatment, and outcome. RESULTS: All cases consisted of large-breed dogs (median weight 37...
May 20, 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533253/selexipag-for-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#2
Zachary R Noel, Kazuhiko Kido, Tracy E Macaulay
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability, dosing and administration, and place in therapy of selexipag, an orally administered selective prostacyclin receptor agonist for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), are reviewed. SUMMARY: The first-in-class oral prostacyclin IP receptor agonist selexipag (Uptravi, Actelion Pharmaceuticals) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in December 2015...
May 22, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527248/-clinical-and-demographic-profile-and-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#3
Carlos Carvajal, Carlos Pacheco, Fabián Jaimes
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. The increasing incidence added to a lower rate of response to the initial treatment and higher rates of relapse has generated a higher burden of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with C. difficile infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We made a nested case-cohort study. We reviewed medical records of the patients with nosocomial diarrhea for whom an assay for toxin A-B of C...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521001/etiology-of-travellers-diarrhea
#4
Z D Jiang, H L DuPont
Eleven published studies of the etiology of travellers' diarrhea (TD) were reviewed define the etiology of TD and to exam newly developed technology such as Real-Time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify multiple pathogens in one assay to define the cause of TD. Using PCR methods bacterial pathogens were found in 72% of patients acquiring diarrhea in Latin America and in 80% in travellers with illness acquired in Southeast Asia). In these studies, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli as the predominant pathogen (42% in Latin America and 28% in Southeast Asia)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520996/epidemiology-of-travellers-diarrhea
#5
Robert Steffen
Background: Travellers' diarrhea (TD) continues to be the most frequent health problem in travellers with destinations in lower income parts of the world as compared with where they reside, even if that risk has slightly decreased. Methods: A systematic review was published 18 months ago; now PubMed was searched for more recent publications relating to travel, diarrhea, epidemiology, incidence, risk. Results: A trend to decreasing incidence rates have been noted in this as compared with the last century, but TD remains frequent...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513526/cecal-carcinoid-tumor-in-a-nigerian-man-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#6
O A Obateru, J A Taiwo, S Oladejo, D A Awelimobor, O O Fadaunsi, A B Olokoba
Carcinoid tumors are rare neuroendocrine tumors that have been reported in a wide range of organs but most commonly involve the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, ileum, appendix, and colon), and rarely ovary and thymus. We present a case of a 56-year-old Nigerian man with a cecal carcinoid tumor that was surgically removed. A 56-year-old Nigerian man, presented to our hospital with a year history of right-sided lower abdominal fullness, audible bowel sounds, occasional diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain...
May 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493871/ileus-in-children-presenting-with-diarrhea-and-severe-acute-malnutrition-a-chart-review
#7
Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Abu Smsb Shahid, K M Shahunja, Pradip Kumar Bardhan, Abu Syeed Golam Faruque, Lubaba Shahrin, Sumon Kumar Das, Dipesh Kumar Barua, Md Iqbal Hossain, Tahmeed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Severely malnourished children aged under five years requiring hospital admission for diarrheal illness frequently develop ileus during hospitalization with often fatal outcomes. However, there is no data on risk factors and outcome of ileus in such children. We intended to evaluate predictive factors for ileus during hospitalization and their outcomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a retrospective chart review that enrolled severely malnourished children under five years old with diarrhea, admitted to the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh between April 2011 and August 2012...
May 11, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478717/selexipag-an-oral-prostacyclin-receptor-agonist-for-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#8
William L Baker, Konstadina Darsaklis, Aditi Singhvi, Edward L Salerno
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the data supporting the approval of selexipag and discuss its potential place in therapy for managing pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of the literature for all relevant articles was performed through January 16, 2017, using MEDLINE and SCOPUS. A manual search of references from reports of clinical trials, review articles, and recent conference abstracts was performed to identify additional relevant studies...
June 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459011/cryptosporidiosis-in-children-in-the-indian-subcontinent
#9
Malathi Murugesan, Santhosh Kumar Ganesan, Sitara Sr Ajjampur
Cryptosporidiosis is a leading cause of diarrheal disease among children under two in developing countries. Previous estimates have shown a high burden of cryptosporidial diarrhea in children from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Asymptomatic cryptosporidial infections which go undetected and untreated have been shown to result in significant malnutrition. In this review, we carried out a literature search of studies published on cryptosporidiosis in children in the Indian subcontinent from 1983 to 2016. Of the 154 publications identified, 54 were included for final analysis with both hospital-based and community-based studies...
January 2017: Tropical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454251/laparoscopic-resection-of-a-sigmoid-colon-lipoma-in-a-young-female-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Georgios I Panagiotakis, Alexandros G Andreou, Ioannis E Petrakis, Maria Tzardi, Maria Daskalogiannaki, Georgios E Chalkiadakis
Lipomas of the sigmoid colon are rare entities. The present case describes a 27-year-old Caucasian woman who underwent a laparoscopic sigmoidectomy following the detection of a giant lipoma. The young patient was referred to the Emergency Department of the University Hospital of Heraklion (Crete, Greece) in May 2013 after experiencing intermittent abdominal cramping during defecation, and altering episodes of diarrhea and constipation. In addition, the patient described the protrusion of a solid tissue mass shaped like a 'champagne bottle cork' from the anus following defecation...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452107/neuroinvasive-st-louis-encephalitis-virus-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#11
Carlos A Hartmann, Holenarasipur R Vikram, Maria T Seville, Robert Orenstein, Shimon Kusne, Janis E Blair, Thomas E Grys, Roberto L Patron
In the summer of 2015, 3 unrelated solid organ transplant recipients had meningoencephalitis suggestive of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Phoenix, Arizona. Testing was inconclusive but was later confirmed as St. Louis encephalitis (SLE). We retrospectively reviewed clinical manifestations, treatment, and outcomes of these transplant recipients. Common symptoms were fever, rigors, diarrhea, headache, and confusion. One patient died 3 days after hospitalization. Therapy for the 2 patients was initiated with interferon alfa-2b (IFN) and intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) (IFN+IVIG in combination)...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419095/effectiveness-of-a-live-oral-human-rotavirus-vaccine-after-programmatic-introduction-in-bangladesh-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
K Zaman, David A Sack, Kathleen M Neuzil, Mohammad Yunus, Lawrence H Moulton, Jonathan D Sugimoto, Jessica A Fleming, Ilias Hossain, Shams El Arifeen, Tasnim Azim, Mustafizur Rahman, Kristen D C Lewis, Andrea J Feller, Firdausi Qadri, M Elizabeth Halloran, Alejandro Cravioto, John C Victor
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccines are now globally recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), but in early 2009 WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization reviewed available data and concluded that there was no evidence for the efficacy or effectiveness of a two-dose schedule of the human rotavirus vaccine (HRV; Rotarix) given early at 6 and 10 wk of age. Additionally, the effectiveness of programmatic rotavirus vaccination, including possible indirect effects, has not been assessed in low-resource populations in Asia...
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405601/risk-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-remains-elevated-in-the-postengraftment-period
#13
Erik R Dubberke, Kimberly A Reske, Margaret A Olsen, Kerry M Bommarito, Sondra Seiler, Fernanda P Silveira, Tom M Chiller, John DiPersio, Victoria J Fraser
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a frequent cause of diarrhea among allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. It is unknown whether risk factors for CDI vary by time posttransplant. METHODS: We performed a 3-year prospective cohort study of CDI in allogeneic HCT recipients. Participants were enrolled during their transplant hospitalizations. Clinical assessments were performed weekly during hospitalizations and for 12 weeks posttransplant, and monthly for 30 months thereafter...
April 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392154/sunitinib-4-2-versus-2-1-schedule-for-patients-with-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-tertiary-care-hospital-experience
#14
Mai Ezz El Din
BACKGROUND: Sunitinib first-line treatment is one of the standards of care in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). However, the adverse events associated with its use can hinder adequate dosing and hence have detrimental effects on treatment outcome. Alternative schedules, such as 2-weeks-on treatment and 1-week-off treatment (2/1 schedule), might solve this dilemma. Therefore, an analysis was performed to compare both schedules in terms of toxicity and efficacy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data regarding first-line sunitinib treatment of mRCC patients using the 4/2 and 2/1 schedules were collected...
January 4, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361844/new-mutations-of-epcam-gene-for-tufting-enteropathy-in-saudi-arabia
#15
Shaden AlMahamed, Abdelhai Hammo
BACKGROUND/AIM: Tufting enteropathy (TE) is a rare cause of congenital intractable diarrhea in children. It often results in an irreversible intestinal failure and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) dependency; eventually, intestinal transplantation may be necessary. Data on TE from the Middle East are scarce; therefore, our aim of conducting this study was to clarify the clinical, histopathologic, and molecular features of TE in Saudi children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of four children with TE who presented between January 2011 and December 2013 to King Fahad Specialist Hospital-Dammam (KFSH-D)...
March 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343455/reducing-clostridium-difficile-in-the-inpatient-setting-a-systematic-review-of-the-adherence-to-and-effectiveness-of-c-difficile-prevention-bundles
#16
Anna K Barker, Caitlyn Ngam, Jackson S Musuuza, Valerie M Vaughn, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common infectious cause of nosocomial diarrhea, and its prevention is an urgent public health priority. However, reduction of CDI is challenging because of its complex pathogenesis, large reservoirs of colonized patients, and the persistence of infectious spores. The literature lacks high-quality evidence for evaluating interventions, and many hospitals have implemented bundled interventions to reduce CDI with variable results. Thus, we conducted a systematic review to examine the components of CDI bundles, their implementation processes, and their impact on CDI rates...
March 27, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321156/current-knowledge-on-the-laboratory-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#17
REVIEW
Adrián Martínez-Meléndez, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Rayo Morfin-Otero, Héctor Jesús Maldonado-Garza, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Elvira Garza-González
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a spore-forming, toxin-producing, gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that is the principal etiologic agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Infection with C. difficile (CDI) is characterized by diarrhea in clinical syndromes that vary from self-limited to mild or severe. Since its initial recognition as the causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis, C. difficile has spread around the world. CDI is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among older adult hospitalized patients...
March 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315818/sclerosing-encapsulated-peritonitis-a-devastating-and-infrequent-disease-complicating-kidney-transplantation-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
Liliana Caicedo, Alejandro Delgado, Luis A Caicedo, Juan Carlos Bravo, Laura S Thomas, Martin Rengifo, Jorge I Villegas, Oscar Serrano, Gabriel J Echeverri
INTRODUCTION: Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis (SEP) is a rare condition with an incidence of up to 3% and a mortality of up to 51% among peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients (Brown et al., Korte et al. and Kawanishi et al.). In the last ten years, the incidence of SEP in kidney transplant recipients has increased (Nakamoto, de Sousa et al. and Korte et al.). PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 31-year old male with a 15 years history of PD and later kidney retransplantation was admitted to the emergency service after experiencing several weeks of diffuse abdominal pain which had escalated to include vomiting and diarrhea during the 24h previous to admission...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275306/predictors-of-poor-outcomes-in-patients-with-wild-mushroom-induced-acute-liver-injury
#19
Taerim Kim, Danbi Lee, Jae Ho Lee, Yoon-Seon Lee, Bum Jin Oh, Kyoung Soo Lim, Won Young Kim
AIM: To identify early predictive markers of poor outcomes in patients with acute liver injury from wild mushroom intoxication. METHODS: This observational, retrospective record review involved adults aged ≥ 18 years admitted to emergency department with mushroom intoxication from January 2005 to December 2015. The diagnosis of mushroom intoxication was based on the following: (1) a positive history of recent wild mushroom intake (either raw or cooked); (2) the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms, such as watery diarrhea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain, after ingestion; and (3) the exclusion of other possible causes of acute liver injury...
February 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267211/retrospective-review-of-serotonergic-medication-tolerability-in-patients-with-neuroendocrine-tumors-with-biochemically-proven-carcinoid-syndrome
#20
Diana D Shi, David P Yuppa, Trevor Dutton, Lauren K Brais, Sarah L Minden, Ilana M Braun, Matthew H Kulke, Jennifer A Chan, Fremonta L Meyer
BACKGROUND: Patients with carcinoid tumors frequently could benefit from the pharmacologic treatment of depression and anxiety. However, many prescribers avoid serotonergic medications due to the theoretical risk of exacerbating carcinoid syndrome. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with carcinoid tumors and elevated serotonin levels (as measured by 24-hour urine 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid [5-HIAA]) at Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center who initiated treatment with serotonergic antidepressants after a carcinoid diagnosis from 2003 to 2016...
March 7, 2017: Cancer
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