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Diarrhea hospital review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321156/current-knowledge-on-the-laboratory-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#1
REVIEW
Adrián Martínez-Meléndez, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Rayo Morfin-Otero, Héctor Jesús Maldonado-Garza, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Elvira Garza-González
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a spore-forming, toxin-producing, gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that is the principal etiologic agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Infection with C. difficile (CDI) is characterized by diarrhea in clinical syndromes that vary from self-limited to mild or severe. Since its initial recognition as the causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis, C. difficile has spread around the world. CDI is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among older adult hospitalized patients...
March 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315818/sclerosing-encapsulated-peritonitis-a-devastating-and-infrequent-disease-complicating-kidney-transplantation-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
Liliana Caicedo, Alejandro Delgado, Luis A Caicedo, Juan Carlos Bravo, Laura S Thomas, Martin Rengifo, Jorge I Villegas, Oscar Serrano, Gabriel J Echeverri
INTRODUCTION: Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis (SEP) is a rare condition with an incidence of up to 3% and a mortality of up to 51% among peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients (Brown et al., Korte et al. and Kawanishi et al.). In the last ten years, the incidence of SEP in kidney transplant recipients has increased (Nakamoto, de Sousa et al. and Korte et al.). PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 31-year old male with a 15 years history of PD and later kidney retransplantation was admitted to the emergency service after experiencing several weeks of diffuse abdominal pain which had escalated to include vomiting and diarrhea during the 24h previous to admission...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275306/predictors-of-poor-outcomes-in-patients-with-wild-mushroom-induced-acute-liver-injury
#3
Taerim Kim, Danbi Lee, Jae Ho Lee, Yoon-Seon Lee, Bum Jin Oh, Kyoung Soo Lim, Won Young Kim
AIM: To identify early predictive markers of poor outcomes in patients with acute liver injury from wild mushroom intoxication. METHODS: This observational, retrospective record review involved adults aged ≥ 18 years admitted to emergency department with mushroom intoxication from January 2005 to December 2015. The diagnosis of mushroom intoxication was based on the following: (1) a positive history of recent wild mushroom intake (either raw or cooked); (2) the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms, such as watery diarrhea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain, after ingestion; and (3) the exclusion of other possible causes of acute liver injury...
February 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267211/retrospective-review-of-serotonergic-medication-tolerability-in-patients-with-neuroendocrine-tumors-with-biochemically-proven-carcinoid-syndrome
#4
Diana D Shi, David P Yuppa, Trevor Dutton, Lauren K Brais, Sarah L Minden, Ilana M Braun, Matthew H Kulke, Jennifer A Chan, Fremonta L Meyer
BACKGROUND: Patients with carcinoid tumors frequently could benefit from the pharmacologic treatment of depression and anxiety. However, many prescribers avoid serotonergic medications due to the theoretical risk of exacerbating carcinoid syndrome. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with carcinoid tumors and elevated serotonin levels (as measured by 24-hour urine 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid [5-HIAA]) at Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center who initiated treatment with serotonergic antidepressants after a carcinoid diagnosis from 2003 to 2016...
March 7, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216959/prescription-patterns-and-appropriateness-of-antibiotics-in-the-management-of-cough-cold-and-diarrhea-in-a-rural-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital
#5
Akram Ahmad, Muhammad Umair Khan, Sadiqa Malik, Guru Prasad Mohanta, S Parimalakrishnan, Isha Patel, Sameer Dhingra
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis and respiratory illnesses are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prescription pattern of antibiotic utilization during the treatment of cough/cold and/or diarrhea in pediatric patients. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted for 6 months in pediatric units of a tertiary care hospital in South India. Children under 5 years of age presenting with illness related to diarrhea and/or cough/cold were included in this study...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191374/klebsiella-pneumoniae-liver-abscess-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#6
Faisal Kamal, George Williams, Hina Akbar, Muhammad Ali Khan, Dipen Kadaria
Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.pneumoniae) is a known cause of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) in the absence of hepatobiliary disease. In settings of hepatic infection, it has also been known to cause disseminated infections including meningitis and endopthalmitis. Several groups of patients are particularly susceptible to infection, including patients with diabetes mellitus, those from Southeast Asia and those with the preexisting hepatobiliary disease. We present a case of K.pneumoniae PLA with bacteremia. A 39-year-old Vietnamese male with no previous medical history who presented with complaints of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and fever...
January 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143418/reactivated-cytomegalovirus-proctitis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-presenting-as-nosocomial-diarrhea-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Chun-Yuan Lee, Yen-Hsu Chen, Po-Liang Lu
BACKGROUND: Reactivated cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been known to cause significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. However, CMV disease rarely develops in immunocompetent patients, and reported cases often present with a mild, self-limiting course, without severe life-threatening sequelae. While the colon is the most common gastrointestinal site affected by CMV disease in immunocompetent patients, rectal involvement is rarely reported. CMV proctitis can present in two distinct forms, primary and reactivated...
February 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139320/extended-use-of-perioperative-antibiotics-in-head-and-neck-microvascular-reconstruction
#8
Stefanie Saunders, Stephen Reese, Jimmy Lam, Jacqueline Wulu, Scharkuh Jalisi, Waleed Ezzat
PURPOSE: Many head and neck surgical procedures are considered clean-contaminated wounds and antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended. Despite prophylaxis, the incidence of surgical site infections remains significant - especially in the setting of free tissue transfer. The antibiotic course is often of a longer duration after free tissue transfer than the recommended 24hour post-operatively. Currently, there is no consensus on appropriate antibiotic regimen or duration at this time. This study investigates the outcomes of a 7-day perioperative antibiotic regimen after microvascular reconstruction of the head and neck at our institution...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133157/-a-case-of-eosinophilic-enteritis-needed-to-distinguish-from-a-tumor-of-the-small-intestine
#9
Gen Tsujio, Naoki Aomatsu, En Wang, Yoshihito Yamakoshi, Daisuke Nagashima, Toshiki Hirakawa, Takehiko Iwauchi, Takafumi Nishii, Junya Morimoto, Kazunori Nakazawa, Seika Tei, Yasutake Uchima, Kazuhiro Takeuchi
A 75-year-old woman was diagnosed with aplastic anemia 6 months ago and was under follow-up at our hospital. She had originallypresented to our hospital because of ongoing diarrhea and abdominal pain. Her blood tests showed a rise in inflammatorymarkers (WBC count was 6,900/mL[eosinophil was 1.3%]and CRP was 8.60mg/dL). Her abdominal computed tomography(CT)scan showed gastric wall and small intestine edema as well as ascites. There was no evidence of free air. We diagnosed her with generalized peritonitis and performed an emergencyoperation ...
November 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124965/-bacteremia-caused-by-ciprofloxacin-resistant-salmonella-serotype-kentucky-a-case-report-and-the-review-of-literature
#10
Tuba Müderris, Fatma Yekta Ürkmez, Şeref Alp Küçüker, Muhammet Fethi Sağlam, Gül Ruhsar Yılmaz, Rahmet Güner, Revasiye Güleşen, Ziya Cibali Açıkgöz
Salmonella infections can be seen in four clinical types, namely gastroenteritis, bacteremia/sepsis, enteric fever and carriage. These infections can result in uncomplicated diarrhea in most cases, but can lead to invasive disease requiring antimicrobial therapy and can be life-threatening in elderly or immunocomprimised patients. Broad-spectrum cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones are crucial options in the treatment of the invasive infections. Ciprofloxacin resistance is rarely seen in non-typhoid Salmonella enterica isolates, and only in S...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093134/management-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-expert-review-from-the-clinical-practice-updates-committee-of-the-aga-institute
#11
REVIEW
Sahil Khanna, Andrea Shin, Ciarán P Kelly
The purpose of this expert review is to synthesize the existing evidence on the management of Clostridium difficile infection in patients with underlying inflammatory bowel disease. The evidence reviewed in this article is a summation of relevant scientific publications, expert opinion statements, and current practice guidelines. This review is a summary of expert opinion in the field without a formal systematic review of evidence. Best Practice Advice 1: Clinicians should test patients who present with a flare of underlying inflammatory bowel disease for Clostridium difficile infection...
February 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086819/efficacy-safety-and-effectiveness-of-licensed-rotavirus-vaccines-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-for-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#12
Raúl F Velázquez, Alexandre C Linhares, Sergio Muñoz, Pamela Seron, Pedro Lorca, Rodrigo DeAntonio, Eduardo Ortega-Barria
BACKGROUND: RotaTeq™ (RV5; Merck & Co. Inc., USA) and Rotarix™ (RV1, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) vaccines, developed to prevent rotavirus diarrhea in children under five years old, were both introduced into national immunization programs in 2006. As many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have included either RV5 or RV1 in their routine childhood vaccination programs, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze efficacy, safety and effectiveness data from the region...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078646/mucosal-healing-in-ulcerative-colitis-a-comprehensive-review
#13
REVIEW
Pedro Boal Carvalho, José Cotter
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by periods of remission and periods of relapse. Patients often present with symptoms such as rectal bleeding, diarrhea and weight loss, and may require hospitalization and even colectomy. Long-term complications of UC include decreased quality of life and productivity and an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Mucosal healing (MH) has gained progressive importance in the management of UC patients. In this article, we review the endoscopic findings that define both mucosal injury and MH, and the strengths and limitations of the scoring systems currently available in clinical practice...
January 11, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049258/the-impact-of-implementation-of-an-enteral-feeding-protocol-on-the-improvement-of-enteral-nutrition-in-critically-ill-adults
#14
Seoung-Hyun Kim, Chi-Min Park, Jeong-Meen Seo, Mingew Choi, Dae-Sang Lee, Dong Kyung Chang, Miyong Rha, Soyoung Yu, Seonhye Lee, Eunmee Kim, Young Yun Cho
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The optimal delivery of enteral nutrition (EN) may improve clinical outcomes in critically ill patients; thus, optimal EN protocols should be developed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of implementing an EN protocol on the improvement of EN practices and on the clinical outcomes of critically ill patients. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study with prospectively collected data. Multidisciplinary working group developed an evidence-based EN protocol based on an extensive review of literature and existing guidelines...
January 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990648/total-laparoscopic-gastropexy-using-1-simple-continuous-barbed-suture-line-in-63-dogs
#15
Joel D Takacs, Ameet Singh, J Brad Case, Philipp D Mayhew, Michelle A Giuffrida, Ana V Caceres, W Alexander Fox-Alvarez, Jeffrey J Runge
OBJECTIVE: To describe the use and outcome of a single, simple continuous, barbed suture line for prophylactic, total laparoscopic gastropexy in dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Multi-center, retrospective case series. ANIMALS: Sixty-three client-owned dogs. METHODS: Medical records of dogs undergoing total laparoscopic gastropexy using a barbed suture at 4 academic veterinary hospitals from 2011-2015 were reviewed. Data collected included signalment, procedure time, procedure-associated complications, short-term complications, and long-term outcome...
February 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988828/mushroom-poisoning-a-retrospective-study-concerning-11-years-of-admissions-in-a-swiss-emergency-department
#16
Maxime Schmutz, Pierre-Nicolas Carron, Bertrand Yersin, Lionel Trueb
Wild mushroom intoxication is an unusual cause of toxic ingestion in Europe. A great diversity of clinical symptoms may arise depending on the variety of wild mushrooms ingested. These initial symptoms are often non-specific, with frequent gastrointestinal symptoms, and have no direct correlation with the outcome. Therefore, management of mushroom poisoning and risk evaluation are a challenge for emergency clinicians. We retrospectively reviewed all cases of mushroom poisoning identified in the ED database spanning 11 years...
December 17, 2016: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981760/infliximab-for-ipilimumab-induced-colitis-a-series-of-13-patients
#17
Nadine T Hillock, Sharryn Heard, Ganessan Kichenadasse, Catherine L Hill, Jane Andrews
OBJECTIVE: To review the outcomes of metastatic melanoma patients treated with infliximab for severe steroid-refractory colitis secondary to ipilimumab therapy. BACKGROUND: Immune-related colitis is a known potential adverse effect of ipilimumab, that causes significant morbidity and extended hospital stays. There are limited outcome data for patients treated with infliximab for ipilimumab-induced colitis refractory to corticosteroids. Management guidelines have been developed based on case study evidence only...
December 16, 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974547/molecular-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hospitalized-patients-in-eastern-china
#18
Dazhi Jin, Yun Luo, Chen Huang, Jian Cai, Julian Ye, Yi Zheng, Liqian Wang, Peng Zhao, Anbing Liu, Weijia Fang, Xianjun Wang, Shichang Xia, Jianmin Jiang, Yi-Wei Tang
Few studies on risk factors for and transmission of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in China have been reported. A cross-sectional study was conducted for 3 years in eastern China. Consecutive stool specimens from hospitalized patients with diarrhea were cultured for C. difficile. C. difficile isolates from these patients then were analyzed for toxin genes, genotypes, and antimicrobial resistance. A severity score for the CDI in each patient was determined by a blinded review of the medical record, and these scores ranged from 1 to 6...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938598/-infantile-systemic-hyalinosis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
J Lu, J Li, F Y Lin
Objective: To investigate the clinical, pathological and gene mutation features of infantile systemic hyalinosis(ISH). Method: Data of a child with ISH seen in Haikou Hospital were retrospectively analyzed for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of infantile systemic hyalinosis and the relevant reports in literature were reviewed. Result: A 1 year and 1 month old boy showed limbs joint stiffness, limited mobility and double knee flexion at his first month of life. At third month, red rashes appeared on the body and gradually became purple, most of them were seen on the back and they were higher than the skin surface, uneven and did not fade when pressed...
December 2, 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921037/acute-kidney-injury-in-western-countries
#20
REVIEW
Josée Bouchard, Ravindra L Mehta
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
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