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Diarrhea hospital review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782464/use-of-probiotics-in-the-prevention-of-nosocomial-infections
#1
Ivana Trivić, Iva Hojsak
Nosocomial, hospital-acquired or health care-associated infections occur worldwide, affecting both developed and developing countries. This results in a prolonged hospital stay, increased antimicrobial resistance, increased mortality rate, and significant financial burden on the health care system. Routine preventive measures have led to the decrease in infection spreading; however, it cannot successfully prevent all of them, making a place for the development of new strategies, including probiotics. The aim of this review was to summarize available evidence of the role of probiotics in the prevention of nosocomial infections in children...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754701/impact-of-routine-rotavirus-vaccination-on-all-cause-and-rotavirus-hospitalizations-during-the-first-four-years-following-vaccine-introduction-in-rwanda
#2
Hassan Sibomana, Celse Rugambwa, Jason M Mwenda, Felix Sayinzoga, Gisele Iraguha, Jeanine Uwimana, Umesh D Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate
BACKGROUND: Rwanda introduced pentavalent rotavirus vaccine into its national immunization program in 2012. To determine the long-term impact of rotavirus vaccine on disease burden in a high burden setting, we examined trends in rotavirus and all-cause diarrhea hospitalizations in the first four years following rotavirus vaccine introduction. METHODS: We used data from an active surveillance system, from a review of pediatric ward registries, and from the Health Management Information System to describe trends in rotavirus and all-cause diarrhea hospitalizations from January 2009 through December 2016...
May 10, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752026/safety-of-a-heat-stable-rotavirus-vaccine-among-children-in-niger-data-from-a-phase-3-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#3
Matthew E Coldiron, Ousmane Guindo, Rockyath Makarimi, Issaka Soumana, Amadou Matar Seck, Souna Garba, Emilie Macher, Sheila Isanaka, Rebecca F Grais
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus remains a major cause of diarrhea among children under 5 years of age. The efficacy of RotaSIIL, a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, was shown in an event-driven trial in Niger. We describe the two-year safety follow-up of this trial. METHODS: Follow-up of safety outcomes began upon administration of the first dose of RotaSIIL or placebo. Adverse events were followed until 28 days after the third dose, and serious adverse events were followed until 2 years of age...
May 8, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743834/characteristics-and-management-of-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-between-a-secondary-and-tertiary-hospitals-a-propensity-score-analysis
#4
Ki Hwan Song, Eun Soo Kim, Yoo Jin Lee, Byung Ik Jang, Kyeong Ok Kim, Sang Gyu Kwak, Hyun Seok Lee
Background/Aims: This study aimed to compare the clinical characteristics and management patterns of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients in a secondary hospital (SH) with those in tertiary referral centers (TRC). Methods: Data from IBD patients in SH and 2 TRCs were retrospectively reviewed. The cumulative thiopurine use rate was compared between hospitals after controlling for different baseline characteristics using propensity score matching. Results: Among the total of 447 patients with IBD, 178 Crohn's disease (CD) and 269 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were included...
April 2018: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729994/impact-of-rotavirus-vaccine-on-diarrheal-hospitalization-and-outpatient-consultations-in-the-philippines-first-evidence-from-a-middle-income-asian-country
#5
Anna Lena Lopez, Peter Francis Raguindin, Joel Esparagoza, Kimberley Fox, Nyambat Batmunkh, Joseph Bonifacio, Umesh D Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate, Maria Joyce Ducusin
BACKGROUND: Monovalent rotavirus (RV) vaccine was introduced in the Philippines in a phased manner beginning in 2012. To assess the impact of RV vaccine, we conducted a retrospective review of diarrheal admissions in two hospitals. METHODS: Records of physician-diagnosed diarrheal admissions were reviewed in D.O. Plaza Hospital (DOPH) from 2009 to 2016 in Agusan del Sur where RV vaccine was introduced in the immunization program; and in Cotabato Regional Medical Center (CRMC) from 2011 to 2016 in a region where the vaccine was not introduced...
May 2, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692762/-clostridium-difficile-from-colonization-to-infection
#6
REVIEW
Holger Schäffler, Anne Breitrück
Clostridium difficile is the most frequent cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The incidence of C. difficile infection (CDI) has been rising worldwide with subsequent increases in morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Asymptomatic colonization with C. difficile is common and a high prevalence has been found in specific cohorts, e.g., hospitalized patients, adults in nursing homes and in infants. However, the risk of infection with C. difficile differs significantly between these cohorts...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686701/nontyphoidal-salmonella-gastroenteritis-in-a-tertiary-children-s-hospital-in-southern-china-characteristics-and-dietary-considerations
#7
Lu Ren, Min Yang, Lanlan Geng, Peiyu Chen, Huan Chen, Sitang Gong, Ding-You Li
Background: Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection is a common cause for acute bacterial gastroenteritis in children in China. There have been no reports of the prevalence of lactose intolerance or food allergies in children with nontyphoidal Salmonella infection. The aim of this study was to characterize nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis in a tertiary children's hospital and evaluate clinical presentation, lactose intolerance, and food allergies in children with prolonged nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis...
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650821/-continuation-of-axitinib-for-advanced-renal-cell-carcinoma-by-the-application-of-homecare-urology-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Satoshi Yazawa, Yuji Kato, Jin Nakahara, Toshio Miyata, Mototsugu Oya
A 56-year-old man with advanced RCC and a past medical history of type 2 diabetes underwent a radical left nephrectomy following a histological diagnosis of papillary RCC, G2, INF b, pT3, V1 in 1999. In 2008, sorafenib was started to treat multiple pulmonary metastases of RCC. In 2011, sorafenib was switched to sunitinib when radiologic progression was observed. In 2014, sunitinib was switched to axitinib when further radiologic progression was observed. In 2015, the patient was referred to Yazawa clinic for homecare urology when hospital visits became difficult due to cancer pain and bilateral lower-extremity muscle weakness...
April 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649189/acute-metam-sodium-poisoning-caused-by-occupational-exposure-at-a-flower-farm-uganda-october-2016
#9
Susan Nakubulwa, Joy Kusiima, Daniel Kadobera, Joan N Mutyoba, Alex R Ario, Bao-Ping Zhu
On October 25, 2016, media reports alerted the Uganda Ministry of Health to an outbreak of >80 cases of vomiting, syncope, and acute diarrhea among workers at a flower farm in central Uganda; 27 workers were hospitalized. On November 1, an investigation was undertaken by the Uganda Public Health Fellowship Program.* A case-control study found that working inside greenhouse 7, which had been fumigated with the organosulfur compound metam sodium the night of October 13, was strongly associated with illness...
April 13, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626348/clinical-outcomes-after-colopexy-through-left-ventral-paramedian-incision-in-156-thoroughbred-broodmares-with-large-colon-disorders-1999-2015
#10
Alecsya H Broyles, Scott A Hopper, J Brett Woodie, Alan J Ruggles
OBJECTIVE: To describe a technique for colopexy via a left ventral paramedian incision and report postoperative clinical outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: One hundred fifty-six thoroughbred broodmares treated with a colopexy through a left ventral paramedian incision between 1999 and 2015. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed for postoperative complications and survival to discharge. The survival rate at 1 year after surgery was based on the medical record, progeny record, or client telephone conversation...
April 6, 2018: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622900/unsuspected-small-bowel-crohn-s-disease-in-elderly-patients-diagnosed-by-video-capsule-endoscopy
#11
Che-Yung Chao, Carl Frederic Duchatellier, Ernest G Seidman
Background: Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is increasingly performed among the elderly for obscure bleeding. Our aim was to report on the utility of VCE to uncover unsuspected Crohn's disease (CD) in elderly patients. Methods: Retrospective review of VCE performed in elderly patients (≥70 y) at a tertiary hospital (2010-2015). All underwent prior negative bidirectional endoscopies. CD diagnosis was based on consistent endoscopic findings, exclusion of other causes, and a Lewis endoscopic score (LS) > 790 (moderate-to-severe inflammation)...
2018: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622373/antidepressants-appear-safe-in-patients-with-carcinoid-tumor-results-of-a-restrospective-review
#12
Elie Isenberg-Grzeda, Meredith MacGregor, Afton Bergel, Stacy Eagle, Fernando Espi-Forcen, Reema Mehta, Konstantina Matsoukas, Jonathan Wills, Diane Reidy-Lagunes, Yesne Alici
INTRODUCTION: Patients living with neuroendocrine tumors have high rates of depression, often necessitating antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) secrete vasoactive substances, including serotonin, which contribute to the cluster of symptoms known as carcinoid syndrome (flushing and diarrhea). Controversy exists over whether or not antidepressants are safe in NET. We aimed to study the safety of antidepressant use in NET patients...
March 21, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619395/sirolimus-in-refractory-cronkhite-canada-syndrome-and-focus-on-standard-treatment
#13
Catherine Langevin, Hugo Chapdelaine, Jean-Maxime Picard, Pierre Poitras, Raymond Leduc
Cronkhite-Canada syndrome is a rare syndrome consisting of extensive gastrointestinal polyposis and ectodermal changes including cutaneous hyperpigmentation, alopecia, and onychodystrophy. We report the case of a 45-year-old Caucasian male patient who failed multiple treatments over 2 years including steroids, azathioprine, adalimumab, and cyclosporine. He had recurrent and prolonged hospitalizations because of diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and malnutrition. Sirolimus was initiated with a significant clinical and endoscopic benefit apparent within, respectively, 2 and 8 weeks...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614995/racecadotril-in-the-treatment-of-acute-diarrhea-in-children-a-systematic-comprehensive-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#14
Marion Eberlin, Min Chen, Tobias Mueck, Jan Däbritz
BACKGROUND: Racecadotril is a guideline-recommended option for the treatment of acute diarrhea in children but existing guidelines and previous reviews of the field are based on a small fraction of published evidence. Therefore, we have performed a systematic search for randomized controlled trials evaluating racecadotril as add-on or in comparison to other treatments. METHODS: A search was performed in PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar without limits about country of origin or reporting language...
April 3, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599375/enterocolitis-in-patients-with-cancer-treated-with-docetaxel
#15
Frédéric Fiteni, Marie-Justine Paillard, Emeline Orillard, Loriane Lefebvre, Sarah Nadjafizadeh, Zohair Selmani, Salim Benhamida, Antoine Roland, Antoine Baumann, Angélique Vienot, Nadine Houédé, Xavier Pivot
BACKGROUND: Enterocolitis is a rare, but serious gastrointestinal complication associated with docetaxel-based chemotherapy in patients with cancer. The incidence, clinical presentation and outcome of enterocolitis in patients with cancer treated with docetaxel-based chemotherapy was assessed in this study Patients and Methods: All patients treated with docetaxel for cancer between January 2010 and December 2014 at the University Hospital of Besançon were identified and their medical records reviewed...
April 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570173/gastric-emptying-of-elemental-liquid-diets-versus-semisolid-diets-in-bedridden-gastrostomy-fed-patients
#16
Akira Horiuchi, Ryosei Sakai, Michio Tamaki, Masashi Kajiyama, Naoki Tanaka, Akio Morikawa
BACKGROUND: Aspiration is a common problem in bedridden gastrostomy-fed patients. We compared gastric emptying of an elemental liquid diet and a commercial semisolid diet in bedridden gastrostomy-fed patients. METHODS: Study 1: from January 2013 to December 2016, consecutive bedridden patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) semisolid feeding hospitalized due to aspiration pneumonia were switched to elemental liquid diet feedings. The frequency of defecation, tube feed contents aspirated from the trachea, and aspiration pneumonia during hospitalization were retrospectively reviewed...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562382/hepatic-schistosomiasis-with-massive-splenomegaly-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
REVIEW
L Thijs, P Messiaen, J van der Hilst, V Madoe, C Melis, P Van Eyken, I Vanmoerkerke, F Janssens
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma species. Intestinal and hepatic schistosomiases are the most common forms of chronic disease. We describe a case of a 26-year old patient from Eritrea who was referred to our hospital with abdominal pain and diarrhea. The diagnosis of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis was made by liver biopsy and the patient was treated with praziquantel. Hepatic schistosomiasis is characterised by deposition of schistosomal eggs in the liver which results in a host cell immune response and leads to granuloma formation and neoangiogenesis...
January 2018: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540433/understanding-clostridium-difficile-colonization
#18
REVIEW
Monique J T Crobach, Jonathan J Vernon, Vivian G Loo, Ling Yuan Kong, Séverine Péchiné, Mark H Wilcox, Ed J Kuijper
Clostridium difficile is the main causative agent of antibiotic-associated and health care-associated infective diarrhea. Recently, there has been growing interest in alternative sources of C. difficile other than patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and the hospital environment. Notably, the role of C. difficile -colonized patients as a possible source of transmission has received attention. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of C. difficile colonization...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512373/good-s-syndrome-association-of-the-late-onset-combined-immunodeficiency-with-thymoma-review-of-literature-and-case-report
#19
Marzieh Tavakol, Seyed Alireza Mahdaviani, Mir Reza Ghaemi, Mohammad Vaezi, Atosa Dorudinia, Hamidreza Jamaati, Ali Akbar Velayati
Good's syndrome, the adult onset hypogammaglobulinemia associated with thymoma has been explained about six decades ago. It generally presents with recurrent infections and several paraneoplastic syndromes including myasthenia gravis, pure red cell aplasia, connective tissue disorders, superior vena cava, Horner's syndrome, lichen planus and inflammatory bowel disease. Lack of B cell, dysfunction of T cell, CD4+ T cell lymphopenia, reversed CD4/CD8+ T cell ratio, autoantibodies against Th17 related cytokines have been respected as the pathogenesis of the immune dysregulation this syndrome...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507603/nonoperative-management-of-appendiceal-phlegmon-or-abscess-in-children-less-than-3-years-of-age
#20
Hailan Zhang, Yuzuo Bai, Weilin Wang
Background: In children less than 3 years of age, there is little experience in the nonoperative management of appendiceal phlegmon or abscess (APA), especially in APA with an appendicolith. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of an appendicolith and the success rate of nonoperative management for APA in these young children. Methods: Children younger than 3 years of age with APA who underwent attempted initial nonoperative treatment between January 2008 and December 2016 were reviewed...
2018: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
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