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Diarrhea hospital review

Jing Zhang, Yuan Zong, Gang-Zhu Xu, Ke Xing
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of erlotinib for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: A systematic literature search was undertaken in June 2015. Phase II/III trials of erlotinib for the treatment of advanced HCC were included. A descriptive analysis was applied. The study was conducted in College of Medicine, Honghui Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China, between June 2015 and January 2016. RESULTS: Ten trials, comprising 9 phase II and one phase III trial, were included in the systematic review...
November 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Miguel O'Ryan, Margarita Riera-Montes, Benjamin Lopman
BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are increasingly recognized as a major cause of sporadic and epidemic acute gastroenteritis. Although there have been multiple studies published on norovirus epidemiology in Latin America, no comprehensive assessment of the role of norovirus has been conducted in the region. We aim to estimate the role of norovirus in the Latin American region through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing literature. METHODS: We carried out a literature search in Medline, SciELO and LILACS...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Miwa Higashiarakawa, Tetsuo Hirata, Teruhisa Tanaka, Gretchen Parrott, Tetsu Kinjo, Hidekatsu Naka, Akira Hokama, Jiro Fujita
Infections with parasites, such as Strongyloides stercoralis, typically cause elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophils; however, co-infection with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) can cause lower levels of serum IgE during S. stercoralis infection. We conducted this study to determine whether serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts could also be related to other patient characteristics or symptoms. Between 1991 and 2014, we measured and compared the symptoms of 237 patients and evaluated serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts of 199 patients who were infected with S...
October 12, 2016: Parasitology International
Ankita Tirath, Sandra Tadros, Samuel L Coffin, Kristina W Kintziger, Jennifer L Waller, Stephanie L Baer, Rhonda E Colombo, Lu Y Huber, Mufaddal F Kheda, N Stanley Nahman
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) may be at increased risk for CDI. Patients with ESRD with CDI have increased mortality, longer length of stay, and higher costs. The present studies extend these observations and address associated comorbidities, incidence of recurrence, and risk factors for mortality. We queried the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) for patients with ESRD diagnosed with CDI, and assessed for the incidence of infection, comorbidities, and mortality...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Andrew Mitchell, Alexandre Dugas
BACKGROUND: Perforation of the colon occurring during or shortly following colonoscopy or barium enema is a rare complication of collagenous colitis (CC). "Spontaneous" perforation in CC, in which no instigating factor is identified, is even less common, with only five cases reported to date. We report herein an additional case of spontaneous perforation in previously undiagnosed CC and review the clinical and pathological features of previously reported cases. CASE PRESENTATION: An 80 year old woman presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain preceded by approximately one month of frequent non-bloody diarrhea...
October 6, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Clemence Deville, Cyril Garrouste, Paul Coppo, Bertrand Evrard, Alexandre Lautrette, Anne Elisabeth Heng
Antifactor H antibody (anti-CFHAb) is found in 6% to 25% cases of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) in children, but has been only exceptionally reported in adults. There is no consensus about the best treatment for this type of aHUS. We report the case of an adult patient treated successfully with plasma exchange (PE), steroids, and rituximab.A 27-year-old Caucasian male presented to hospital with anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. One week earlier, he had digestive problems with diarrhea...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sean G Kelly, Michael Yarrington, Teresa R Zembower, Sarah H Sutton, Christina Silkaitis, Michael Postelnick, Anessa Mikolajczak, Maureen K Bolon
BACKGROUND The nationally reported metric for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) relies solely on laboratory testing, which can result in overreporting due to asymptomatic C. difficile colonization. OBJECTIVE To review the clinical scenarios of cases of healthcare facility-onset CDI (HO-CDI) and to determine the appropriateness of C. difficile testing on the basis of presence of symptomatic diarrhea in order to identify areas for improvement. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING Northwestern Memorial Hospital, a large, tertiary academic hospital in Chicago, Illinois...
September 26, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Chen Xiaohong, X U Yiping, L U Meiping
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics and etiology of hypereosinophilia in children. METHODS: Clinical data of 88 children with hypereosinophilia admitted in Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine during April 2009 and May 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical manifestations, etiologies, and the correlation of disease severity with different etiologies were analyzed. RESULTS: The main clinical manifestations were fever, abdominal pain, cough and/or tachypnea, skin rash, hemafecia and diarrhea, which were observed in 19 (21...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Dan Wu, Catherine Yen, Zun-Dong Yin, Yi-Xing Li, Na Liu, Yan-Min Liu, Hua-Qing Wang, Fu-Qiang Cui, Christopher J Gregory, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar, Da-Peng Yin, Li Li
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among young children worldwide. Rotavirus vaccines have demonstrated substantial benefits in many countries that have introduced vaccine nationally. In China, where rotavirus vaccines are not available through the national immunization program, it will be important to review relevant local and global information to determine the potential value of national introduction. Therefore, we reviewed evidence of rotavirus disease burden among Chinese children <5 years of age to help inform rotavirus vaccine introduction decisions...
September 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Pearlie P Chong, David van Duin, Jessica L Sonderup, Wendy J Grant, Andre C Kalil, Diana F Florescu
Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients may develop protracted diarrheal illness from norovirus. We performed a retrospective chart review between January 2010 and April 2014 to identify predictors of persistent diarrhea in transplant recipients with norovirus enteritis. A total of 152 SOT recipients with mean age of 31.5 years (SD 23.1) were included: 43.4% male, 34.2% pediatric patients. Allograft types were abdominal 136 (89.5%) (kidney [39.5%], liver-small bowel [23%], other [27%]) and thoracic 16 (10...
October 6, 2016: Clinical Transplantation
Asli Kulane, Douglas Sematimba, Lul M Mohamed, Abdirashid H Ali, Xin Lu
BACKGROUND: The recurrent civil conflict in Somalia has impeded progress toward improving health and health care, with lack of data and poor performance of health indicators. This study aimed at making inference about Banadir region by exploring morbidity and mortality trends at Banadir Hospital. This is one of the few functional hospitals during war. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted with data collected at Banadir Hospital for the period of January 2008-December 2012...
2016: International Journal of General Medicine
Elaine M Kaptein, Divya Sreeramoju, John M Kaptein, Matthew J Kaptein
BACKGROUND: Wide ranges of sodium concentrations for different body fluid losses have been noted with minimal substantiating data and variability among sources, leading to use of "cumulative fluid balance" regardless of composition in hospitalized patients. AIMS: To define the sodium concentrations of fluid losses from the body. METHOD: We performed a systematic search and literature review in adult humans using PubMed database. RESULTS: Inclusion criteria were met for 107 full-text articles...
October 2016: Clinical Nephrology
Ashley E J Rogers, Kristen M Eisenman, Susan A Dolan, Kristin M Belderson, Jocelyn R Zauche, Suhong Tong, Jane Gralla, Joanne M Hilden, Michael Wang, Kelly W Maloney, Samuel R Dominguez
BACKGROUND: Central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs) are a source of high morbidity and mortality in children with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). PROCEDURE: To understand the epidemiology and risk factors associated with the development of CLABSI in children with AML. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients with AML over a 5-year period between 2007 and 2011 at the Children's Hospital Colorado. Cases and controls were classified on the basis of the presence of a CLABSI as defined by the National Healthcare Safety Network...
September 12, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Peter Moono, Niki F Foster, David J Hampson, Daniel R Knight, Lauren E Bloomfield, Thomas V Riley
Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis in hospitalized humans. Recently, C. difficile infection (CDI) has been increasingly recognized as a cause of neonatal enteritis in food animals such as pigs, resulting in stunted growth, delays in weaning, and mortality, as well as colitis in large birds such as ostriches. C. difficile is a strictly anaerobic spore-forming bacterium, which produces two toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB) as its main virulence factors. The majority of strains isolated from animals produce an additional binary toxin (C...
September 7, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Shuyi Chen, Huawei Gu, Chunli Sun, Haiying Wang, Jufang Wang
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, spore-forming and Gram-positive bacillus. It is the major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea prevailing in hospital settings. The morbidity and mortality of C. difficile infection (CDI) has increased significantly due to the emergence of hypervirulent strains. Because of the poor clinical different between CDI and other causes of hospital-acquired diarrhea, laboratory test for C. difficile is an important intervention for diagnosis of CDI...
September 6, 2016: Infection
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota therapy is increasingly being used to treat patients with Clostridium difficile infection. This health technology assessment primarily evaluated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of fecal microbiota therapy compared with the usual treatment (antibiotic therapy). METHODS: We performed a literature search using Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, CRD Health Technology Assessment Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and NHS Economic Evaluation Database...
2016: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
Arthorn Riewpaiboon, Sunheang Shin, Thi Phuong Mai Le, Dinh Thiem Vu, Thi Hien Anh Nguyen, Neal Alexander, Duc Anh Dang
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the most common etiology of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations and clinic visits in Vietnamese children < 5 years old. To estimate the economic burden of rotavirus-associated formal healthcare encounters, an economic study was conducted. METHODS: A cost-of-illness study was performed from a societal perspective. Data were collected from children below the age of five years who presented to a clinic or hospital with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis (AGE)...
2016: BMC Public Health
W C Wu, W Wang, H M Song, M S Ma, X Y Tang, S Jian, M Q Zhang, J Xiao, Z Q Qiu, Y L Liu
OBJECTIVE: To summarize and report the clinical characteristics and laboratory results of a case and those reported in literature with MHC class Ⅱ deficiency. METHOD: The clinical features, laboratory results and gene mutation analysis of an infant with MHC class Ⅱ deficiency, who was diagnosed and treated in Peking Union Medical College Hospital since December 2013, were retrospectively analyzed."Major histocompatibility complex class Ⅱ deficiency"or"bare lymphocyte syndrome"were used as keywords in order to retrieve reports from CNKI (from its establishment to October 2015) and Wanfang Database (from its establishment to October 2015), PubMed Database (from its establishment to October 2015) was searched...
August 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Ashok Kumar, Sriparna Basu, Vipin Vashishtha, Panna Choudhury
NEED AND PURPOSE: Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. The burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Indian children is not well established. The present study reviewed the epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in hospitalized children and in the community, molecular serotyping and under-five mortality caused by rotavirus diarrhea. METHODS: Publications, reporting rotavirus diarrhea in Indian children, were retrieved through a systematic search of databases including Medline, PubMed, IndMed, websites of WHO, UNICEF, National Family Health Survey, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, and Government of India...
July 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
S von Moos, P E Cippà, R P Wüthrich, T F Mueller
BACKGROUND: Chronic diarrhea after kidney transplantation is often attributed to mycophenolic acid (MPA) toxicity. We hypothesize that intestinal infections contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic MPA-associated diarrhea. METHODS: In this retrospective study, all patients (n = 726) receiving a kidney transplant between 2000 and 2010 at the University Hospital Zurich were followed until July 2014 for occurrence of chronic diarrhea (≥4 weeks). Infectious triggers at diarrhea onset were assessed by reviewing medical history, stool microbiology, and histology of colon biopsies...
October 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
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