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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911402/utilizing-the-ethylene-releasing-compound-2-chloroethylphosphonic-acid-as-a-tool-to-study-ethylene-response-in-bacteria
#1
Richard V Augimeri, Andrew J Varley, Janice L Strap
Ethylene (C2H4) is a gaseous phytohormone that is involved in numerous aspects of plant development, playing a dominant role in senescence and fruit ripening. Exogenous ethylene applied during early plant development triggers the triple response phenotype; a shorter and thicker hypocotyl with an exaggerated apical hook. Despite the intimate relationship between plants and bacteria, the effect of exogenous ethylene on bacteria has been greatly overlooked. This is partly due to the difficulty of controlling gaseous ethylene within the laboratory without specialized equipment...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910921/bipolar-and-unipolar-silylene-diphenylene-%C3%AF-%C3%AF-conjugated-polymer-route-for-highly-efficient-electrophosphorescence
#2
Yao-Tang Chang, Sunil Sharma, Miao-Ken Hung, Yu-Hsuan Lee, Show-An Chen
σ-π conjugated polymer strategy is proposed for designing electroluminescent host polymers with silylene-diphenylene as the backbone repeat unit giving a high triplet energy (ET = 2.67 eV). By incorporation of high ET (3.0 eV) electron (oxadiazole, OXD) and hole (triphenyl amine, TPA) transport moieties, or TPA alone (in this case, the main chain acts as electron transport channel) as side arms on the silylene, the high ET bipolar and unipolar polymers are formed, allowing a use of iridium green phosphor (Ir(ppy)2(acac), Ir-G) (ET = 2...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909745/dechlorination-of-three-tetrachlorobenzene-isomers-by-contaminated-harbor-sludge-derived-enrichment-cultures-follows-thermodynamically-favorable-reactions
#3
Yue Lu, Javier Ramiro-Garcia, Pieter Vandermeeren, Steffi Herrmann, Danuta Cichocka, Dirk Springael, Siavash Atashgahi, Hauke Smidt
Dechlorination patterns of three tetrachlorobenzene isomers, 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,3,5-, and 1,2,4,5-TeCB, were studied in anoxic microcosms derived from contaminated harbor sludge. The removal of doubly, singly, and un-flanked chlorine atoms was noted in 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-TeCB fed microcosms, whereas only singly flanked chlorine was removed in 1,2,4,5-TeCB microcosms. The thermodynamically more favorable reactions were selectively followed by the enriched cultures with di- and/or mono-chlorobenzene as the main end products of the reductive dechlorination of all three isomers...
December 1, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909710/intracellular-distribution-and-stability-of-a-luminescent-rhenium-i-tricarbonyl-tetrazolato-complex-using-epifluorescence-microscopy-in-conjunction-with-x-ray-fluorescence-imaging
#4
J L Wedding, H H Harris, C A Bader, S E Plush, R Mak, M Massi, D A Brooks, B Lai, S Vogt, M V Werrett, P V Simpson, B W Skelton, S Stagni
Optical epifluorescence microscopy was used in conjunction with X-ray fluorescence imaging to monitor the stability and intracellular distribution of the luminescent rhenium(i) complex fac-[Re(CO)3(phen)L], where phen = 1,10-phenathroline and L = 5-(4-iodophenyl)tetrazolato, in 22Rv1 cells. The rhenium complex showed no signs of ancillary ligand dissociation, a conclusion based on data obtained via X-ray fluorescence imaging aligning iodine and rhenium distributions. A diffuse reticular localisation was detected for the complex in the nuclear/perinuclear region of cells, by either optical or X-ray fluorescence imaging techniques...
December 2, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909293/major-losses-of-nutrients-following-a-severe-drought-in-a-boreal-forest
#5
Daniel Houle, Geneviève Lajoie, Louis Duchesne
Because of global warming, the frequency and severity of droughts are expected to increase, which will have an impact on forest ecosystem health worldwide(1). Although the impact of drought on tree growth and mortality is being increasingly documented(2-4), very little is known about the impact on nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. Here, based on long-term monitoring data, we report nutrient fluxes in a boreal forest before, during and following a severe drought in July 2012. During and shortly after the drought, we observed high throughfall (rain collected below the canopy) concentrations of nutrient base cations (potassium, calcium and magnesium), chlorine, phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), differing by one to two orders of magnitude relative to the long-term normal, and resulting in important canopy losses...
November 28, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908261/n-chlorosuccinimide-mediated-oxidative-chlorination-of-thiols-to-n%C3%AE-protected-amino-alkyl-sulfonyl-azides-and-their-utility-in-the-synthesis-of-sulfonyl-triazole-acids
#6
K M Sharnabai, M Krishnamurthy, N R Sagar, L Santhosh, Sureshbabu V Vommina
An efficient oxidative chlorination of thiols to Nα-protected amino alkyl sulfonyl azides is delineated. The reaction involves in situ generation of sulfonyl chloride employing N-chlorosuccinimide and tetrabutylammonium chloride-water in acetonitrile, followed by the reaction with sodium azide. The protocol is simple, straight forward, mild and high yielding. Amino acids with simple as well as bifunctional side chains were used to obtain Nα-protected amino alkyl sulfonyl azides. Further, sulfonyl azides were utilized to synthesize unnatural amino acids via Cu(OAc)2...
November 30, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907097/levels-of-selected-persistent-organic-pollutants-pcb-pbde-and-pesticides-in-honey-bee-pollen-sampled-in-poland
#7
Marek Łukasz Roszko, Marta Kamińska, Krystyna Szymczyk, Renata Jędrzejczak
Chemical plant protection is a commonly discussed factor potentially responsible for decline in pollinators and other beneficial insect populations. Various groups of chemicals including persistent organic pollutants could impact a bee colony's welfare and are reported to be present in bee tissue and apiary products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of selected persistent organic pollutant and pesticide residues in bee pollen originating from different geographical regions of Poland. Pesticide residues were identified in 60% of tested bee pollen samples...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906382/laser-patterned-functionalized-cvd-graphene-as-highly-transparent-conductive-electrodes-for-polymer-solar-cells
#8
Luca La Notte, Enrica Villari, Alessandro Lorenzo Palma, Alberto Sacchetti, Maria Michela Giangregorio, Giovanni Bruno, Aldo Di Carlo, Giuseppe Valerio Bianco, Andrea Reale
A five-layer (5L) graphene on a glass substrate has been demonstrated as a transparent conductive electrode to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) in organic photovoltaic devices. The required low sheet resistance, while maintaining high transparency, and the need of a wettable surface are the main issues. To overcome these, two strategies have been applied: (i) the p-doping of the multilayer graphene, thus reaching 25 Ω □(-1) or (ii) the O2-plasma oxidation of the last layer of the 5L graphene that results in a contact angle of 58° and a sheet resistance of 134 Ω □(-1)...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904926/polychlorinated-biphenyl-bioaccumulation-patterns-among-lake-erie-lower-trophic-level-consumers-reflect-species-ecologies
#9
Jordan A Pitt, Ken G Drouillard, Gordon Paterson
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were quantified in lower trophic level consumers of the Lake Erie western basin food web to assess the capacity of PCBs to discriminate among trophically similar species inhabiting different compartments of the same ecosystem. Zooplankton were characterized by higher proportions of less chlorinated and hydrophobic homologs relative to zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), mayfly (Hexagenia limbata) and emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) samples. PCB biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) differed significantly among species with zebra mussels and emerald shiners having the highest BSAFs...
November 30, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904086/asymmetric-chlorination-of-%C3%AE-keto-esters-using-diaminomethylenemalononitrile-organocatalyst
#10
Takaaki Sakai, Shin-Ichi Hirashima, Kosuke Nakashima, Chie Maeda, Akihiro Yoshida, Yuji Koseki, Tsuyoshi Miura
Diaminomethylenemalononitrile organocatalysts promote the asymmetric chlorination of simple cyclic β-keto esters such as methyl, ethyl, and benzyl esters of 1-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indene-2-carboxylic acid. This affords the corresponding chiral α-chlorinated carbonyl products in excellent yields with high enantioselectivities.
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903429/polyhydroxyalkanoate-as-a-slow-release-carbon-source-for-in-situ-bioremediation-of-contaminated-aquifers-from-laboratory-investigation-to-pilot-scale-testing-in-the-field
#11
Lucia Pierro, Bruna Matturro, Simona Rossetti, Marco Sagliaschi, Salvatore Sucato, Eduard Alesi, Ernst Bartsch, Firoozeh Arjmand, Marco Petrangeli Papini
A pilot-scale study aiming to evaluate the potential use of poly-3-hydroxy-butyrate (PHB) as an electron donor source for in situ bioremediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater was conducted. Compared with commercially available electron donors, PHB offers a restricted fermentation pathway (i.e., through acetic acid and molecular hydrogen) by avoiding the formation of any residual carbon that could potentially spoil groundwater quality. The pilot study was carried out at an industrial site in Italy, heavily contaminated by different chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs)...
November 26, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900807/highly-ortho-selective-chlorination-of-anilines-using-a-secondary-ammonium-salt-organocatalyst
#12
Xiaodong Xiong, Ying-Yeung Yeung
An organocatalytic, highly facile, efficient, and regioselective ortho-chlorination of anilines is described. A secondary ammonium chloride salt has been employed as the catalyst and the reaction can be conducted at room temperature without protection from air and moisture. In addition, the reaction is readily scalable and the catalyst can be recycled and reused. This catalytic protocol has been applied to the efficient synthesis of a highly potent c-Met kinase inhibitor. Mechanistic studies revealed that unique structural features of the secondary ammonium chloride salt are important for both the catalysis and regioselectivity of the electrophilic ortho-chlorination...
November 30, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899761/rehabilitation-augments-hematoma-clearance-and-attenuates-oxidative-injury-and-ion-dyshomeostasis-after-brain-hemorrhage
#13
Michael R Williamson, Kristen Dietrich, Mark J Hackett, Sally Caine, Colby A Nadeau, Jasmine R Aziz, Helen Nichol, Phyllis G Paterson, Frederick Colbourne
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We assessed the elemental and biochemical effects of rehabilitation after intracerebral hemorrhage, with emphasis on iron-mediated oxidative stress, using a novel multimodal biospectroscopic imaging approach. METHODS: Collagenase-induced striatal hemorrhage was produced in rats that were randomized to enriched rehabilitation or control intervention starting on day 7. Animals were euthanized on day 14 or 21, a period of ongoing cell death...
November 29, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898784/effect-of-metal-ions-on-the-formation-of-trichloronitromethane-during-chlorination-of-catechol-and-nitrite
#14
Guojuan Gan, Rongwu Mei, Lin Qiu, Huachang Hong, Qingjun Wang, Asit Mazumder, Shikai Wu, Xiangliang Pan, Yan Liang
Catechol, nitrite, and dissolved metals are ubiquitous in source drinking water. Catechol and nitrite have been identified as precursors for halonitromethanes (HNMs), but the effect of metal ions on HNM formation during chlorination remains unclear. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of metal ions (Fe, Ti, Al) on the formation of trichloronitromethane (TCNM) (the most representative HNM species in disinfected water) on chlorinating catechol and nitrite. Trichloronitromethane was extracted by methyl tert-butyl ether and detected by gas chromatography...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898330/catalytic-degradation-of-2-4-dichlorophenoxyacetic-acid-2-4-d-by-nano-fe2o3-activated-peroxymonosulfate-influential-factors-and-mechanism-determination
#15
Nematollah Jaafarzadeh, Farshid Ghanbari, Mehdi Ahmadi
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is one of the most applicable herbicides in the world. Therefore, its residue in aquatic environment threatens the human health and ecosystems. In this study, Fe2O3 (hematite) nanoparticles (HNPs) were synthesized, and the characteristics of the obtained HNPs were determined using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) technique, and particle size analyzer (PSA)...
November 26, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898328/fate-of-new-three-anti-influenza-drugs-and-one-prodrug-in-the-water-environment
#16
Takashi Azuma, Mao Ishida, Kanae Hisamatsu, Ayami Yunoki, Kana Otomo, Mari Kunitou, Mai Shimizu, Kaori Hosomaru, Shiori Mikata, Yoshiki Mino
We evaluated the environmental fate of new three anti-influenza drugs, favipiravir (FAV), peramivir (PER), and laninamivir (LAN), and an active prodrug of LAN, laninamivir octanoate (LANO), in comparison with four conventional drugs, oseltamivir (OS), oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), amantadine (AMN), and zanamivir (ZAN) by photodegradation, biodegradation, and sorption to river sediments. In addition, we conducted 9-month survey of urban rivers in the Yodo River basin from 2015 to 2016 (including the influenza season) to investigate the current status of occurrence of these drugs in the river environment...
November 26, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898054/refined-experimental-annotation-reveals-conserved-corrinoid-autotrophy-in-chloroform-respiring-dehalobacter-isolates
#17
Po-Hsiang Wang, Shuiquan Tang, Kayla Nemr, Robert Flick, Jun Yan, Radhakrishnan Mahadevan, Alexander F Yakunin, Frank E Löffler, Elizabeth A Edwards
Two novel chlorinated alkane-respiring Dehalobacter restrictus strains CF and DCA were isolated from the same enrichment culture, ACT-3, and characterized. The closed genomes of these highly similar sister strains were previously assembled from metagenomic sequence data and annotated. The isolation of the strains enabled experimental verification of predicted annotations, particularly focusing on irregularities or predicted gaps in central metabolic pathways and cofactor biosynthesis. Similar to D. restrictus strain PER-K23, strains CF and DCA require arginine, histidine and threonine for growth, although the corresponding biosynthesis pathways are predicted to be functional...
November 29, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895903/deliberate-exposure-of-humans-to-chlorine-the-aftermath-of-ebola-in-west-africa
#18
Shaheen Mehtar, Andre N H Bulabula, Haurace Nyandemoh, Steve Jambawai
BACKGROUND: During the recent Ebola outbreak, spraying of the environment and humans, including healthcare workers, with chlorine was wide spread in affected African countries; adverse clinical effects are reported here. METHODS: A cross sectional survey by interview of 1550 volunteers consisting of 500 healthcare workers (HCW), 550 Ebola survivors (EVD) and 500 quarantined asymptomatic Ebola contacts (NEVD) was conducted. Demographics, frequency of exposure to chlorine, clinical condition after chlorine exposure particularly eye, respiratory and skin conditions were noted...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894785/simulating-stable-carbon-and-chlorine-isotope-ratios-in-dissolved-chlorinated-groundwater-pollutants-with-biochlor-iso
#19
Patrick Höhener
BIOCHLOR is a well-known simple tool for evaluating the transport of dissolved chlorinated solvents in groundwater, ideal for rapid screening and teaching. This work extends the BIOCHLOR model for the calculation of stable isotope ratios of carbon and chlorine isotopes in chloroethenes. An exact solution for the three-dimensional reactive transport of a chain of degrading compounds including sorption is provided in a spreadsheet and applied for modeling the transport of individual isotopes (12)C, (13)C, (35)Cl, (37)Cl from a constant source...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894515/glycine-buffered-synthesis-of-layered-iron-ii-iron-iii-hydroxides-green-rusts
#20
Weizhao Yin, Lizhi Huang, Emil Bjerglund Pedersen, Cathrine Frandsen, Hans Christian B Hansen
Layered Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides (green rusts, GRs) are efficient reducing agents against oxidizing contaminants such as chromate, nitrate, selenite, and nitroaromatic compounds and chlorinated solvents. In this study, we adopted a buffered precipitation approach where glycine (GLY) was used in the synthesis of sulfate-interlayered GR (GRSO4) by aerial oxidation of Fe(II) or co-precipitation by adding Fe(III) salt to an aqueous solution of Fe(II) at constant pH. In both the oxidation and the co-precipitation methods pure crystalline GRSO4 was precipitated in the presence of 70mM GLY (pH 8...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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