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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319884/sodium-chlorate-induces-dna-damage-and-dna-protein-cross-linking-in-rat-intestine-a-dose-dependent-study
#1
Shaikh Nisar Ali, Fariheen Aisha Ansari, Hussain Arif, Riaz Mahmood
Sodium chlorate (NaClO3) is widely used in paper and pulp industries and as a non-selective herbicide. It is also a major by-product generated upon disinfection of drinking water by chlorine dioxide. In this study, we have investigated the genotoxicity of NaClO3 on the small intestine of rats. Adult male rats were divided into 5 groups: one control and four NaClO3 treated groups. The NaClO3 treated groups were given a single acute oral dose of NaClO3 (100, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight) and sacrificed 24 h later...
March 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319744/kinetics-and-mechanism-of-17%C3%AE-estradiol-chlorination-in-a-pilot-scale-water-distribution-systems
#2
Cong Li, Feilong Dong, John C Crittenden, Feng Luo, Xinbo Chen, Taotao Zhao
The kinetics and mechanisms of 17β-estradiol (E2) chlorination in water distribution systems (WDS) were studied. We examined the impacts of different factors, including pH, temperature, humic acid concentration and type, and flow velocity. The experimental results showed that the rate constants in beaker tests and WDS were described by a pseudo-first-order model. pH had the greatest impact on E2 chlorination in the beaker tests. However, temperature had the greatest impact on E2 chlorination in WDS. Mechanistic analysis of E2 chlorination showed that chlorine attacked E2 in three stages: 1) halogenation of the aromatic ring, 2) cleavage of the benzene moiety and chlorine or bromine substitution formation, and 3) formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and halogenated acetic acids (HAAs) from phenolic intermediates through benzene ring opening with chlorine and/or bromine substitution of hydrogen on the carbon atoms...
March 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319224/surface-photo-charge-effect-in-doped-zno-nanorods-for-high-performance-self-powered-ultraviolet-photodetectors
#3
Buddha Deka Boruah, Shanmukh Naidu Majji, Abha Misra
The unique photo-charge characteristics of chlorine-doped zinc oxide nanorods (Cl-ZnO NRs) are explored for the first time in ultraviolet (UV) photodetector (PD) that offers an outstanding self-powered photoresponse towards low UV illumination signals. A self-powered Cl-ZnO NRs PD exhibits superior photon detection speed of the order of a few ms with high sensitivity and photoelasticity. Therefore, the presented PD opens up a novel route to fabricate highly efficient self-powered PDs on a large scale without employing complex multilayer systems...
March 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317441/oxidative-degradation-of-pentachlorophenol-by-permanganate-for-isco-application
#4
Roger Matta, Serge Chiron
Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) has been an effective technology for the in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of many organic compounds including chlorinated alkanes and alkenes, but it has rarely been applied for oxidizing aromatic organochlorines. This study confirms the ability of permanganate to oxidize an aromatic chlorinated compound, pentachlorophenol (PCP), in an efficient manner at neutral pH. The rate of the reaction between KMnO4 and PCP was calculated and the results indicated that the reaction between PCP and permanganate is relatively fast with a second order rate k"∼ 30 M(-1)s(-1)...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316237/chlorinated-polyfluoroalkyl-ether-sulfonic-acids-in-marine-organisms-from-bohai-sea-china-occurrence-temporal-variations-and-trophic-transfer-behavior
#5
Yanwei Liu, Ting Ruan, Yongfeng Lin, Aifeng Liu, Miao Yu, Runzeng Liu, Mei Meng, Yawei Wang, Jiyan Liu, Guibin Jiang
F-53B, the commercial product of chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESAs), has been used in Chinese chrome plating industry for 30 years, and was recently identified in the environment, which caused great concerns. So far, limited investigations have been performed on their environmental occurrence, fate and impact. In this study, we demonstrated the wide occurrence of Cl-PFESAs and their trophic transfer behavior in marine organisms from Chinese Bohai Sea. 6:2 Cl-PFESA (< 0.016-0.575 ng/g wet weight) was the dominant congener, and 8:2 Cl-PFESA (< 0...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316040/chlorine-gas-reaction-with-zno-wurtzoid-nanocrystals-as-a-function-of-temperature-a-dft-study
#6
Mudar Ahmed Abdulsattar
In the present work, we applied density functional theory and temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy calculations to wurtzoid structures to explain the sensitivity of ZnO nanocrystals towards chlorine molecules. In agreement with experimental findings, our results revealed that chlorine sensing under ambient conditions is feasible. Higher temperatures increased the sensitivity of ZnO nanocrystals towards chlorine gas molecules. Peak calculated sensitivities were in the temperature ranges (167-220 °C), (447-578 °C) and (952-1159 °C), which is in good agreement with experimentally determined temperatures...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315117/the-evolution-of-pollution-profile-and-health-risk-assessment-for-three-groups-svocs-pollutants-along-with-beijiang-river-china
#7
Jiao Tang, Taicheng An, Jukun Xiong, Guiying Li
Three important groups of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic chlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and phthalate esters (PAEs), were produced by various human activities and entered the water body. In this study, the pollution profiles of three species including 16 PAHs, 20 OCPs and 15 PAEs in water along the Beijiang River, China were investigated. The concentrations of Σ16PAHs in the dissolved and particulate phases were obtained as 69-1.5 × 10(2) ng L(-1) and 2...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315012/chlorinated-biphenyls-effect-on-estrogen-related-receptor-expression-steroid-secretion-mitochondria-ultrastructure-but-not-on-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-in-leydig-cells
#8
Agnieszka Milon, Malgorzata Opydo-Chanek, Waclaw Tworzydlo, Jerzy Galas, Laura Pardyak, Alicja Kaminska, Anna Ptak, Malgorzata Kotula-Balak
To characterize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) action on Leydig cells, PCBs congeners, low-chlorinated (delor 103; d103) and high-chlorinated ones (delor 106; d106) were selected. The cells were treated according to PCBs dose (d103 or d106 0.2 ng/ml in low doses:, or 2 ng/ml in high doses) and type (d103 + d106 in low doses or 103 + 106 in high doses). After 24 h treatment with PCBs, a distinct increase in estrogen-related receptors (ERRs type α, β and γ) expression was revealed. However, the dose- and type-dependent PCBs effect was mostly exerted on ERRα expression...
March 18, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304032/facile-synthesis-of-chlorin-bioconjugates-by-a-series-of-click-reactions
#9
Junior Gonzales, N V S Dinesh K Bhupathiraju, William Perea, Huong Chu, Naxhije Berisha, Veronica Bueno, Naser Dodic, Julia Rozenberg, Nancy L Greenbaum, Charles Michael Drain
A multifunctional chlorin platform appended with four short polyethylene glycols and a carboxylate-linker allows rapid conjugation to biotargeting motifs such as proteins and oligonucleotides. The stability and photophysical properties of the chlorin enable development of diagnostics, imaging, molecular tracking, and theranostics.
March 17, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304018/graphene-nanobubbles-on-tio2-for-in-operando-electron-spectroscopy-of-liquid-phase-chemistry
#10
S Nappini, A Matruglio, D Naumenko, S Dal Zilio, F Bondino, M Lazzarino, E Magnano
X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) provide unique knowledge on the electronic structure and chemical properties of materials. Unfortunately this information is scarce when investigating solid/liquid interfaces and chemical or photochemical reactions under ambient conditions because of the short electron inelastic mean free path (IMFP) that requires a vacuum environment, which poses serious limitation on the application of XPS and XAS to samples present in the atmosphere or in the presence of a solvent...
March 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303050/application-of-electrolyzed-water-on-reducing-the-microbial-populations-on-commercial-mung-bean-sprouts
#11
Rui Liu, Zhang-Long Yu
The efficacy of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) for reducing total bacteria, coliforms, yeast and mold counts on commercial mung bean sprouts was investigated. The impact of pH, available chlorine concentration (ACC) and the cleaning method on antimicrobial efficacy of AEW was studied. AEW with a pH of 4.47 reduced the total bacterial, coliform, and yeast and mold counts on mung bean sprouts by 1.23, 1.42 and 1.25 log CFU/g, respectively. The efficacy of AEW increased with increasing ACC, and further studies showed that its antimicrobial ability was based on a combination of pH and ACC values...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302307/bromine-incorporation-into-five-dbp-classes-upon-chlorination-of-water-with-extremely-low-suva-values
#12
Huachang Hong, Xiaoqing Yan, Xuhui Song, Yanyan Qin, Hongjie Sun, Hongjun Lin, Jianrong Chen, Yan Liang
The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of disinfection conditions on bromine incorporation into disinfection by-products (DBPs) during chlorination of water with low specific UV absorbance (SUVA). Five classes of DBPs were included: trihalomethanes (THMs), dihaloacetic acids (di-HAAs), trihaloacetic acids (tri-HAAs), dihaloacetonitriles (DHANs) and trihalonitromethanes (THNMs). Results showed that the bromine utilization in DBPs formation was positive related with reaction time, pH and temperature...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301286/chlorine-dioxide-oxidation-of-escherichia-coli-in-water-a-study-of-the-disinfection-kinetics-and-mechanism
#13
Isaac Ofori, Suresh Maddila, Johnson Lin, Sreekantha B Jonnalagadda
This study investigated the kinetics and mechanism of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) inactivation of a Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218) in oxidant demand free (ODF) water in detail as a function of disinfectant concentration (0.5-5.0 mg/L), water pH (6.5-8.5), temperature variations (4-37°C) and bacterial density (10(5)-10(7) cfu/mL). The effects of ClO2 on bacterial cell morphology, outer membrane permeability, cytoplasmic membrane disruption and intracellular enzymatic activity were also studied to elucidate the mechanism of action on the cells...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301246/persistence-of-highly-pathogenic-and-low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-in-footbaths-and-poultry-manure
#14
R Hauck, B Crossley, D Rejmanek, H Zhou, R A Gallardo
A questionnaire was designed in order to gather information about bedding material and footbath preparation and maintenance in different productive units across the state of California.This information was used to plan two experiments. In the first experiment, we tested the effectiveness of footbaths in inactivating highly pathogenic (HP) and low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs) on rubber boots. Surprisingly, quaternary ammonia- and quaternary ammonia + glutaraldehyde-based footbaths were not able to eliminate live HPAIV (H5N8) and LPAIV (H6N2) particles on boots, while a chlorine-based granulated disinfectant was able to destroy the virus at contact...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300663/1-2-dichloropropane-generates-phosphorylated-histone-h2ax-via-cytochrome-p450-2e1-mediated-metabolism
#15
Tatsushi Toyooka, Yukie Yanagiba, Megumi Suda, Yuko Ibuki, Rui-Sheng Wang
1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), a synthetic chlorinated solvent, was recently classified as carcinogenic. Genotoxic events are known as a crucial step in the initiation of cancer. However, studies on the genotoxicity of 1,2-DCP are very limited, particularly studies investigating the mechanism behind DNA damage by 1,2-DCP. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of 1,2-DCP using phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX), a sensitive DNA damage marker. 1,2-DCP showed dose- (1-10 mM: 4 h) and time-dependent (1-24 h: 5 mM) γ-H2AX generation in cultured human hepatocytes (WRL-68) and cholangiocytes (MMNK-1)...
March 11, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300019/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-acute-care-hospitals-systematic-review-and-best-practices-for-prevention
#16
Irene K Louh, William G Greendyke, Emilia A Hermann, Karina W Davidson, Louise Falzon, David K Vawdrey, Jonathan A Shaffer, David P Calfee, E Yoko Furuya, Henry H Ting
OBJECTIVE Prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in acute-care hospitals is a priority for hospitals and clinicians. We performed a qualitative systematic review to update the evidence on interventions to prevent CDI published since 2009. DESIGN We searched Ovid, MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, the ISI Web of Knowledge, and grey literature databases from January 1, 2009 to August 1, 2015. SETTING We included studies performed in acute-care hospitals. PATIENTS OR PARTICIPANTS We included studies conducted on hospitalized patients that investigated the impact of specific interventions on CDI rates...
April 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296395/chlorination-of-amino-acids-reaction-pathways-and-reaction-rates
#17
Zuo Tong How, Kathryn Linge, Francesco Busetti, Cynthia A Joll
Chlorination of amino acids can result in the formation of organic monochloramines or organic dichloramines, depending on the chlorine to amino acid ratio (Cl:AA). After formation, organic chloramines degrade into aldehydes, nitriles and N-chloraldimines. In this paper, the formation of organic chloramines from chlorination of lysine, tyrosine and valine were investigated. Chlorination of tyrosine and lysine demonstrated that the presence of a reactive secondary group can increase the Cl:AA ratio required for the formation of N,N-dichloramines, and potentially alter the reaction pathways between chlorine and amino acids, resulting in the formation of unexpected by-products...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295043/chlorin-e6-mediated-photodynamic-inactivation-for-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-keratitis-in-mice-in-vivo
#18
Ming-Feng Wu, Mona Deichelbohrer, Thomas Tschernig, Matthias W Laschke, Nóra Szentmáry, Dirk Hüttenberger, Hans-Jochen Foth, Berthold Seitz, Markus Bischoff
Following corneal epithelium scratches, mouse corneas were infected with the multidrug resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa strain PA54. 24 hours later, 0% (for control group), 0.01%, 0.05% or 0.1% Chlorin e6 (Ce6), a second generation photosensitizer derived from chlorophyll, was combined with red light, for photodynamic inactivation (PDI). 1 hour or 2 days later, entire mouse eyes were enucleated and homogenized for counting colony forming units (CFU) of P. aeruginosa. For comparison, 0.1% Ce6 mediated PDI was started at 12 hours post infection, and 0...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294602/surface-cleaning-and-disinfection-efficacy-assessment-of-four-chlorine-types-using-e-coli-and-the-ebola-surrogate-phi6
#19
Karin Gallandat, Marlene K Wolfe, Daniele S Lantagne
In the 2014 West African Ebola outbreak, international organizations provided conflicting recommendations for disinfecting surfaces contaminated by uncontrolled patient spills. We compared the efficacy of four chlorine solutions (sodium hypochlorite, sodium dichloroisocyanurate, high-test hypochlorite, and generated hypochlorite) for disinfection of three surface types (stainless steel, heavy duty tarp, and nitrile), with and without pre-cleaning practices (pre-wiping and/or covering) and soil load. The test organisms were E...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292934/maltotriose-conjugation-to-a-chlorin-derivative-enhances-the-antitumor-effects-of-photodynamic-therapy-in-peritoneal-dissemination-of-pancreatic-cancer
#20
Akihisa Kato, Hiromi Kataoka, Shigenobu Yano, Kazuki Hayashi, Noriyuki Hayashi, Mamoru Tanaka, Itaru Naitoh, Tesshin Ban, Katsuyuki Miyabe, Hiromu Kondo, Michihiro Yoshida, Yasuaki Fujita, Yasuki Hori, Makoto Natsume, Takashi Murakami, Atsushi Narumi, Akihiro Nomoto, Aya Naiki-Ito, Satoru Takahashi, Takashi Joh
Peritoneal dissemination is a major clinical issue associated with dismal prognosis and poor quality of life for patients with pancreatic cancer; however, no effective treatment strategies have been established. Herein, we evaluated the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with maltotriose-conjugated chlorin (Mal3-chlorin) in culture and in a peritoneal disseminated mice model of pancreatic cancer. The Mal3-chlorin was prepared as a water-soluble chlorin derivative conjugated with four Mal3 molecules to improve cancer selectivity...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
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