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Cornelia Roschger, Thomas Verwanger, Barbara Krammer, Chiara Cabrele
The inhibitor of DNA binding and cell differentiation (Id) proteins are dominant negative regulators of the helix-loop-helix transcription factor family and play a key role during development as well as in vascular disorders and cancer. In fact, impairing the Id-protein activity in cancer cells reduces cell growth and even chemoresistance. Recently, we have shown that a synthetic Id-protein ligand (1Y) consisting of a cyclic nonapeptide can reduce the viability of the two breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D and of the bladder cancer cells T24 to about 50% at concentrations ≥100μM...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Karteek Durbakula, Vishnudas Prabhu, Maji Jose
AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of non-alcoholic mouth rinses on buccal epithelial cells using a micronucleus test. METHODS: A total of 105 patients were selected and randomly divided into five groups. Four different mouth rinses and normal saline were given for 2 weeks' duration, and cytological smears were collected before and after exposure. These smears were subjected to micronucleus (MN) and other nuclear abnormalities (ONA) tests using acridine orange stain, and their frequencies were obtained in 500 buccal epithelial cells...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
Brian T Hawkins, Katelyn L Sellgren, Ethan J D Klem, Jeffrey R Piascik, Brian R Stoner
Decentralized, energy-efficient waste water treatment technologies enabling water reuse are needed to sustainably address sanitation needs in water- and energy-scarce environments. Here, we describe the effects of repeated recycling of disinfected blackwater (as flush liquid) on the energy required to achieve full disinfection with an electrochemical process in a prototype toilet system. The recycled liquid rapidly reached a steady state with total solids reliably ranging between 0.50 and 0.65% and conductivity between 20 and 23 mS/cm through many flush cycles over 15 weeks...
November 2017: Water and Environment Journal: the Journal
Sidharam P Pujari, Alexei D Filippov, Satesh Gangarapu, Han Zuilhof
H-Si(111)-terminated surfaces were alkenylated via two routes: through a novel one-step gas-phase hydrosilylation reaction with short alkynes (C3 to C6) and for comparison via a two-step chlorination and Grignard alkenylation process. All modified surfaces were characterized by static water contact angles and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Propenyl- and butenyl-coated Si(111) surfaces display a significantly higher packing density than conventional C10-C18 alkyne-derived monolayers, showing the potential of this approach...
December 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yue Kou, Jie Liu, Yingbo Li, Shengxiang Qu, Chao Ma, Zhishuang Song, Xiaopeng Han, Yida Deng, Wenbin Hu, Cheng Zhong
The primary challenge of developing clean energy conversion/storage systems is to exploit an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst both for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) with low-cost and good durability. Here, we synthesized chlorine-doped Co(OH)2 in situ grown on carbon cloth (Cl-doped Co(OH)2) as an integrated electrode by a facial electrodeposition method. The anodic potential was then applied to the Cl-doped Co(OH)2 in alkaline solution to remove chlorine atoms (EO/Cl-doped Co(OH)2), which can further enhance the electrocatalytic activity without any thermal treatment...
December 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Carlotta Raviola, Maurizio Fagnoni
The site-selective cleavage of an Ar-X bond in polyhalogenated aromatics is an important tool in synthetic planning especially when more than one identical halogen atom is present. An alternative to the usual metal-catalyzed cleavage is represented by photochemistry although only a few examples have been reported. We then investigated the feasibility of the site-selective photodechlorination of some dichloroanisoles through a combined experimental and computational study. In the case of 2,4-dichloroanisole, selective detachment of the chlorine atom at the ortho position with respect to the OMe group was observed upon photohomolysis (in cyclohexane) or photoheterolysis (in MeOH) of the Ar-Cl bond...
December 14, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Farin Fatemi, Ali Ardalan, Benigno Aguirre, Nabiollah Mansouri, Iraj Mohammadfam
Background and aim: Chemical accidents cause significant danger for residents living close to chemical facilities. For this reason, this study assessed the impacts of a simulated chemical accident on surrounding residents in the city of Ray, Iran. Methods: In this scenario-based case study in 2015, the Areal Location of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA) model was applied to simulate a toxic chemical release from a chlorine warehouse in Shourabad, Ray, Iran. The population of the area was calculated based on the latest census in Iran, 2011...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
Vu Van Loi, Tobias Busche, Jörg Bernhardt, Karsten Tedin, Jan Wollenhaupt, Nguyen Thi Thu Huyen, Chris Weise, Jörn Kalinowski, Markus Wahl, Marcus Fulde, Haike Antelmann
AIMS: Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and has to cope with reactive oxygen and chlorine species (ROS, RCS) during infections, which requires efficient protection mechanisms to avoid destruction. Here, we have investigated the changes in the RNA-seq transcriptome by the strong oxidant NaOCl in S. aureus USA300 to identify novel redox-sensing mechanisms that provide protection under infection conditions. RESULTS: NaOCl stress caused an oxidative stress response in S...
December 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Dariusz Sarzynski, Łukasz Fojcik, Zdzislaw Latajka
The overall rate constants for H-abstraction (kH) from CH3CHClCH3 and D-abstraction (kD) from CD3CDClCD3 by chlorine atoms in the temperature range of 298-528.5 K were determined and are described by the expressions: kH = (3.52 ±0.21)×10-11 exp(-184 ±19/T) cm3molecule-1s-1 and kD = (1.91 ±0.16)×10-11 exp(-185 ±31/T) cm3molecule-1s-1 respectively. The results of the experiment show that the value of the kinetic isotope effect (kH/kD) for the overall rate constants is temperature independent and is equal to 1...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Itza Mendoza-Sanchez, Robin L Autenrieth, Thomas J McDonald, Jeffrey A Cunningham
We applied a mathematical model to data from experimental column studies to understand the dynamics of successful and unsuccessful reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes in groundwater under different flow conditions. In laboratory column experiments (reported previously), it was observed that complete dechlorination of cis-dichloroethene to ethene was sustained at high flow velocity (0.51 m/d), but that dechlorination failed at medium or low flow velocity (0.080 or 0.036 m/d). The mathematical model applied here accounts for transport of chlorinated ethenes in flowing groundwater, mass transfer of chlorinated ethenes between mobile groundwater and stationary biofilms, and diffusion and biodegradation within the biofilms...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Shi Chen, Jing Deng, Lei Li, Naiyun Gao
This study evaluated the effect of low-pressure ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) from algal organic matter of Microcystis aeruginosa during subsequent chlorination and chloramination. The algal organic matter includes extracellular organic matter (EOM) and intracellular organic matter (IOM). The fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra indicated that the humic/fulvic acid-like organics of EOM and the protein-like organics of IOM may be preferentially degraded by UV treatment...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Wenchao Ma, Terrence Wenga, Nan Zhang, Guanyi Chen, Beibei Yan, Zhihua Zhou, Xiao Wu
Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is widely adopted as a waste management strategy and for the energy production. However, this technology experience grave deposition and corrosion of the boiler tubes due to high chlorine (~1.09wt.%) and alkali metal (Na, K) content in MSW. Little is known about the concentration profile of these corrosive elements in the deposits at different boiler locations. Therefore, a full-scale experimental investigation was conducted to determine the concentration profile of Cl, K, Na, S, and Ca in the deposits at pre-protector and compare with those at 3rd superheater during MSW combustion at a 36 MWe waste incineration plant (WIP) in Chengdu, China...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Monica L Vieira, Aline F Teixeira, Giselle Pidde-Queiroz, Ana T C Ching, Denise V Tambourgi, Ana Lucia T O Nascimento, Heiko Herwald
Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic and neglected infectious disease of human and veterinary concern that is caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. After entrance in the host, pathogenic leptospires evade the host natural defense mechanisms in order to propagate and disseminate to multiple organs. Myeloperoxidase is an enzyme stored in neutrophils azurophilic granules, and is released upon neutrophil activation to produce mainly hypochlorous acid, a strong oxidant and potent antimicrobial agent. In the present investigation, we studied the modulation of myeloperoxidase activity by L...
December 13, 2017: Virulence
Gang Li, Andrew Dilger, Peter Cheng, William Ewing, John T Groves
Selective C-H functionalizations of aliphatic molecules remain a challenge in organic synthesis. While radical chain halogenations provide an efficient way to access many halogenated molecules, application of typical protocols to selectively halogenate electron-deficient and strained aliphatic molecules are rare. Herein, we report selective C-H chlorinations and fluorinations that use an electron-deficient manganese pentafluorophenyl porphyrin catalyst, Mn(TPFPP)Cl. This catalyst displays superior properties for aliphatic halogenations of recalcitrant, electron-deficient and strained substrates with unique regio- and stereoselectivity...
December 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Julie A Spencer, Michael Barclay, Miranda J Gallagher, Robert Winkler, Ilyas Unlu, Yung-Chien Wu, Harald Plank, Lisa McElwee-White, D Howard Fairbrother
The ability of electrons and atomic hydrogen (AH) to remove residual chlorine from PtCl2 deposits created from cis-Pt(CO)2Cl2 by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) is evaluated. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) measurements as well as thermodynamics calculations support the idea that electrons can remove chlorine from PtCl2 structures via an electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) process. It was found that the effectiveness of electrons to purify deposits greater than a few nanometers in height is compromised by the limited escape depth of the chloride ions generated in the purification step...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Mohammad Ali Zazouli, Laleh R Kalankesh
Disinfection by-products (DBPs) have heterogeneous structures which are suspected carcinogens as a result of reactions between NOMs (Natural Organic Matter) and oxidants/disinfectants such as chlorine. Because of variability in DBPs characteristics, eliminate completely from drinking water by single technique is impossible. The current article reviews removal of the precursors and DBPs by different membrane filtration methods such as Microfiltration (MF), Ultrafiltration (UF), Nanofiltration (NF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) techniques...
2017: Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering
Tatyana G Karabencheva-Christova, Juan Torras, Adrian J Mulholland, Alessio Lodola, Christo Z Christov
Tryptophan 7-halogenase catalyzes chlorination of free tryptophan to 7-chlorotryptophan, which is the first step in the antibiotic pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis. Many biologically and pharmaceutically active natural products contain chlorine and thus, an understanding of the mechanism of its introduction into organic molecules is important. Whilst enzyme-catalyzed chlorination is accomplished with ease, it remains a difficult task for the chemists. Therefore, utilizing enzymes in the synthesis of chlorinated organic compounds is important, and providing atomistic mechanistic insights about the reaction mechanism of tryptophan 7-halogenase is vital and timely...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shuai Wang, Canhong Wang, Deqian Peng, Xinmin Liu, Chongming Wu, Peng Guo, Jianhe Wei
Although agarwood has been used as a tranquilizer in Asian countries for hundreds of years, the underlying pharmacological basis is still unclear. This study investigated the sedative-hypnotic effect of agarwood essential oil (AEO) using locomotor activity and pentobarbital-induced sleeping assays in mice. Single (1-day) and multiple (7- and 14-days) administrations of 60 mg/kg AEO generated significant sedative effect on inhibiting locomotor activity and hypnotic effect on pentobarbital-induced sleeping in mice...
December 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Miriam Wollenhaupt, Christoph Schran, Martin Krupicka, Dominik Marx
The mechanochemistry of ring-opening reactions of cyclopropane derivatives turns out to be unexpectedly rich and puzzling. After showing that a rare socalled uphill bifurcation in the case of trans-gem-difluorocyclopropane turns into a downhill bifurcation upon substitution of fluorine by chlorine, bromine and iodine in the thermal activation limit, the dichloro derivative is studied systematically in the realm of mechanochemical activation. Detailed exploration of the force-transformed potential energy surface in terms of Dijkstra path analysis unveils a hitherto unknown topological catastrophe where the global shape of the energy landscape is fundamentally changed...
December 12, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Sunao Shoji, Tetsuya Ogawa, Takeshi Hashishin, Hitoshi Tamiaki
Chlorosomes are unique light-harvesting apparatuses in photosynthetic green bacteria. Single chlorosomes contain a large number of bacteriochlorophyll(BChl)-c, d, e, and f molecules which self-assemble without protein assistance. These BChl self-assemblies using specific intermolecular interaction (Mg···O3²-H···O=C13¹ and - stacks of chlorin skeletons) in a chlorosome have been reported to be round-shaped rods (or tubes) with a 5-nm or 10-nm diameters, or lamellae with an approximately 2-nm layer spacing...
December 12, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
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