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Takahiro Fujioka, Haruka Takeuchi, Hiroaki Tanaka, Hitoshi Kodamatani
The security of recycled water quality in potable reuse can be enhanced by improving the credibility of reverse osmosis (RO) treatment for the removal of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs). This study evaluated the potential of online monitoring of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) before and after RO treatment as a surrogate indicator for TOrC removal by RO. This pilot-scale study monitored NDMA concentrations in RO feedwater (ultrafiltration-treated wastewater) and RO permeate every 22 min using novel online NDMA analyzers-high-performance liquid chromatography followed by photochemical reaction and chemiluminescence detection...
February 17, 2018: Chemosphere
Sarah D Bennett, Sara A Lowther, Felix Chingoli, Benson Chilima, Storn Kabuluzi, Tracy L Ayers, Thomas A Warne, Eric Mintz
On May 2, 2009 an outbreak of typhoid fever began in rural villages along the Malawi-Mozambique border resulting in 748 illnesses and 44 deaths by September 2010. Despite numerous interventions, including distribution of WaterGuard (WG) for in-home water treatment and education on its use, cases of typhoid fever continued. To inform response activities during the ongoing Typhoid outbreak information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding typhoid fever, safe water, and hygiene were necessary to plan future outbreak interventions...
2018: PloS One
Agata Jakóbik-Kolon, Andrzej Milewski, Piotr Dydo, Magdalena Witczak, Joanna Bok-Badura
The fast and simple method for total chlorine determination in polyglycerols using low resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) without the need for additional equipment and time-consuming sample decomposition was evaluated. Linear calibration curve for35 Cl isotope in the concentration range 20-800 µg/L was observed. Limits of detection and quantification equaled to 15 µg/L and 44 µg/L, respectively. This corresponds to possibility of detection 3 µg/g and determination 9 µg/g of chlorine in polyglycerol using studied conditions (0...
February 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Marion L Chevallier, Myriel Cooper, Steffen Kümmel, Agnès Barbance, Denis Le Paslier, Hans Hermann Richnow, Pierre-Loïc Saaidi, Lorenz Adrian
Chlordecone is a synthetic organochlorine pesticide, extensively used in banana plantations of the French West Indies from 1972 to 1993. Due to its environmental persistence and bioaccumulation, it has dramatic public health and socio-economic impact. Here we describe a method for carbon-directed compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) for chlordecone and apply it to monitor biotic and abiotic reductive transformation reactions, selected on the basis of their distinct product profiles (polychloroindenes versus lower chlorinated hydrochlordecones)...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yusuke Kinoshita, Motoki Kayama, Yuichiro Kashiyama, Hitoshi Tamiaki
Divinyl-132 ,173 -cyclopheophorbide-a enol was in vivo produced as a metabolite of divinyl-chlorophyll-a by protists and in vitro prepared by the intramolecular cyclization of methyl divinyl-pyropheophorbide-a, one of the divinyl-chlorophyll-a derivatives. The1 H NMR spectra in CDCl3 showed that the obtained product took exclusively its enol form in the solution. The intramolecular cyclization of chlorin π-system at the C132 and C173 positions affected the optical properties of such chlorophyll derivatives including the non-fluorescent emission of the enol...
February 9, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Zsuzsanna Nagymáté, Katalin Nemes-Barnás, Gergely Krett, Károly Márialigeti
This study provides a comprehensive microbiological survey of three drinking water networks applying different water treatment processes. Variability of microbial communities was assessed by cultivation-based [nitrifying, denitrifying most probable number (MPN) heterotrophic plate count] and sequence-aided terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. The effect of microbial community composition on nitrifying MPN values was revealed. The non-treated well water samples showed remarkable differences to their corresponding distribution systems regarding low plate count, nitrifying MPN, and the composition of microbial communities, which increased and changed, respectively, in distribution systems...
February 23, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Feng Zhu, Xiaofei Li, Jia-Wei Lu, Jing Hai, Jieru Zhang, Bing Xie, Chengyang Hong
Emission characteristics including congener's profile, gas emissions and toxic equivalent concentration (TEQ) indicators of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in 57 stack gas samples from 6 municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in Northern China were investigated by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS). Additionally, PCDD/Fs formation mechanisms from the MSWIs were briefly discussed. Results revealed that the concentrations and equivalent concentrations of PCDD/Fs emissions in stack gas from 6 MSWIs were in the range of 0...
February 16, 2018: Chemosphere
Ming-Hsiang Chang, Chin-Ling Pai, Ying-Chen Chen, Hsiu-Ping Yu, Chia-Yen Hsu, Ping-Shan Lai
Nanocarrier-based delivery systems are promising strategies for enhanced therapeutic efficacy and safety of toxic drugs. Photodynamic therapy (PDT)-a light-triggered chemical reaction that generates localized tissue damage for disease treatments-usually has side effects, and thus patients receiving photosensitizers should be kept away from direct light to avoid skin phototoxicity. In this study, a clinically therapeutic antibody cetuximab (C225) was conjugated to the surface of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)- b -poly(lactide) (mPEG- b -PLA) micelles via thiol-maleimide coupling to allow tumor-targetable chlorin e6 (Ce6) delivery...
February 22, 2018: Nanomaterials
Jufang Zhang, Hongshun Yang, Joel Zhi Yang Chan
We developed a portable flow-through, electrochemical sanitizing unit to produce near neutral pH electrolyzed water (producing NEW). Two methods of redirecting cathode yields back to the anode chamber and redirecting anode yields the cathode chamber were used. The NEW yields were evaluated, including: free available chlorine (FAC), oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and pH. The performances of 2 electrodes (RuO2 -IrO2 /TiO2 and IrO2 -Ta2 O5 /TiO2 ) were investigated. The unit produced NEW at pH 6.46 to 7...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Shirin Mollazadeh, Fatemeh Moosavi, Farzin Hadizadeh, Mahmoud Seifi, Javad Behravan, Maryam Iman
BACKGROUND: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) causes the efflux of cancer chemotherapy drugs from tumor cells, so it's inhibition can be one target for design and synthesis of new anticancer drugs. OBJECTIVE: In this study new compounds of 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) were recommended as inhibitors of P-gp. METHODS: We synthesized new symmetrical DHP with 36% - 43% yield by the reaction of new reactants. In biological studies, these compounds have high lipophilicity, and thus low water solubility...
February 19, 2018: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
Zilong Zhao, Wenyi Dong, Hongjie Wang, Guanhan Chen, Junyi Tang, Yang Wu
This research explored the application of electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) technique for the simultaneous decomplexation in blended Cu(II)/Ni(II)-EDTA systems by using iron sacrificing electrodes. Standard discharge (0.3 mg L-1 for Cu and 0.1 mg L-1 for Ni in China) could be achieved after 30 min reaction under the optimum conditions (i.e. initial solution pH of 2.0, H2 O2 dosage of 6 mL L-1  h-1 , current density of 20 mA/cm2 , inter-electrode distance of 2 cm, and sulfate electrolyte concentration of 2000 mg L-1 )...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Simon Meister, Matthew E Verbyla, Marius Klinger, Tamar Kohn
The susceptibility of waterborne viruses to disinfection is known to vary between viruses and even between closely related strains, yet the extent of this variation is not known. Here, different enteroviruses (six strains of coxsackievirus B5, two strains of coxsackievirus B4 and one strain of coxackievirus B1) were isolated from wastewater and inactivated by UV254 , sunlight, free chlorine (FC), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), and heat. Inactivation kinetics of these isolates were compared with those of laboratory enterovirus strains (CVB5 Faulkner and echovirus 11 Gregory) and MS2 bacteriophage...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Tingsheng Lin, Xiaozhi Zhao, Sheng Zhao, Hang Yu, Wenmin Cao, Wei Chen, Hui Wei, Hongqian Guo
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging effective treatment for cancer. However, the great promise of PDT for bladder cancer therapy has not yet been realized because of tumor hypoxia. To address this challenge, we fabricated O2 -generating HSA-MnO2 -Ce6 NPs (HSA for human serum albumin, Ce6 for chlorin e6, and NPs for nanoparticles) to overcome tumor hypoxia and thus enhance the photodynamic effect for bladder cancer therapy. Methods: The HSA-MnO2 -Ce6 NPs were prepared. We investigated the O2 generation of NPs in vitro and in vivo ...
2018: Theranostics
Phanwatt Phungsai, Futoshi Kurisu, Ikuro Kasuga, Hiroaki Furumai
Molecular changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) from treatment processes at two drinking water treatment plants in Japan were investigated using unknown screening analysis by Orbitrap mass spectrometry. DOM formulae with carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (CHO-DOM) were the most abundant class in water samples, and over half of them were commonly found at both plants. Among the treatment processes, ozonation induced the most drastic changes to DOM. Mass peak intensities of less saturated CHO-DOM (positive (oxygen subtracted double bond equivalent per carbon (DBE-O)/C)) decreased by ozonation, while more saturated oxidation byproducts (negative (DBE-O)/C) were increased or new oxidation byproducts (OBPs) were detected...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Qingshuo Meng, Jia Meng, Wei Ran, Junyang Wang, Yihui Zhai, Pengcheng Zhang, Yaping Li
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) tumors are heterogeneous, with mesenchymal-like cells at their core and fast proliferating cells on the periphery. It is desirable and beneficial to treat TNBC cells of different phenotypes with the most appropriate drugs. Here, we report a 78 nm, chlorin e6-, docetaxel-, and anti-Twist siRNA-containing polymeric nanoparticle (CDTN) with spatiotemporally specific activity when irradiated by light. Under conditions mimicking superficial tumor tissue with sufficient light input, TNBC cells are mainly killed by the photodynamic therapy (PDT) function of CDTNs...
February 22, 2018: ACS Nano
F Carinci, L Scapoli, M Contaldo, R Santoro, A Palmieri, F Pezzetti, D Lauritano, V Candotto, D Mucchi, L Baggi, A Tagliabue, L Tettamanti
Legionella spp. are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats and water distribution systems, including dental unit waterlines. Surveys have shown that the percentage of samples taken at different dental sites that were positive for Legionella spp. were highly variable and ranged from 0% to 100%. Cultivation is the principal approach to evaluating bacterial contamination employed in the past, but applying this approach to testing for Legionella spp. may result in false-negative data or underestimated bacterial counts...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Arif Gulzar, Jiating Xu, Dan Yang, Liangge Xu, Fei He, Shili Gai, Piaoping Yang
NIR light-induced imaging-guided cancer therapy is an encouraging route in the cancer theranostic field. Herein, we describe a novel nanoscale proposal, which is established by covalently implanting core-shell structured upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) with nanographene oxide (NGO) by a process utilizing polyethylene glycol (PEG), and consequently loading Chlorin e6 (Ce6) onto the surface of NGO. The acquired NGO-UCNP-Ce6 (NUC) nanocomposites can not only be employed as upconversion luminescence (UCL) imaging probes of cells and whole-body animals with high contrast for diagnosis, but also can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) under 808 nm light excitation for photodynamic therapy (PDT); over and above, they can swiftly and proficiently translate the 808 nm photon into thermal energy for photothermal therapy (PTT)...
February 20, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Xinliang Fu, Yankui Meng, Xiaofang Li, Marcin Stępień, Piotr J Chmielewski
The antiaromatic ring of norcorrole, a contracted tetrapyrrolic porphyrinoid, was subjected to [2+3] dipolar cycloaddition of iminonitriles. The paratropic character of the resulting chiral chlorins was retained. The chlorins were easily dehydrogenated in the presence of air, yielding pyrazole-fused norcorroles with markedly enhanced paratropicity.
February 20, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Marie Christine Uwamahoro, Richard Massicotte, Yves Hurtubise, François Gagné-Bourque, Akier Assanta Mafu, L'Hocine Yahia
Spore-forming pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium difficile , are associated with nosocomial infection, leading to the increased use of sporicidal disinfectants, which impacts socioeconomic costs. However, C. difficile can be prevented using microorganisms such as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , a prophylactic agent that has been proven to be effective against it in recent tests or it can be controlled by sporicidal disinfectants. These disinfectants against spores should be evaluated according to a known and recommended standard...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Zhishi Ye, Sarju Adhikari, Yu Xia, Mingji Dai
Saturated 1,4-diazo heterocycles including piperazines, 1,4-diazepanes, and 1,4-diazocanes, are highly important for therapeutic development, but their syntheses are often tedious. We describe here an amphoteric diamination strategy to unite readily available 1,2-, 1,3- or 1,4-diamine derivatives with electron-deficient allenes via a formal [n + 2] (n = 4, 5, 6) cyclization mode to produce the corresponding 1,4-diazo heterocycles in just one step. This strategy features mild reaction conditions, high functional group tolerance, and scalability (gram scale)...
February 19, 2018: Nature Communications
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