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Camila Ferreira Pinto, Raissa Antonelli, Karla Santos de Araújo, Ana Luiza de Toledo Fornazari, David Maikel Fernandes, Ana Claudia Granato, Eduardo Bessa Azevedo, Geoffroy Roger Pointer Malpass
The aim of the present study was to investigate the electrochemical formation of free chlorine species (HOCl/ClO(-)) and their subsequent use for the degradation of the pesticide atrazine. Initially, the process of electrochemical free chlorine production was investigated using a bench-scale electrochemical flow-cell. The most significant variables (electrolyte concentration ([NaCl]) and inter-electrode gap) of the process were obtained using a 2(3) factorial design and the optimum process conditions (1.73 mol L(-1) and 0...
October 20, 2017: Environmental Technology
Hui Wang, Jinxing Hu, Kai Xu, Xianjin Tang, Xinhua Xu, Chaofeng Shen
Two biphenyl-degrading bacterial strains, SS1 and SS2, were isolated from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soil. They were identified as Rhodococcus ruber and Rhodococcus pyridinivorans based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, as well as morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. SS1 and SS2 exhibited tolerance to 2000 and 3000 mg/L of biphenyl. And they could degrade 83.2 and 71.5% of 1300 mg/L biphenyl within 84 h, respectively. In the case of low-chlorinated PCB congeners, benzoate and 3-chlorobenzoate, the degradation activities of SS1 and SS2 were also significant...
October 19, 2017: Biodegradation
Wen-Tien Tsai
Among the halogenated hydrocarbons, chloromethanes (i.e., methyl chloride, CH₃Cl; methylene chloride, CH₂Cl₂; chloroform, CHCl₃; and carbon tetrachloride, CCl₄) play a vital role due to their extensive uses as solvents and chemical intermediates. This article aims to review their main chemical/physical properties and commercial/industrial uses, as well as the environment and health hazards posed by them and their toxic decomposition products. The environmental properties (including atmospheric lifetime, radiative efficiency, ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and surface mixing ratio) of these chlorinated methanes are also reviewed...
September 21, 2017: Toxics
Zarina Arif, Km Neelofar, Mir Yasir Arfat, Asif Zaman, Akhlas Tarannum, Iffat Parveen, Shafeeque Ahmad, Md Adnan Khan, Asim Badar, Shireen Naaz Islam
Chronic oxidative stress fuels pathogenesis of a large set of diseases. Oxidative stress is the cause and consequence of numerous diseases including type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), in which there is selective destruction of insulin producing pancreatic β-cells. Studies have documented that hyperglycemia produces profound stress. In vivo production of numerous reactive oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine species and lipid/sugar oxidation products are result of persistent hyperglycemia. Post-translational modifications by reactive species may create new antigenic epitopes and play a role in the development of autoimmune response...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
R Olsen, E Kudirkiene, I Thøfner, S Pors, P Karlskov-Mortensen, L Li, S Papasolomontos, C Angastiniotou, J Christensen
Disinfection of hatching eggs is essential to ensure high quality production of broilers. Different protocols are followed in different hatcheries; however, only limited scientific evidence on how the disinfection procedures impact the microbiome is available. The aim of the present study was to characterize the microbiome and aerobic bacterial load of hatching eggs before disinfection and during the subsequent disinfection steps. The study included a group of visibly clean and a group of visibly dirty eggs...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
Dmitry S Kosyakov, Nikolay V Ul'yanovskii, Mark S Popov, Tomas B Latkin, Albert T Lebedev
An array of similar halogenated nitrogen-containing compounds with elemental composition CnH2nNO2X, CnH2n-2NO2X and CnH2n-1NOX2 (X = Cl, Br; n = 16, 18, 22) was detected in drinking water with high performance liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS) method. Compounds of this type were never mentioned among disinfection by-products. Tandem mass spectrometry allowed referring them to halohydrines or dihalogenated fatty amides, the products of conjugated electrophilic addition of halogens to the double bonds of unsaturated fatty amides...
October 6, 2017: Water Research
Manisha Lamba, Shaikh Ziauddin Ahammad
Rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR) in developing countries is posing a greater health risk and increasing the global disease burden. AR proliferation mediated by treated/untreated discharges from sewage treatment plants (STPs) is a prime public health concern. Efficient sewage treatment is among our key defenses against the dissemination of infectious diseases. The present study aims to estimate the efficiency of aerobic [activated sludge process (ASP) and modified trickling filter (MTF)] and anaerobic reactors (anaerobic flow-through reactor) along with the three disinfection techniques (UV, ozone and chlorination) in reducing ARB and ARGs present in the domestic sewage...
October 12, 2017: Water Research
Wei Liu, Jingwen Li, Lichen Gao, Zhou Zhang, Jing Zhao, Xin He, Xin Zhang
Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (Cl-PFESA) is a novel alternative compound for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), with its environmental risk not well known. The bioaccumulation and toxic effects of Cl-PFESA in the freshwater alga is crucial for the understanding of its potential hazards to the aquatic environment. Scenedesmus obliquus was exposed to Cl-PFESA at ng L(-1) to mg L(-1), with the exposure regime beginning at the environmentally relevant level. The total log BAF of Cl-PFESA in S. obliquus was 4...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Jay Charles Amicangelo, Yuan-Pern Lee
The reaction of chlorine atoms (Cl) with isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, C5H8) in solid para-hydrogen (p-H2) matrices at 3.2 K has been studied using infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Mixtures of C5H8 and Cl2 were co-deposited in p-H2 at 3.2 K, followed by irradiation with ultraviolet light at 365 nm to induce the photodissociation of Cl2 and the subsequent reaction of the Cl atoms with C5H8. Upon 365-nm photolysis, a multitude of new lines appeared in the IR spectrum and, based on the secondary photolysis behavior, it was determined that the majority of the new lines belong to two distinct chemical species, designated as set A (intense lines at 1237...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Jianglei Ye
A novel solid phase extraction (SPE) device driven by positive pressure was developed instead of negative pressure from a vacuum pump, in order to enrich organo chlorinated and pyrethroid pesticides in seawater. The water sampling bottles and the pipelines which touch water samples were made of plastic material without chlorine. In order to ensure the sealing and firmness, the whole device were tightened with nut and bolt. The inner pressure (0.1-0.3 MPa) in the water sampling bottle was provided by the small air pump (powered by 12 V cell) controlled by a microprogrammed control unit (MCU) and pressure sensor to keep the water flow rate (4...
September 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
A Inuwa, A Lunt, C Czuprynski, G Miller, S A Rankin
Although frozen dairy desserts have a strong record of safety, recent outbreaks of foodborne disease linked to ice creams have brought new attention to this industry. There is concern that small-scale frozen dessert equipment may not comply with or be reviewed against published comprehensive design and construction sanitation specifications (National Sanitation Foundation or 3-A sanitary standards). Equipment sanitary design issues may result in reduced efficacy of cleaning and sanitation, thus increasing the likelihood of postprocess contamination with pathogenic bacteria...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Qingxia Zhong, Anna Carratalà, Rachele Ossola, Virginie Bachmann, Tamar Kohn
The emergence of waterborne viruses with resistance to disinfection has been demonstrated in the laboratory and in the environment. Yet, the implications of such resistance for virus control remain obscure. In this study we investigate if viruses with resistance to a given disinfection method exhibit cross-resistance to other disinfectants. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2)- or UV-resistant populations of echovirus 11 were exposed to five inactivating treatments (free chlorine, ClO2, UV radiation, sunlight, and heat), and the extent of cross-resistance was determined...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Qiwan Chai, Allen Hu, Yukun Qian, Xiuwei Ao, Wenjun Liu, Hongwei Yang, Yuefeng F Xie
Effluents before disinfection from four wastewater reclamation plants were treated with chlorine (Cl2), ozone (O3), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), medium-pressure ultraviolet (MPUV) and four different combinations of the above, to evaluate the effect of disinfection processes on the genotoxicity removal by the SOS/umu test. Results showed that the genotoxicity increased after MPUV irradiation (10-100 mJ/cm(2)), but declined when adopting other disinfection processes. The effectiveness of genotoxicity reduction by five chemical disinfectants was identified as: O3 > pre-ozonation with Cl2 ≈ ClO2 > combination of ClO2 and Cl2 > Cl2...
October 4, 2017: Chemosphere
Weicheng Zhang, Bangding Xiao, Tao Fang
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been inevitably introduced into ecological environment during their extensive applications in daily human life. Thermodynamically, Ag NPs are unstable and transform into other species under various aqueous conditions. Ag NPs and their transformation products pose potential threats to environment and humans. However, the complex environmental conditions and transformations of Ag NPs complicate their human health and environmental risk assessment. To bridge the knowledge gap, four essential environmental transformations, oxidative dissolution, sulfidation, chlorination and photoreduction, of Ag NPs are reviewed herein...
October 3, 2017: Chemosphere
Tadesse Sisay, Abebe Beyene, Esayas Alemayehu
The failure to provide safe drinking water services to all people is the greatest development setback of the twenty-first century including Ethiopia. Potential pollutants from various sources are deteriorating drinking water quality in different seasons, and associated health risks were not clearly known. We determined seasonal and spatial variations of urban drinking water characteristics and associated health risks in Agaro, Jimma, and Metu towns, Southwest Ethiopia. Seventy-two samples were collected during dry and rainy seasons of 2014 and 2015...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Sara Moghnie, Artak Tovmasyan, James Craik, Ines Batinic-Haberle, Ludmil Benov
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative approach particularly attractive for treatment of localized fungal infections. It is based on compounds, photosensitizers (PSs), which when excited with visible light, generate reactive species that ultimately cause cell death. Such species have short lifespans; as a consequence, efficiency and selectivity of the PDT treatment depend mainly on the properties of the PSs. This study is the first to explore the effect of cationic porphyrin-based photosensitizers on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a member of the fungus kingdom...
October 18, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Hong Chen, Hua Lin, Yi Liu, Xin-Tao Wu, Li-Ming Wu
The chemistry of copper-based chalcogenides has received considerable attention due to their diverse structures and potential applications in the area of thermoelectric (TE) materials. In this communication, a series of spinel-type Cu4Mn2Te4-based samples have been successfully prepared and their high TE performances are attributed to the enhanced power factor and low thermal conductivity via the synergistic effect of Te deficiency and Cl doping. Consequently, a maximum TE figure of merit (ZT) of ∼0.4 was achieved for the Cu4Mn2Te3...
October 18, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Mariangela Di Donato, Michael M Lerch, Andrea Lapini, Adèle D Laurent, Alessandro Iagatti, Laura Bussotti, Svante P Ihrig, Miroslav Medved, Denis Jacquemin, Wiktor Szymanski, Wybren Jan Buma, Paolo Foggi, Ben L Feringa
Donor-acceptor Stenhouse adducts (DASAs) are negative photochromes that hold great promise for a variety of applications. Key to optimizing their switching properties is a detailed understanding of the photoswitching mechanism, which, as yet, is absent. Here we characterize the actinic step of DASA-photoswitching and its key intermediate, which was studied using a combination of ultrafast visible and IR pump-probe spectroscopies and TD-DFT calculations. Comparison of the time-resolved IR spectra with DFT computations allowed to unambiguously identify the structure of the intermediate, confirming that light absorption induces a sequential reaction path in which a Z-E photoisomerization of C2-C3 is followed by a rotation around C3-C4 and subsequent thermal cyclization step...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Qing Liu, Fang Li, Hao Lu, Man Li, Jing Liu, Shuangling Zhang, Qingjie Sun, Liu Xiong
Starch nanoparticles (SNPs) have attracted much research interest recently due to their biodegradability and biocompatibility. However, practical utilization of SNPs is generally restricted due to their weak colloid stability and reduced functionality. In this work, SNPs were functionally modified by sodium hypochlorite (1-5% active chlorine based on dry SNPs weight). The degree of modification, particle size, stability, and adsorption characteristics of the SNPs were systematically investigated. The results showed that as the active chlorine concentration increased, the carbonyl and carboxyl contents increased to 0...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yijing Tang, Qunxing Huang, Kai Sun, Yong Chi, Jianhua Yan
In this work, typical organic food waste (soybean protein (SP)) and typical chlorine enriched plastic waste (polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) were chosen as principal MSW components and their interaction during co-pyrolysis was investigated. Results indicate that the interaction accelerated the reaction during co-pyrolysis. The activation energies needed were 2-13% lower for the decomposition of mixture compared with linear calculation while the maximum reaction rates were 12-16% higher than calculation. In the fixed-bed experiments, interaction was observed to reduce the yield of tar by 2-69% and promote the yield of char by 13-39% compared with linear calculation...
October 3, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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