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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633196/tight-junction-strand-formation-by-claudin-10-isoforms-and-claudin-10a-10b-chimeras
#1
Susanne Milatz, Jörg Piontek, Caroline Hempel, Luca Meoli, Christoph Grohe, Anja Fromm, In-Fah M Lee, Rukeia El-Athman, Dorothee Günzel
Claudins are integral components of tight junctions (TJs) in epithelia and endothelia. When expressed in cell lines devoid of TJs, claudins are able to form TJ-like strands at contacts between adjacent cells. According to a current model of TJ strand formation, claudin protomers assemble in an antiparallel double row within the plasma membrane of each cell (cis-interaction) while binding to corresponding double rows from the neighboring cells (trans-interaction). Cis-interaction was proposed to involve two interfaces of the protomers' first extracellular segment (extracellular loop (ECL)1)...
June 20, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631378/runx2-i-is-an-early-regulator-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-cell-transition-in-the-chick-embryo
#2
Andre L P Tavares, Jessie A Brown, Emily C Ulrich, Katerina Dvorak, Raymond B Runyan
BACKGROUND: Though normally linked to bone and cartilage development, the Runt-related transcription factor, RUNX2, was reported in the mouse heart during development of the valves. We examined RUNX2 expression and function in the developing avian heart as it related to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the atrioventricular canal. EMT can be separated into an activation stage involving hypertrophy and cell separation and an invasion stage where cells invade the extracellular matrix...
June 19, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629534/heparin-derived-oligosaccharide-inhibits-vascular-intimal-hyperplasia-in-balloon-injured-carotid-artery
#3
Jie-Ru Liu, Jie Wu, Xin-Chao Yu, Xuan Qian, Rui Xiong, Hui-Fang Wang, Dan-Feng Yu, Fei-Fei Liu, Shu-Ying He
The aims of the present study were to determine the effects of heparin-derived oligosaccharides (HDOs) on vascular intimal hyperplasia (IH) in balloon-injured carotid artery and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. An animal model was established by rubbing the endothelia within the common carotid artery (CCA) in male rabbits. The rabbits were fed a high-cholesterol diet. Arterial IH was determined by histopathological changes to the CCA. Serum lipids were detected using an automated biochemical analysis...
June 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614153/further-analysis-of-the-predictability-of-corneal-endothelial-cell-density-estimates-when-polymegethism-is-present
#4
Michael J Doughty
PURPOSE: To assess variability in endothelial cell density (ECD) estimates when polymegethism (variance in cell areas) is present. METHODS: Using noncontact specular microscope images of the corneal endothelium, 4 sets of 20 cases were selected, which included 200 cells and had coefficient of variation values of less than 30% (group 1), 31%-40% (group 2), 41%-50% (group 3), and over 50% (group 4). A stepwise analysis was undertaken, 20 cells at a time, of the ECD estimates when using different numbers of cells for the calculations...
June 13, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612282/probing-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-anchoring-on-tnf-alpha-challenged-vascular-endothelia-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-the-retinal-microvascular
#5
Yuan Li, Yao Lu, Qiong Chen, Yuejun Kang, Ling Yu
Retinopathy is a complication of diabetes that affects the eyes; it stems from damage to the microvasculature of the retina and eventually compromises vision. The diagnosis of retinopathy is difficult to make because there are no early symptoms or warning signs. Dysfunction of the retina's microvascular networks is believed to be associated with inflammatory cytokines and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). To investigate the effect of these cytokines, such as TNF-α, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/glass hydride microfluidic device reflecting the physiological structure of the retina's microvasculature was developed...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607473/cycles-of-vascular-plexus-formation-within-the-nephrogenic-zone-of-the-developing-mouse-kidney
#6
David A D Munro, Peter Hohenstein, Jamie A Davies
The renal vasculature is required for blood filtration, blood pressure regulation, and pH maintenance, as well as other specialised kidney functions. Yet, despite its importance, many aspects of its development are poorly understood. To provide a detailed spatiotemporal analysis of kidney vascularisation, we collected images of embryonic mouse kidneys at various developmental time-points. Here we describe the first stages of kidney vascularisation and demonstrate that polygonal networks of vessels (endothelial plexuses) form in cycles at the periphery of the kidney...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556776/hif-1%C3%AE-is-required-for-disturbed-flow-induced-metabolic-reprogramming-in-human-and-porcine-vascular-endothelium
#7
David Wu, Ru-Ting Huang, Robert B Hamanaka, Matthew D Krause, Myung-Jin Oh, Cheng-Hsiang Kuo, Recep Nigdelioglu, Angelo Y Meliton, Leah Witt, Guohao Dai, Mete Civelek, Nanduri R Prabhakar, Yun Fang, Gökhan M Mutlu
Hemodynamic forces regulate vascular functions. Disturbed flow (DF) occurs in arterial bifurcations and curvatures, activates endothelial cells (ECs), and results in vascular inflammation and ultimately atherosclerosis. However, how DF alters EC metabolism, and whether resulting metabolic changes induce EC activation, is unknown. Using transcriptomics and bioenergetic analysis, we discovered that DF induces glycolysis and reduces mitochondrial respiratory capacity in human aortic ECs. DF-induced metabolic reprogramming required hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), downstream of NAD(P)H oxidase-4 (NOX4)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
May 30, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515434/cerebral-blood-flow-regulation-and-neurovascular-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-disease
#8
REVIEW
Kassandra Kisler, Amy R Nelson, Axel Montagne, Berislav V Zlokovic
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation is essential for normal brain function. The mammalian brain has evolved a unique mechanism for CBF control known as neurovascular coupling. This mechanism ensures a rapid increase in the rate of CBF and oxygen delivery to activated brain structures. The neurovascular unit is composed of astrocytes, mural vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes, and endothelia, and regulates neurovascular coupling. This Review article examines the cellular and molecular mechanisms within the neurovascular unit that contribute to CBF control, and neurovascular dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472612/acidemia-and-blood-free-fatty-acids-analysis-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-a-new-context
#9
António Heitor Reis
Following a hypothesis developed in an earlier paper, here it is discussed how deviations of blood pH from the normal range (namely states of acidemia) together with high blood levels of free fatty acids (FFA) may offer a rationale for many important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by shaping a context for formation of fatty acid micelles and vesicles with an acidic core, which fuse with the endothelia, disrupt vital cell processes, and thereby may initiate atherosclerotic plaque formation. Acidemia may arise primarily from dysregulation of the systemic buffers that control blood pH, chronic diseases of kidneys and lungs, inappropriate diet, or may be induced by some common drugs...
March 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467903/locally-triggered-release-of-the-chemokine-ccl21-promotes-dendritic-cell-transmigration-across-lymphatic-endothelia
#10
Kari Vaahtomeri, Markus Brown, Robert Hauschild, Ingrid De Vries, Alexander Franz Leithner, Matthias Mehling, Walter Anton Kaufmann, Michael Sixt
Trafficking cells frequently transmigrate through epithelial and endothelial monolayers. How monolayers cooperate with the penetrating cells to support their transit is poorly understood. We studied dendritic cell (DC) entry into lymphatic capillaries as a model system for transendothelial migration. We find that the chemokine CCL21, which is the decisive guidance cue for intravasation, mainly localizes in the trans-Golgi network and intracellular vesicles of lymphatic endothelial cells. Upon DC transmigration, these Golgi deposits disperse and CCL21 becomes extracellularly enriched at the sites of endothelial cell-cell junctions...
May 2, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461173/poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-regulates-microglia-mediated-decrease-of-endothelial-tight-junction-integrity
#11
Abbas Rezaeian Mehrabadi, Minna A Korolainen, Gary Odero G, Donald W Miller, Tiina M Kauppinen
Alzheimer's disease pathology includes, beside neuronal damage, reactive gliosis and reduced blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Microglia are intimately associated with the BBB and upon AD pathology, pro-inflammatory responses of microglia could contribute to BBB damage. To study whether microglia can directly affect BBB integrity, the effects of amyloid beta (Aβ) -stimulated primary murine microglia on co-cultured mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3) and murine astrocyte cultures were assessed. We also assessed whether microglial phenotype modulation via poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibition/ablation can reverse microglial impact on these BBB forming cells...
April 28, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461089/vascular-lesions-of-the-female-genital-tract-clinicopathologic-findings-and-application-of-the-issva-classification
#12
Georgia Karpathiou, Celine Chauleur, Vanessa Da Cruz, Fabien Forest, Michel Peoc'h
INTRODUCTION: Vascular lesions of the female genital tract are extremely rare and their nomenclature does not widely follow the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification. AIM OF THE STUDY: To describe the clinicopathologic characteristics of vascular lesions of the female genital tract and to apply the ISSVA classification. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 19 vascular lesions were diagnosed during a 20 year period...
April 23, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431986/ninj2-a-novel-regulator-of-endothelial-inflammation-and-activation
#13
Jingjing Wang, Jingjing Fa, Pengyun Wang, Xinzhen Jia, Huixin Peng, Jing Chen, Yifan Wang, Chenhui Wang, Qiuyun Chen, Xin Tu, Qing K Wang, Chengqi Xu
Previous genetic studies suggested that variants in NINJ2 (encode ninjurin2) confer risk to ischemic stroke or large artery atherosclerotic stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms of NINJ2 in ischemic stroke or atherosclerosis are still unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that NINJ2 may play a role in endothelial inflammation and activation, and regulate the process of atherosclerosis. Here, we demonstrated that NINJ2 can regulate the expression of a panel of genes that are associated with inflammation and atherosclerosis (e...
April 18, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404940/rnai-mediated-inhibition-of-lgr5-leads-to-decreased-angiogenesis-in-gastric-cancer
#14
Hong-Qing Xi, Ke-Cheng Zhang, Ji-Yang Li, Jian-Xin Cui, Yun-He Gao, Bo Wei, Dongsheng Huang, Lin Chen
Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) is a novel gastric cancer marker. However, it is unclear whether it can play roles in tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we aim to investigate the role of Lgr5 on gastric cancer angiogenesis. Lgr5, VEGF expression levels and microvessel density (MVD) were detected in tumor tissue. Then, Lgr5 mRNA was downregulated by small interference RNA technique. Western blotting and real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) were performed to detect the expression of Lgr5 and VEGF protein and mRNA in Lgr5 siRNA-transfected gastric cancer cells...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403507/endothelial-dysfunction-and-mechanobiology-in-pathological-cutaneous-scarring-lessons-learned-from-soft-tissue-fibrosis
#15
REVIEW
C Huang, L Liu, Z You, Y Zhao, J Dong, Y Du, R Ogawa
Hypertrophic scars/keloids are pathogenic scars that are characterized by collagen and fibroblast accumulation. The endothelia in the lesions are mechanosensitive and participate actively in the pathogenesis of these scars. The present review summarizes how endothelium responds to mechanical stimuli such as shear, stretch, and hydrostatic pressure. It also shows that in heart, liver, kidney, and lung fibrosis, endothelial dysfunctions (EDs) associate with changes in vascular tone, endothelial permeability, coagulation, and vasomodulation that result in inflammation, hypertension, and coagulation...
April 12, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396443/plasma-fibronectin-stabilizes-borrelia-burgdorferi-endothelial-interactions-under-vascular-shear-stress-by-a-catch-bond-mechanism
#16
Alexandra F Niddam, Rhodaba Ebady, Anil Bansal, Anne Koehler, Boris Hinz, Tara J Moriarty
Bacterial dissemination via the cardiovascular system is the most common cause of infection mortality. A key step in dissemination is bacterial interaction with endothelia lining blood vessels, which is physically challenging because of the shear stress generated by blood flow. Association of host cells such as leukocytes and platelets with endothelia under vascular shear stress requires mechanically specialized interaction mechanisms, including force-strengthened catch bonds. However, the biomechanical mechanisms supporting vascular interactions of most bacterial pathogens are undefined...
April 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389777/contribution-of-tumor-endothelial-cells-to-drug-resistance-anti-angiogenic-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-act-as-p-glycoprotein-antagonists
#17
MariaRosa Bani, Alessandra Decio, Raffaella Giavazzi, Carmen Ghilardi
Tumor endothelial cells (TEC) differ from the normal counterpart, in both gene expression and functionality. TEC may acquire drug resistance, a characteristic that is maintained in vitro. There is evidence that TEC are more resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs, substrates of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. TEC express p-glycoprotein (encoded by ABCB1), while no difference in other ABC transporters was revealed compared to normal endothelia. A class of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), used as angiostatic compounds, interferes with the ATPase activity of p-glycoprotein, thus impairing its functionality...
April 7, 2017: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377744/non-neuronal-cells-in-the-hypothalamic-adaptation-to-metabolic-signals
#18
REVIEW
Alejandra Freire-Regatillo, Pilar Argente-Arizón, Jesús Argente, Luis Miguel García-Segura, Julie A Chowen
Although the brain is composed of numerous cell types, neurons have received the vast majority of attention in the attempt to understand how this organ functions. Neurons are indeed fundamental but, in order for them to function correctly, they rely on the surrounding "non-neuronal" cells. These different cell types, which include glia, epithelial cells, pericytes, and endothelia, supply essential substances to neurons, in addition to protecting them from dangerous substances and situations. Moreover, it is now clear that non-neuronal cells can also actively participate in determining neuronal signaling outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349484/in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-models-to-study-t-cell-migration-through-the-human-liver-parenchyma
#19
Benjamin G Wiggins, Konstantinos Aliazis, Scott P Davies, Gideon Hirschfield, Patricia F Lalor, Gary Reynolds, Zania Stamataki
The liver is the largest internal organ and filters around 3 pints of blood per minute. This continuous flux of blood should not be confused with rapid egress of lymphocytes through the liver; this organ has intricate corridors of specialized sinusoidal spaces, ensuring that immune cells decelerate to shear flow rates, and providing ample opportunities to interact with parenchymal cells. Migration has been intricately linked to T cell function; it is therefore important to study liver T cell biology into context within the liver microenvironment...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347692/mir-21-5p-203a-3p-promote-ox-ldl-induced-endothelial-cell-senescence-through-down-regulation-of-mitochondrial-fission-protein-drp1
#20
Jie-Jie Zhang, Wei-Qi Liu, Jing-Jie Peng, Qi-Lin Ma, Jun Peng, Xiu-Ju Luo
This study aims to identify both endothelia-specific/enriched and senescence-associated miRNAs as well as their functions. The rats were fed on high-fat diet to establish a hyperlipidemic model, which showed an increase in plasma lipids and acceleration in endothelial senescence and endothelial dysfunction, accompanied by alterations in 7 endothelia-specific/enriched and senescence-associated miRNAs. Among the 7 selected miRNAs, miR-21-5p and miR-203a-3p were significantly up-regulated in a human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) senescent model induced by ox-LDL, consistent with their changes in the hyperlipidemic rats...
March 24, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
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