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Endothelia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100205/a-fast-and-effective-determination-of-the-biodistribution-and-subcellular-localization-of-fluorescent-immunoliposomes-in-freshly-excised-animal-organs
#1
Felista L Tansi, Ronny Rüger, Ansgar M Kollmeier, Claudia Böhm, Roland E Kontermann, Ulf K Teichgraeber, Alfred Fahr, Ingrid Hilger
BACKGROUND: Preclinical research implementing fluorescence-based approaches is inevitable for drug discovery and technology. For example, a variety of contrast agents developed for biomedical imaging are usually evaluated in cell systems and animal models based on their conjugation to fluorescent dyes. Biodistribution studies of excised organs are often performed by macroscopic imaging, whereas the subcellular localization though vital, is often neglected or further validated by histological procedures...
January 18, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094110/use-of-convalescent-plasma-in-ebola-virus-infection
#2
REVIEW
Olivier Garraud
The recent Ebola virus epidemics which threatened three West African countries (Dec.2014-Apr.2016) has urged global collaborative health organizations and countries to set up measures to stop the infection and to treat patients, near half of them being at risk of death. Convalescent plasma-recovered from rescued West Africans-was considered a feasible therapeutic option. Efficacy was difficult to evaluate because of numerous unknowns (especially evolution of neutralizing antibodies), prior to the cessation of active transmission...
December 30, 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091584/enhancement-of-outflow-facility-in-the-murine-eye-by-targeting-selected-tight-junctions-of-schlemm-s-canal-endothelia
#3
Lawrence C S Tam, Ester Reina-Torres, Joseph M Sherwood, Paul S Cassidy, Darragh E Crosbie, Elke Lütjen-Drecoll, Cassandra Flügel-Koch, Kristin Perkumas, Marian M Humphries, Anna-Sophia Kiang, Jeffrey O'Callaghan, John J Callanan, A Thomas Read, C Ross Ethier, Colm O'Brien, Matthew Lawrence, Matthew Campbell, W Daniel Stamer, Darryl R Overby, Pete Humphries
The juxtacanalicular connective tissue of the trabecular meshwork together with inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal (SC) provide the bulk of resistance to aqueous outflow from the anterior chamber. Endothelial cells lining SC elaborate tight junctions (TJs), down-regulation of which may widen paracellular spaces between cells, allowing greater fluid outflow. We observed significant increase in paracellular permeability following siRNA-mediated suppression of TJ transcripts, claudin-11, zonula-occludens-1 (ZO-1) and tricellulin in human SC endothelial monolayers...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053598/regulation-of-the-hypoxic-tumor-environment-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-using-rna-interference
#4
REVIEW
Sung Hoon Choi, Jun Yong Park
OBJECTIVES: Hypoxia is the condition where tumor cells have been deprived of oxygen and has been shown to have a role of tumor development in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Using PubMed online database and Google scholar web site, the terms "angiogenesis", "apoptosis", "RNA interference" and/or "hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)" were searched and analyzed. RESULTS: The hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are transcriptional regulators that affect a homeostatic response to oxidative stress and have been identified as a key transcription activator of angiogenesis, survival, and metabolism...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047565/su-g-tep3-10-radiation-induces-prompt-live-cell-metabolic-fluxes
#5
D Campos, W Peeters, K Nickel, B Burkel, J Bussink, R Kimple, A van der Kogel, K Eliceiri, M Kissick
PURPOSE: To compare metabolic dynamics and HIF-1α expression following radiation between a cancerous cell line (UM-SCC-22B) and a normal, immortalized cell line, NOK (Normal Oral Keratinocyte). HIF-1 is a key factor in metabolism and radiosensitivity. A better understanding of how radiation affects the interplay of metabolism and HIF-1 might give a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for radiosensitivity. METHODS: Changes in cellular metabolism in response to radiation are tracked by fluorescence lifetime of NADH...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017877/negative-regulation-of-hla-dr-expression-on-endothelial-cells-by-anti-blood-group-a-b-antibody-ligation-and-mtor-inhibition
#6
Kenta Iwasaki, Yuko Miwa, Kazuharu Uchida, Yasuhiro Kodera, Takaaki Kobayashi
Donor-specific antibody (DSA), particularly against HLA class II, is a major cause of chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) after transplantation, although ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation has recently demonstrated favorable graft outcomes. The condition of no injury even in the presence of anti-donor antibody has been referred to as "accommodation", which would be one of the key factors for successful long-term graft survival. The purpose of this study was to analyze the beneficial effect of anti-blood group A/B antibody ligation on endothelial cells against HLA-DR antibody-mediated, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC)...
December 23, 2016: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013216/diesel-exhaust-particles-contribute-to-endothelia-apoptosis-via-autophagy-pathway
#7
Jhih-Syuan Wang, Chia-Yi Tseng, Ming-Wei Chao
Epidemiological studies suggest that an increase of PM2.5 diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in ambient air corresponds to increased myocardial infarctions and atherosclerosis. When exposed to DEP, endothelial cells exhibit increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, but the role of autophagy in this DEP-induced cell death remains unclear. Here, we suggest that acute DEP exposure produces intracellular ROS leading to induction of DEP internalization, endothelial dysfunction, and pro-inflammation in an in vitro HUVEC model...
December 24, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008606/derivation-of-marker-gene-signatures-from-human-skin-and-their-use-in-the-interpretation-trancriptional-changes-associated-with-dermatological-disorders
#8
Barbara Bo-Ju Shih, Ajit Johnson Nirmal, Denis John Headon, Arne Nalpon Akbar, Neil Andrew Mabbott, Tom Charles Freeman
Numerous studies have explored the altered transcriptional landscape associated with skin diseases to understand the nature of these disorders. However, data interpretation represents a significant challenge due to a lack of good maker sets for many of the specialised cell types that make up this tissue, whose composition may fundamentally alter during disease. Here we have sought to derive expression signatures that define the various cell types and structures that make up human skin, and demonstrate how they can be used to aid the interpretation of transcriptomic data derived from this organ...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997569/three-dimensional-arrangement-of-human-bone-marrow-microvessels-revealed-by-immunohistology-in-undecalcified-sections
#9
Birte S Steiniger, Vitus Stachniss, Verena Wilhelmi, Anja Seiler, Katrin Lampp, Andreas Neff, Michael Guthe, Oleg Lobachev
The arrangement of microvessels in human bone marrow is so far unknown. We combined monoclonal antibodies against CD34 and against CD141 to visualise all microvessel endothelia in 21 serial sections of about 1 cm2 size derived from a human iliac crest. The specimen was not decalcified and embedded in Technovit® 9100. In different regions of interest, the microvasculature was reconstructed in three dimensions using automatic methods. The three-dimensional models were subject to a rigid semiautomatic and manual quality control...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986387/an-observational-cross-sectional-study-on-the-corneal-endothelium-of-medium-term-rigid-gas-permeable-contact-lens-wearers
#10
Michael J Doughty
PURPOSE: To assess if polymegethism and pleomorphism were evident in corneal endothelium after medium-term rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lens wear. METHODS: In a cross-sectional observational study over 12 years, single images of the central region of the corneal endothelium of one eye of 46 subjects were taken with a non-contact specular microscope, along with a measure of central corneal thickness (CCT). The images were printed onto A3-sized paper and 100 cells/image measured by planimetry...
December 13, 2016: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960577/endothelial-cell-count-in-eye-bank-corneal-grafts-impact-of-death-cause-and-donor-diseases
#11
Filip Filev, Olaf J C Hellwinkel, Mau-Thek Eddy, Stephan J Linke, Birgit Wulff
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of death causes and documented donor diseases on initial endothelial cell counts (after retrieval) and the development of corneal graft endothelia during organ culture. METHODS: The retrospective statistic analyses was conducted on a data set of 10,185 human corneas prepared at the Hamburg Eye Bank. RESULTS: Although we observed that death by gunshot trauma or alcoholism seems to be associated with marginally higher endothelium cell counts (independently from donor age), we could prove that only donor age is a relevant predictive parameter for the initial cell-density of the endothelium and its development in vitro...
December 14, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958302/structural-basis-for-human-pecam-1-mediated-trans-homophilic-cell-adhesion
#12
Menglong Hu, Hongmin Zhang, Qun Liu, Quan Hao
Cell adhesion involved in signal transduction, tissue integrity and pathogen infection is mainly mediated by cell adhesion molecules (CAM). One CAM member, platelet-endothelial-cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), plays an important role in tight junction among endothelia cells, leukocyte trafficking, and immune response through its homophilic and heterophilic binding patterns. Both kinds of interactions, which lead to endogenous and exogenous signal transmission, are derived from extracellular immunoglobulin-like (IgL) domains and cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) of PECAM-1...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951595/corneal-endothelial-cell-migration-and-proliferation-enhanced-by-rho-kinase-rock-inhibitors-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models
#13
Landon C Meekins, Noel Rosado-Adames, Rupalatha Maddala, Jiagang J Zhao, Ponugoti V Rao, Natalie A Afshari
Purpose: To explore the role of Rho-associated kinases (ROCK) in corneal physiology and regeneration, and the effects of suppressing its activity in stimulating corneal endothelial cell proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect RhoA and ROCK-1 and ROCK-2 in human corneal tissue. Adult porcine corneal endothelial cells (CECs) were isolated, grown to confluence, and further characterized. Under the treatment of ROCK inhibitors, changes in the cellular distribution profile of ZO-1 and F-actin were examined by immunofluorescence staining...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935765/gb3-binding-lectins-as-potential-carriers-for-transcellular-drug-delivery
#14
Stefan K Müller, Isabel Wilhelm, Thomas Schubert, Katharina Zittlau, Anne Imberty, Josef Madl, Thorsten Eierhoff, Roland Thuenauer, Winfried Römer
OBJECTIVES: Epithelial cell layers as well as endothelia forming the blood-brain barrier can drastically reduce the efficiency of drug targeting. Our goal was to investigate lectins recognizing the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) for their potential as carriers for transcytotic drug delivery. METHODS: We utilized an in vitro model based on Madin-Darby canine kidney cells transfected with Gb3 synthase to characterize transcytosis of the Gb3-binding lectins LecA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the B-subunit of Shiga toxin (StxB)...
December 16, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931227/epigenetics-of-amphetamine-induced-sensitization-hdac5-expression-and-microrna-in-neural-remodeling
#15
Philip K Liu, Christina H Liu
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities modify chromatin structure and play a role in learning and memory during developmental processes. Studies of adult mice suggest HDACs are involved in neural network remodeling in brain repair, but its function in drug addiction is less understood. We aimed to examine in vivo HDAC5 expression in a preclinical model of amphetamine-induced sensitization (AIS) of behavior. We generated specific contrast agents to measure HDAC5 levels by in vivo molecular contrast-enhanced (MCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in amphetamine-naïve mice as well as in mice with AIS...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882487/delivery-of-small-interfering-rna-to-inhibit-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-zebrafish-using-natural-brain-endothelia-cell-secreted-exosome-nanovesicles-for-the-treatment-of-brain-cancer
#16
Tianzhi Yang, Brittany Fogarty, Bret LaForge, Salma Aziz, Thuy Pham, Leanne Lai, Shuhua Bai
Although small interfering RNA (siRNA) holds great therapeutic promise, its delivery to the disease site remains a paramount obstacle. In this study, we tested whether brain endothelial cell-derived exosomes could deliver siRNA across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in zebrafish. Natural exosomes were isolated from brain endothelial bEND.3 cell culture media and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) siRNA was loaded in exosomes with the assistance of a transfection reagent. While fluorescence-activated cell flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry staining studies indicated that wild-type exosomes significantly increased the uptake of fluorescence-labeled siRNA in the autologous brain endothelial cells, decreased fluorescence intensity was observed in the cells treated with the tetraspanin CD63 antibody-blocked exosome-delivered formulation (p < 0...
November 23, 2016: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878608/claudins-in-barrier-and-transport-function-the-kidney
#17
REVIEW
Yongfeng Gong, Jianghui Hou
Claudins are discovered to be key players in renal epithelial physiology. They are involved in developmental, physiological, and pathophysiological differentiation. In the glomerular podocytes, claudin-1 is an important determinant of cell junction fate. In the proximal tubule, claudin-2 plays important roles in paracellular salt reabsorption. In the thick ascending limb, claudin-14, -16, and -19 regulate the paracellular reabsorption of calcium and magnesium. Recessive mutations in claudin-16 or -19 cause an inherited calcium and magnesium losing disease...
January 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852610/vascular-endothelium-in-diabetes
#18
Michael S Goligorsky
Three decades ago a revolutionary idea ascribing to dysfunctional endothelia some manifestations of diabetes was born, the Steno hypothesis. Here I briefly outline the accomplishments made in the past 15 years to buttress this hypothesis. Those include development of novel technological platforms to examine microcirculatory beds, deeper understanding of patterns of microvascular derangement in diabetes, pathophysiology of nitric oxide synthesis and availability, nitrosative and oxidative stress in diabetes, premature senescence of endothelial cells and the role of sirtuin 1 and lysosomal dysfunction in this process, state of endothelial glycocalyx and endothelial progenitor cells in diabetes...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826372/vascular-inflammation-a-novel-access-route-for-nanomedicine
#19
Roberto Molinaro, Christian Boada, Guillermo Medrano Del Rosal, Kelly A Hartman, Claudia Corbo, Elizabeth D Andrews, Naama E Toledano-Furman, John P Cooke, Ennio Tasciotti
Despite an improved understanding of its pathophysiology and a wide range of new treatments, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a serious public health issue and the number one cause of mortality in the United States. Conditions that promote chronic systemic inflammation, such as obesity, cancer, and autoimmune and infectious diseases, are now known to play an important role in promoting CVD by inducing the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and chemokines; these in turn promote leukocyte adherence and infiltration, which initiates and spurs the progression of CVD...
September 2016: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792001/angiogenic-potential-of-endothelial-and-tumor-cells-seeded-on-gelatin-based-hydrogels-in-response-to-electrical-stimulations
#20
Rumiana Tzoneva, Veselina Uzunova, Sonia Apostolova, Anne Krüger-Genge, Axel T Neffe, Friedrich Jung, Andreas Lendlein
Angiogenesis is one of the key processes during development, wound healing and tumor formation. Prerequisite for its existence is the presence of endogenous electrical fields (EFs) generated by active ion transport across polarized epithelia and endothelia, and appearance of the transcellular potentials. During angiogenesis cellular factor as endothelial growth factor (VEGF), synthesis of adhesive proteins and membrane metalloproteinases (MMPs) govern the angiogenic response to different external stimuli as biomaterials interactions and/or exogenous EF...
October 27, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
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