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Endothelia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751771/unique-and-shared-inflammatory-profiles-of-human-brain-endothelia-and-pericytes
#1
Leon C D Smyth, Justin Rustenhoven, Thomas I-H Park, Patrick Schweder, Deidre Jansson, Peter A Heppner, Simon J O'Carroll, Edward W Mee, Richard L M Faull, Maurice Curtis, Mike Dragunow
BACKGROUND: Pericytes and endothelial cells are critical cellular components of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and play an important role in neuroinflammation. To date, the majority of inflammation-related studies in endothelia and pericytes have been carried out using immortalised cell lines or non-human-derived cells. Whether these are representative of primary human cells is unclear and systematic comparisons of the inflammatory responses of primary human brain-derived pericytes and endothelia has yet to be performed...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749465/12-s-hete-induces-lymph-endothelial-cell-retraction-in-vitro-by-upregulation-of-sox18
#2
Adryan Fristiohady, Daniela Milovanovic, Sigurd Krieger, Nicole Huttary, Chi Huu Nguyen, Jose Basilio, Walter Jäger, Rainer De Martin, Georg Krupitza
Metastasising breast cancer cells communicate with adjacent lymph endothelia, intravasate and disseminate through lymphatic routes, colonise lymph nodes and finally metastasize to distant organs. Thus, understanding and blocking intravasation may attenuate the metastatic cascade at an early step. As a trigger factor, which causes the retraction of lymph endothelial cells (LECs) and opens entry ports for tumour cell intravasation, MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells secrete the pro-metastatic arachidonic acid metabolite, 12S-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid [12(S)-HETE]...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695496/oxldl-mediated-cellular-senescence-is-associated-with-increased-nadph-oxidase-p47phox-recruitment-to-caveolae
#3
Jing Wang, Yuzhi Bai, Xia Zhao, Jing Ru, Ning Kang, Tian Tian, Liying Tang, Yun An, Pei Li
Atherosclerosis develops as a consequence of inflammation and cell senescence.  In critical factors involved in the atherosclerotic changes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is considered a leading cause.  While NADPH oxidases, particularly NOX2, are the main source of ROS, how they are regulated in the disease is incompletely understood.  In addition, how caveolae, the membrane structure implicated in oxLDL deposition under vascular endothelia, is involved in the oxLDL mediated ROS production remains mostly elusive...
April 25, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689229/tensile-forces-and-mechanotransduction-at-cell-cell-junctions
#4
REVIEW
Guillaume Charras, Alpha S Yap
Cell-cell junctions are specializations of the plasma membrane responsible for physically integrating cells into tissues. We are now beginning to appreciate the diverse impacts that mechanical forces exert upon the integrity and function of these junctions. Currently, this is best understood for cadherin-based adherens junctions in epithelia and endothelia, where cell-cell adhesion couples the contractile cytoskeletons of cells together to generate tissue-scale tension. Junctional tension participates in morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673049/impact-of-ozone-on-claudins-and-tight-junctions-in-the-lungs
#5
Byeong-Gon Kim, Pureun-Haneul Lee, Sun-Hye Lee, Choon-Sik Park, An-Soo Jang
Claudins (CLDNs) are a major transmembrane protein component of tight junctions (TJs) in endothelia and epithelia. CLDNs are not only essential for sustaining the role of TJs in cell permeability but are also vital for cell signaling through protein-protein interactions. Ozone induces oxidative stress and lung inflammation in humans and experimental models, but the impact of ozone on claudins remains poorly understood. This study was to determine the expression of TJ proteins, such as claudin 3, 4, 5, and 14 following ozone exposure...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666189/single-cell-rna-seq-reveals-cell-heterogeneity-and-hierarchy-within-mouse-mammary-epithelia
#6
Heng Sun, Zhengqiang Miao, Xin Zhang, Un In Chan, Sek Man Su, Sen Guo, Chris Koon Ho Wong, Xiaoling Xu, Chu-Xia Deng
The mammary gland is very intricately and well organized into distinct tissues, including epithelia, endothelia, adipocytes, and stromal and immune cells. Many mammary gland diseases, such as breast cancer arise from abnormalities in the mammary epithelium, which is mainly composed of two distinct lineages, the basal and luminal cells. Because of the limitation of traditional transcriptome analysis of bulk mammary cells, the hierarchy and heterogeneity of mammary cells within these two lineages remain unclear...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658922/three-dimensional-rendering-and-analysis-of-immunolabeled-clarified-human-placental-villous-vascular-networks
#7
George Merz, Valerie Schwenk, Ruchit Shah, Carolyn Salafia, Phillip Necaise, Michael Joyce, Tom Villani, Michael Johnson, Nick Crider
Nutrient and gas exchange between mother and fetus occurs at the interface of the maternal intervillous blood and the vast villous capillary network that makes up much of the parenchyma of the human placenta. The distal villous capillary network is the terminus of the fetal blood supply after several generations of branching of vessels extending out from the umbilical cord. This network has a contiguous cellular sheath, the syncytial trophoblast barrier layer, which prevents mixing of fetal blood and the maternal blood in which it is continuously bathed...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658149/coagulation-parameters-following-ehv-1-infection-in-horses
#8
M E Wilson, C L Holz, A K Kopec, J J Dau, J P Luyendyk, G Soboll Hussey
BACKGROUND: Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is the cause of respiratory disease, abortion storms, and outbreaks of herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM). Infection of the spinal cord is characterised by multifocal regions of virally infected vascular endothelia, associated with vasculitis, thrombosis and haemorrhage that result in ischaemia and organ dysfunction. However, the mechanism of thrombosis in affected horses is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity and thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT) levels in horses following infection with EHV-1...
April 15, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657098/inflammatory-responses-and-barrier-function-of-endothelial-cells-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#9
Oleh V Halaidych, Christian Freund, Francijna van den Hil, Daniela C F Salvatori, Mara Riminucci, Christine L Mummery, Valeria V Orlova
Several studies have reported endothelial cell (EC) derivation from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). However, few have explored their functional properties in depth with respect to line-to-line and batch-to-batch variability and how they relate to primary ECs. We therefore carried out accurate characterization of hiPSC-derived ECs (hiPSC-ECs) from multiple (non-integrating) hiPSC lines and compared them with primary ECs in various functional assays, which included barrier function using real-time impedance spectroscopy with an integrated assay of electric wound healing, endothelia-leukocyte interaction under physiological flow to mimic inflammation and angiogenic responses in in vitro and in vivo assays...
April 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656016/riding-the-cell-jamming-boundary-geometry-topology-and-phase-of-human-corneal-endothelium
#10
Nigel H Brookes
It is important to assess the viability of eye-banked corneas prior to transplantation due to inherent senescence and known loss of endothelial cells during surgical manipulation. Corneal endothelial cells have a complex basal and paracellular shape making them challenging to accurately measure, particularly in oedematous ex vivo tissue. This study used calibrated centroidal Voronoi Diagrams to segment cells in images of these human corneas, in order to characterize endothelial geometry, topology, and phase...
April 12, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603739/vascular-targeting-of-light-normalizes-blood-vessels-in-primary-brain-cancer-and-induces-intratumoral-high-endothelial-venules
#11
Bo He, Arnaud Jabouille, Veronica Steri, Anna Johansson-Percival, Iacovos P Michael, Venkata Ramana Kotamraju, Reimar Junckerstorff, Anna K Nowak, Juliana Hamzah, Gabriel Lee, Gabriele Bergers, Ruth Ganss
High grade brain cancer such as glioblastoma (GBM) remains an incurable disease. A common feature of GBM is the angiogenic vasculature which can be targeted with selected peptides for payload delivery. We assessed the ability of micelle-tagged, vascular homing peptides RGR, CGKRK or NGR to specifically bind to blood vessels in syngeneic orthotopic GBM models. By using the peptide CGKRK to deliver the TNF superfamily member LIGHT (also known as tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 14; TNFSF14) to angiogenic tumour vessels we have generated a reagent which normalizes the brain cancer vasculature by inducing pericyte contractility and re-establishing endothelial barrier integrity...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581753/knockdown-of-dickkopf2-inhibits-vascular-endothelia-growth-factor-expression-through-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-under-hypoxic-conditions
#12
Yu Zhao, Bin Wu, Ye Liu, Jun Xu, Qichang Yan, Jinsong Zhang
Hypoxia has been demonstrated to be a proangiogenic factor that induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Dickkopf2 (DKK2), originally known as Wnt antagonist, has recently been demonstrated to have an important regulatory role in angiogenesis; however, the specific role of DKK2 in RPE cells is not known. In the present study, the effects of DKK2 on VEGF expression under hypoxic conditions were investigated, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved. The results demonstrated that the expression of DKK2 was markedly increased under hypoxic conditions compared with normoxic conditions...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568527/leukadherin-1-ameliorates-endothelial-barrier-damage-mediated-by-neutrophils-from-critically-ill-patients
#13
Catherine M Dickinson, Brian W LeBlanc, Muhammad M Edhi, Daithi S Heffernan, Mohd Hafeez Faridi, Vineet Gupta, William G Cioffi, Xian O'Brien, Jonathan S Reichner
Background: Multi-organ failure occurs during critical illness and is mediated in part by destructive neutrophil-to-endothelial interactions. The β2 integrin receptor, CR3 (complement receptor 3; Mac-1; CD11b/CD18), which binds endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), plays a key role in promoting the adhesion of activated neutrophils to inflamed endothelia which, when prolonged and excessive, can cause vascular damage. Leukadherin-1 (LA-1) is a small molecule allosteric activator of CR3 and has been shown to promote adhesion of blood neutrophils to inflamed endothelium and restrict tissue infiltration...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536540/the-microenvironment-of-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy-supports-lymphatic-neovascularization
#14
Erika Gucciardo, Sirpa Loukovaara, Ani Korhonen, Pauliina Repo, Beatriz Martins, Helena Vihinen, Eija Jokitalo, Kaisa Lehti
Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is a major diabetic microvascular complication characterized by pathological angiogenesis. Several retinopathy animal models have been developed to study the disease mechanisms and putative targets. However, knowledge on the human proliferative disease remains incomplete, relying on steady-state results from thin histological neovascular tissue sections and vitreous samples. New translational models are thus required to comprehensively understand the disease pathophysiology and develop improved therapeutic interventions...
June 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527734/fosb-immunoreactivity-in-endothelia-of-epithelioid-hemangioma-angiolymphoid-hyperplasia-with-eosinophilia
#15
Ana Ortins-Pina, Mar Llamas-Velasco, Sara Turpin, Luís Soares-de-Almeida, Paulo Filipe, Heinz Kutzner
BACKGROUND: Accurate distinction of epithelioid hemangioma (EH) from its malignant mimics is paramount but remains challenging due to its wide morphological spectrum and lack of objective molecular markers. FOSB oncogenic activation was recently identified as a key event in endothelial proliferation. We sought to investigate the FOSB staining pattern in EH with angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (EH-AHLE) morphology and to evaluate its value in differential diagnosis of epithelioid vascular tumors...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522671/discovery-of-potent-irreversible-pan-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-fgfr-inhibitors
#16
Yuming Wang, Lijun Li, Jun Fan, Yang Dai, Alan Jiang, Meiyu Geng, Jing Ai, Wenhu Duan
Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR1-4) are promising therapeutic targets in many cancers. With the resurgence of interest in irreversible inhibitors, efforts have been directed to the discovery of irreversible FGFR inhibitors. Currently, several selective irreversible inhibitors are being evaluated in clinical trials that could covalently target a conserved cysteine in the P-loop of FGFR. In this article, we used a structure-guided approach that is rationalized by a computer-aided simulation to discover the novel and irreversible pan-FGFR inhibitor, 9g, which provided superior FGFR in vitro activities and decent selectivity over VEGFR2 (vascular endothelia growth factor receptor 2)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500668/assessing-the-role-of-hypothalamic-microglia-and-blood-vessel-disruption-in-the-development-of-angiotensin-ii-dependent-hypertension-in-cyp1a1-ren2-rats
#17
Aaron K Korpal, Colin H Brown, Daryl O Schwenke
Elevated plasma levels of the hormone vasopressin have been implicated in the pathogenesis of some forms of hypertension. Hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei neurons regulate vasopressin secretion into the circulation. Vasopressin neuron activity is elevated by day 7 in the development of angiotensin II-dependent hypertension in Cyp1a1-Ren2 rats. While microglial activation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown contribute to the maintenance of well-established hypertension, it is not known whether these mechanisms contribute to the early onset of hypertension...
June 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500407/mt4-mmp-deficiency-increases-patrolling-monocyte-recruitment-to-early-lesions-and-accelerates-atherosclerosis
#18
Cristina Clemente, Cristina Rius, Laura Alonso-Herranz, Mara Martín-Alonso, Ángela Pollán, Emilio Camafeita, Fernando Martínez, Rubén A Mota, Vanessa Núñez, Cristina Rodríguez, Motoharu Seiki, José Martínez-González, Vicente Andrés, Mercedes Ricote, Alicia G Arroyo
Matrix metalloproteinases are involved in vascular remodeling. Little is known about their immune regulatory role in atherosclerosis. Here we show that mice deficient for MT4-MMP have increased adherence of macrophages to inflamed peritonea, and larger lipid deposits and macrophage burden in atherosclerotic plaques. We also demonstrate that MT4-MMP deficiency results in higher numbers of patrolling monocytes crawling and adhered to inflamed endothelia, and the accumulation of Mafb+ apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM)+ macrophages at incipient atherosclerotic lesions in mice...
March 2, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497802/tracer-uptake-in-mediastinal-and-paraaortal-thoracic-lymph-nodes-as-a-potential-pitfall-in-image-interpretation-of-psma-ligand-pet-ct
#19
Ali Afshar-Oromieh, Lars Peter Sattler, Katja Steiger, Tim Holland-Letz, Marcelo Livorsi da Cunha, Walter Mier, Oliver Neels, Klaus Kopka, Wilko Weichert, Uwe Haberkorn
PURPOSE: Since the introduction of 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT for imaging prostate cancer (PC) we have frequently observed mediastinal lymph nodes (LN) showing tracer uptake despite being classified as benign. The aim of this evaluation was to further analyze such LN. METHODS: Two patient groups with biphasic 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT at 1 h and 3 h p.i. were included in this retrospective evaluation. Group A (n = 38) included patients without LN metastases, and group B (n = 43) patients with LN metastases of PC...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455299/prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-in-breast-cancer-a-comprehensive-evaluation-of-expression-and-a-case-report-of-radionuclide-therapy
#20
Yuri Tolkach, Heidrun Gevensleben, Ralph Bundschuh, Aydan Koyun, Daniela Huber, Christina Kehrer, Thomas Hecking, Mignon-Denise Keyver-Paik, Christina Kaiser, Hojjat Ahmadzadehfar, Markus Essler, Walther Kuhn, Glen Kristiansen
PURPOSE: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a protein product of the folate hydrolase 1 (FOLH1) gene, is gaining increasing acceptance as a target for positron emission tomography/computer tomography (PET/CT) imaging in patients with several cancer types, including breast cancer. So far, PSMA expression in breast cancer endothelia has not been sufficiently characterized. METHODS: This study comprised 315 cases of invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) and lobular breast cancer (median follow-up time 9...
February 17, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
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