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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645863/toxicology-of-octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane-d4
#1
Allison Franzen, Tracy Greene, Cynthia Van Landingham, Robinan Gentry
Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) is a volatile cyclic siloxane used primarily as a monomer or intermediate in the production of some silicon-based polymers widely used in industrial and consumer applications and may be present as a residual impurity in a variety of consumer products. A robust toxicological data set exists for D4. Treatment-related results from a chronic inhalation study conducted in rats are limited to mild effects on the respiratory tract, increases in liver weight, increases in the incidence of uterine endometrial epithelial hyperplasia, and a dose-related trend in the incidence of endometrial adenomas...
June 20, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641506/regulatory-forum-opinion-piece-imaging-applications-in-toxicologic-pathology-recommendations-for-use-in-regulated-nonclinical-toxicity-studies
#2
Robert R Maronpot, Abraham Nyska, Sean P Troth, Kathleen Gabrielson, Polina Sysa-Shah, Vyacheslav Kalchenko, Yuri Kuznetsov, Alon Harmelin, Yael S Schiffenbauer, David Bonnel, Jonathan Stauber, Yuval Ramot
Available imaging systems for use in preclinical toxicology studies increasingly show utility as important tools in the toxicologic pathologist's armamentarium, permit longitudinal evaluation of functional and morphological changes in tissues, and provide important information such as organ and lesion volume not obtained by conventional toxicology study parameters. Representative examples of practical imaging applications in toxicology research and preclinical studies are presented for ultrasound, positron emission tomography/single-photon emission computed tomography, optical, magnetic resonance imaging, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-imaging mass spectrometry imaging...
June 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627759/vibrational-biospectroscopy-characterises-biochemical-differences-between-cell-types-used-for-toxicological-investigations-and-identifies-alterations-induced-by-environmental-contaminants
#3
Kelly A Heys, Richard F Shore, M Glória Pereira, Francis L Martin
The use of cell-based assays is essential in reducing the number of vertebrates used in the investigation of chemical toxicities and in regulatory toxicology assessment. An important factor in obtaining meaningful results which can be accurately extrapolated is the use of biologically appropriate cell lines. In this preliminary study, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with multivariate analysis was used to assess the fundamental biomolecular differences between a commonly used cell line, MCF-7 cells, and an environmentally relevant cell line derived from Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) dermal fibroblasts...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627468/a-novel-chalcone-derivative-lqfm064-induces-breast-cancer-cells-death-via-p53-p21-kit-and-pdgfra
#4
Bruna Lannuce Silva Cabral, Artur Christian Garcia da Silva, Renato Ivan de Ávila, Alane Pereira Cortez, Rangel Magalhães Luzin, Luciano Morais Lião, Eric de Souza Gil, Gérman Sanz, Boniek G Vaz, José R Sabino, Ricardo Menegatti, Marize Campos Valadares
This study shows the design, synthesis and antitumoral potential evaluation of a novel chalcone-like compound, (E)-3- (3, 5-di-ter-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1- (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) prop-2-en-1-one [LQFM064) (4)], against human breast adenocarcinoma MCF7 cells. Some toxicological parameters were also investigated. LQFM064) (4) exhibited cytotoxic activity against MCF7 cells (IC50=21μM), in a concentration dependent-manner, and triggered significant changes in cell morphology and biochemical/molecular parameters, which are suggestive of an apoptosis inductor...
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625566/advances-in-bioremediation-of-1-4-dioxane-contaminated-waters
#5
Shu Zhang, Phillip B Gedalanga, Shaily Mahendra
1,4-Dioxane is a contaminant of emerging concern that has been found widespread in groundwater, surface water, and drinking water environments. Many states are implementing lower regulatory advisory levels based on the toxicological profile of 1,4-dioxane and the potential public health risks. However, the unique chemical properties of 1,4-dioxane, such as high water solubility, low Henry's law constant, and importantly, the co-occurrence with chlorinated solvents and other contaminants, increase the challenges to efficiently cleanup 1,4-dioxane...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625099/toxicology-in-clinical-laboratories-challenging-times
#6
N W Brown
In recent years, there have been a number of significant developments in toxicology within clinical laboratories, both with the available instrumentation and in the range of compounds abused by the drug using communities. There have also been developments in the regulation of forensic science in the UK which may in time impact clinical toxicology. This review is designed to provide an update of these changes within toxicology to the more general pathology laboratory audience. For detailed information in specific areas, the reader is referred to the references in the text...
June 19, 2017: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618056/improving-substance-information-in-usetox%C3%A2-part-1-discussion-on-data-and-approaches-for-estimating-freshwater-ecotoxicity-effect-factors
#7
Erwan Saouter, Karin Aschberger, Peter Fantke, Michael Z Hauschild, Stephanie K Bopp, Aude Kienzler, Alicia Paini, Rana Pant, Michela Secchi, Serenella Sala
The scientific consensus model USEtox® is recommended by the European Commission as the reference model to characterize life cycle chemical emissions in terms of their potential human toxicity and freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity impacts in the context of the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook and the Environmental Footprint pilot phase looking at products (PEF) and organisations (OEF). Consequently, this model has been systematically used within the PEF/OEF pilot phase by 25 EU industry sectors, which manufacture a wide variety of consumer products...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599657/comparison-of-methods-for-calculating-the-health-costs-of-endocrine-disrupters-a-case-study-on-triclosan
#8
Radka Prichystalova, Jean-Baptiste Fini, Leonardo Trasande, Martine Bellanger, Barbara Demeneix, Laura Maxim
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic analysis is currently used in the Europe Union as part of the regulatory process in Regulation Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH), with the aim of assessing and managing risks from dangerous chemicals. The political impact of the socio-economic analysis is potentially high in the authorisation and restriction procedures, however, current socio-economic analysis dossiers submitted under REACH are very heterogeneous in terms of methodology used and quality...
June 9, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596090/liposomes-containing-monophosphoryl-lipid-a-and-qs-21-serve-as-an-effective-adjuvant-for-soluble-circumsporozoite-protein-malaria-vaccine-fmp013
#9
Christopher J Genito, Zoltan Beck, Timothy W Phares, Fanta Kalle, Keith J Limbach, Maureen E Stefaniak, Noelle B Patterson, Elke S Bergmann-Leitner, Norman C Waters, Gary R Matyas, Carl R Alving, Sheetij Dutta
Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum continues to threaten millions of people living in the tropical parts of the world. A vaccine that confers sterile and life-long protection remains elusive despite more than 30years of effort and resources invested in solving this problem. Antibodies to a malaria vaccine candidate circumsporozoite protein (CSP) can block invasion and can protect humans against malaria. We have manufactured the Falciparum Malaria Protein-013 (FMP013) vaccine based on the nearly full-length P...
June 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583045/recommendations-for-clinical-pathology-data-generation-interpretation-and-reporting-in-target-animal-safety-studies-for-veterinary-drug-development
#10
William Siska, Aradhana Gupta, Lindsay Tomlinson, Niraj Tripathi, Barbara von Beust
Clinical pathology testing is routinely performed in target animal safety studies in order to identify potential toxicity associated with administration of an investigational veterinary pharmaceutical product. Regulatory and other testing guidelines that address such studies provide recommendations for clinical pathology testing but occasionally contain outdated analytes and do not take into account interspecies physiologic differences that affect the practical selection of appropriate clinical pathology tests...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578244/performance-of-raphidocelis-subcapitata-exposed-to-heavy-metal-mixtures
#11
Nora Expósito, Vikas Kumar, Jordi Sierra, Marta Schuhmacher, Gemma Giménez Papiol
Microalgae growth inhibition assays are candidates for referent ecotoxicological assays, and are a fundamental part in the strategy to reduce the use of fish and other animal models in aquatic toxicology. In the present work, the performance of Raphidocelis subcapitata exposed to heavy metals following standardized growth inhibition assays has been assessed in three different scenarios: 1) dilutions of single heavy metals, 2) artificial mixture of heavy metals at similar levels than those found in natural rivers and, 3) natural samples containing known mixtures of contaminants (heavy metals)...
June 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573516/-persistent-organic-contaminants-in-food-exposure-hazard-potential-and-health-assessment
#12
REVIEW
Ulrike Pabel, Thorsten Buhrke, Klaus Abraham, Thilo Nölke, Matthias Gehling, Alfonso Lampen, Monika Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Reiner Wittkowski
Environmental emissions of organic contaminants are caused by man-made and natural combustion processes, industrial production facilities, and the release from products. Food represents the main source of human exposure for some of these compounds. This is the case for three groups of persistent organic contaminants: (1) per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), (2) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and for (3) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...
June 1, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554660/nanotechnology-in-agriculture-opportunities-toxicological-implications-and-occupational-risks
#13
Ivo Iavicoli, Veruscka Leso, Donald H Beezhold, Anna A Shvedova
Nanotechnology has the potential to make a beneficial impact on several agricultural, forestry, and environmental challenges, such as urbanization, energy constraints, and sustainable use of resources. However, new environmental and human health hazards may emerge from nano-enhanced applications. This raises concerns for agricultural workers who may become primarily exposed to such xenobiotics during their job tasks. The aim of this review is to discuss promising solutions that nanotechnology may provide in agricultural activities, with a specific focus on critical aspects, challenging issues, and research needs for occupational risk assessment and management in this emerging field...
May 26, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549333/endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-and-camp-pka-pathway-mediated-zn-induced-hepatic-lipolysis
#14
Yu-Feng Song, Christer Hogstrand, Chuan-Chuan Wei, Kun Wu, Ya-Xiong Pan, Zhi Luo
The present study was performed to determine the effect of Zn exposure influencing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, explore the underlying molecular mechanism of Zn-induced hepatic lipolysis in a fish species of significance for aquaculture, yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. We found that waterborne Zn exposure evoked ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), and activated cAMP/PKA pathway, and up-regulated hepatic lipolysis. The increase in ER stress and lipolysis were associated with activation of cAMP/PKA signaling pathway...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543740/global-regulatory-requirements-for-mutagenicity-assessment-in-the-registration-of-industrial-chemicals
#15
REVIEW
Zhiying Ji, Nicholas S Ball, Matthew J LeBaron
Mutagenicity is an important toxicological endpoint that requires thorough evaluation during the industrial chemical registration process. Regulatory requirements for mutagenicity assessment in registration of industrial chemicals vary in geographic regions (and in some cases by intended application). Here we compile the mutagenicity testing requirements for registration of industrial chemicals from representative geographic regions (in alphabetical order), that is Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, European Union (EU), India, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and United States (US)...
May 25, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540523/the-interactions-of-metal-cations-and-oxyanions-with-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b
#16
Kshetrimayum Birla Singh, Wolfgang Maret
Protein tyrosine phosphatases are not considered to be metalloenzymes. Yet, they are inhibited by zinc cations and metal and non-metal oxyanions that are chemical analogues of phosphate, e.g. vanadate. Metal inhibition is generally not recognized as these enzymes are purified, supplied, and assayed with buffers containing chelating and reducing agents. We screened a series of cations and anions for their capacity to inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B and discuss the ensuing general issues with inhibition constants reported in the scientific literature...
May 24, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536863/chemical-exposure-and-infant-leukaemia-development-of-an-adverse-outcome-pathway-aop-for-aetiology-and-risk-assessment-research
#17
REVIEW
Olavi Pelkonen, Andrea Terron, Antonio F Hernandez, Pablo Menendez, Susanne Hougaard Bennekou
Infant leukaemia (<1 year old) is a rare disease of an in utero origin at an early phase of foetal development. Rearrangements of the mixed-lineage leukaemia (MLL) gene producing abnormal fusion proteins are the most frequent genetic/molecular findings in infant B cell-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. In small epidemiological studies, mother/foetus exposures to some chemicals including pesticides have been associated with infant leukaemia; however, the strength of evidence and power of these studies are weak at best...
May 23, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535130/home-manufacture-of-drugs-an-online-investigation-and-a-toxicological-reality-check-of-online-discussions-on-drug-chemistry
#18
Evelyn Hearne, Emanuele Amorim Alves, Marie Claire Van Hout, Jean-Paul C Grund
Emerging trends in market dynamics and the use of new psychoactive substances are both a public health concern and a complex regulatory issue. One novel area of investigation is the availability of homemade opioids, amphetamines and dissociatives, and the potential fueling of interest in clandestine home manufacture of drugs via the Internet. We illustrate here how online communal folk pharmacology of homemade drugs on drug website forums may actually inform home manufacture practices or contribute to the reduction of harms associated with this practice...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533120/evaluation-of-new-chemical-entities-as-substrates-of-liver-transporters-in-the-pharmaceutical-industry-response-to-regulatory-requirements-and-future-steps
#19
Noriko Okudaira
This article discusses the evaluation of drug candidates as hepatic transporter substrates. Recently, research on the applications of hepatic transporters in the pharmaceutical industry has improved to meet the requirements of the regulatory guidelines for the evaluation of drug interactions. To identify the risk of transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) at an early stage of drug development, we employed a strategy of reviewing the in vivo animal pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution data obtained in the discovery stage together with the in vitro data obtained for regulatory submission...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525648/the-role-of-omics-in-the-application-of-adverse-outcome-pathways-for-chemical-risk-assessment
#20
Erica K Brockmeier, Geoff Hodges, Thomas H Hutchinson, Emma Butler, Markus Hecker, Knut Erik Tollefsen, Natalia Garcia-Reyero, Peter Kille, Dörthe Becker, Kevin Chipman, John Colbourne, Timothy W Collette, Andrew Cossins, Mark Cronin, Peter Graystock, Steve Gutsell, Dries Knapen, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Anke Lange, Stuart Marshall, Stewart F Owen, Edward J Perkins, Stewart Plaistow, Anthony Schroeder, Daisy Taylor, Mark Viant, Gerald Ankley, Francesco Falciani
In conjunction with the second International Environmental Omics Symposium (iEOS) conference, held at the University of Liverpool (UK) in September 2014, a workshop was held to bring together experts in toxicology and regulatory science from academia, government and industry. The purpose of the workshop was to review the specific roles that high-content omics datasets (e.g., transcriptomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, and proteomics) can hold within the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework for supporting ecological and human health risk assessments...
May 19, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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