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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525648/the-role-of-omics-in-the-application-of-adverse-outcome-pathways-for-chemical-risk-assessment
#1
Erica K Brockmeier, Geoff Hodges, Thomas H Hutchinson, Emma Butler, Markus Hecker, Knut Erik Tollefsen, Natalia Garcia-Reyero, Peter Kille, Dörthe Becker, Kevin Chipman, John Colbourne, Timothy W Collette, Andrew Cossins, Mark Cronin, Peter Graystock, Steve Gutsell, Dries Knapen, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Anke Lange, Stuart Marshall, Stewart F Owen, Edward J Perkins, Stewart Plaistow, Anthony Schroeder, Daisy Taylor, Mark Viant, Gerald Ankley, Francesco Falciani
In conjunction with the second International Environmental Omics Symposium (iEOS) conference, held at the University of Liverpool (UK) in September 2014, a workshop was held to bring together experts in toxicology and regulatory science from academia, government and industry. The purpose of the workshop was to review the specific roles that high-content omics datasets (e.g., transcriptomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, and proteomics) can hold within the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework for supporting ecological and human health risk assessments...
May 19, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524743/nanoparticle-exposures-from-nano-enabled-toner-based-printing-equipment-and-human-health-state-of-science-and-future-research-needs
#2
Sandra Vanessa Pirela, John Martin, Dhimiter Bello, Philip Demokritou
Toner formulations used by laser printers (LP) and photocopiers (PC), collectively called "toner-based printing equipment" (TPE), are nano-enabled products (NEP) because they contain several engineered nanomaterials (ENM) that improve toner performance. It has been shown that during consumer use (printing), these ENM are released in the air, together with other semi-volatile organic nanoparticles, and newly formed gaseous co-pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOC). The aim of this review is to detail and analyze physico-chemical and morphological (PCM), as well as the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM) emissions from TPE...
May 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524734/capillary-microsampling-in-nonclinical-safety-assessment-practical-sampling-and-bioanalysis-from-a-cro-perspective
#3
David Coleman, Graeme Smith, Rachel Lawrence, Deborah McManus, Sunetha Diaram, Joanna Edwards
Microsampling has the 3R benefits of refining blood collection techniques while reducing the number of animals required for rodent safety assessment studies. There are significant scientific benefits of correlating study findings with systemic exposure and consequently, there is an industry drive to utilize microsampling in regulatory toxicology studies. This article will focus on capillary microsampling and will discuss the initial considerations before using capillary microsampling, study design and some practicalities of sample collection...
May 19, 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515485/e-cigarettes-induce-toxicological-effects-that-can-raise-the-cancer-risk
#4
Donatella Canistro, Fabio Vivarelli, Silvia Cirillo, Clara Babot Marquillas, Annamaria Buschini, Mirca Lazzaretti, Laura Marchi, Vladimiro Cardenia, Maria Teresa Rodriguez-Estrada, Maura Lodovici, Caterina Cipriani, Antonello Lorenzini, Eleonora Croco, Silvia Marchionni, Paola Franchi, Marco Lucarini, Vincenzo Longo, Clara Maria Della Croce, Andrea Vornoli, Annamaria Colacci, Monica Vaccari, Andrea Sapone, Moreno Paolini
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are devices designed to deliver nicotine in a vaping solution rather than smoke and without tobacco combustion. Perceived as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, e-cigs are aggressively marketed as lifestyle-choice consumables, thanks to few restrictions and a lack of regulatory guidelines. E-cigs have also gained popularity among never-smokers and teenagers, becoming an emergent public health issue. Despite the burgeoning worldwide consumption of e-cigs, their safety remains largely unproven and it is unknown whether these devices cause in vivo toxicological effects that could contribute to cancer...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509652/risk-assessment-of-zinc-oxide-a-cosmetic-ingredient-used-as-a-uv-filter-of-sunscreens
#5
Kyu-Bong Kim, Young Woo Kim, Seong Kwang Lim, Tae Hyun Roh, Du Yeon Bang, Seul Min Choi, Duck Soo Lim, Yeon Joo Kim, Seol-Hwa Baek, Min-Kook Kim, Hyo-Seon Seo, Min-Hwa Kim, Hyung Sik Kim, Joo Young Lee, Sam Kacew, Byung-Mu Lee
Zinc oxide (ZnO), an inorganic compound that appears as a white powder, is used frequently as an ingredient in sunscreens. The aim of this review was to examine the toxicology and risk assessment of ZnO based upon available published data. Recent studies on acute, sub-acute, and chronic toxicities of ZnO indicated that this compound is virtually non-toxic in animal models. However, it was reported that ZnO nanoparticles (NP) (particle size, 40 nm) induced significant changes in anemia-related hematologic parameters and mild to moderate pancreatitis in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at 536...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503093/alarms-about-structural-alerts
#6
Vinicius Alves, Eugene Muratov, Stephen Capuzzi, Regina Politi, Yen Low, Rodolpho Braga, Alexey V Zakharov, Alexander Sedykh, Elena Mokshyna, Sherif Farag, Carolina Andrade, Victor Kuz'min, Denis Fourches, Alexander Tropsha
Structural alerts are widely accepted in chemical toxicology and regulatory decision support as a simple and transparent means to flag potential chemical hazards or group compounds into categories for read-across. However, there has been a growing concern that alerts disproportionally flag too many chemicals as toxic, which questions their reliability as toxicity markers. Conversely, the rigorously developed and properly validated statistical QSAR models can accurately and reliably predict the toxicity of a chemical; however, their use in regulatory toxicology has been hampered by the lack of transparency and interpretability...
August 21, 2016: Green Chemistry: An International Journal and Green Chemistry Resource: GC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498360/meristem-plant-cells-as-a-sustainable-source-of-redox-actives-for-skin-rejuvenation
#7
REVIEW
Liudmila G Korkina, Wolfgang Mayer, Chiara de Luca
Recently, aggressive advertisement claimed a "magic role" for plant stem cells in human skin rejuvenation. This review aims to shed light on the scientific background suggesting feasibility of using plant cells as a basis of anti-age cosmetics. When meristem cell cultures obtained from medicinal plants are exposed to appropriate elicitors/stressors (ultraviolet, ultrasound ultraviolet (UV), ultrasonic waves, microbial/insect metabolites, heavy metals, organic toxins, nutrient deprivation, etc.), a protective/adaptive response initiates the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites...
May 12, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486906/safety-and-toxicological-considerations-of-nanomedicines-the-future-directions
#8
Parmi Patel, Jigna Shah
Nanomedicine, an emerging nanotechnology, imparts special biological features due to their quantum size and is a promising candidate for targeted drug delivery. At present, in spite of its novel applications in medical sciences, certain existing gaps still needs to be addressed such as fate of nanoparticles and its toxicity assessment on human health. Behaviour of the entities post human body exposure and its deposition up to certain extent are some of the crucial factors to be considered for a successful treatment approach...
May 9, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485474/graphene-and-carbon-nanotubes-activate-different-cell-surface-receptors-on-macrophages-before-and-after-deactivation-of-endotoxins
#9
Mohamed H Lahiani, Kuppan Gokulan, Katherine Williams, Mariya V Khodakovskaya, Sangeeta Khare
Nanomaterial synthesis and handling in a non-sterile environment can result in the final product becoming contaminated with bacterial endotoxin or lipopolysaccharides (LPB). During toxicological testing, the effects caused by endotoxin-contaminated nanomaterials can be misinterpreted in the end-point analysis (such as cytotoxicity and immune responses) and could result in erroneous conclusions. The objective of this study was twofold: (i) to test different carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) [pristine graphene and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)] for the presence of endotoxin and develop strategies for depyrogenation, and (ii) to compare the immune response exhibited by macrophages after exposure to native CBNs versus depyrogenated CBNs...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482247/a-possible-biomarker-for-methadone-related-deaths
#10
Antonina Argo, Gianfranco Francesco Spatola, Stefania Zerbo, Cettina Sortino, Antonietta Lanzarone, Maria Laura Uzzo, Alessandro Pitruzzella, Fiorenza Farè, Gabriella Roda, Veniero Gambaro, Paolo Procaccianti, Steven B Karch
Methadone (MTH) concentrations in those dying of MTH toxicity totally overlap concentrations where the presence of MTH is only an incidental finding, making it very difficult to make distinctions in actual cases. A biomarker, be it anatomical or biochemical for MTH toxicity is badly needed, particularly if that markers were known to disrupt effective ventilation. Because the brainstem houses the regulatory centers for cardiorespiratory-control enters, it would seem to be the most likely anatomical site to seek abnormalities in cardiorespiratory control...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480558/strategic-deployment-of-cho-expression-platforms-to-deliver-pfizer-s-monoclonal-antibody-portfolio
#11
John J Scarcelli, Tanya Q Shang, Tim Iskra, Martin J Allen, Lin Zhang
Development of stable cell lines for expression of large molecule therapeutics represents a significant portion of the time and effort required to advance a molecule to enabling regulatory toxicology studies and clinical evaluation. Our development strategy employs two different approaches for cell line development based on the needs of a particular project - a random integration approach for projects where high level expression is critical, and a site-specific integration approach for projects in which speed and reduced employee time spend is a necessity...
May 8, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473196/in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-potential-toxic-effects-of-palladium-nanoparticles-on-fibroblasts-and-lung-epithelial-cells
#12
I Iavicoli, M Farina, L Fontana, D Lucchetti, V Leso, C Fanali, V Cufino, A Boninsegna, K Leopold, R Schindl, D Brucker, A Sgambato
Palladium nanoparticles have been increasingly used in catalytic processes, wastewater treatment, electronics, and biomedicine. However, recent evidence proved that these nanoparticles are able to induce adverse effects both in in vitro and in vivo models. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms underlying the toxic effects are still poorly understood. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the potential toxicological mechanisms of palladium nanoparticles assessing their effects on normal diploid rat fibroblast and lung carcinoma human epithelial cell lines...
May 1, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470514/assaying-cellular-viability-using-the-neutral-red-uptake-assay
#13
Gamze Ates, Tamara Vanhaecke, Vera Rogiers, Robim M Rodrigues
The neutral red uptake assay is a cell viability assay that allows in vitro quantification of xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity. The assay relies on the ability of living cells to incorporate and bind neutral red, a weak cationic dye, in lysosomes. As such, cytotoxicity is expressed as a concentration-dependent reduction of the uptake of neutral red after exposure to the xenobiotic under investigation. The neutral red uptake assay is mainly used for hazard assessment in in vitro toxicology applications. This method has also been introduced in regulatory recommendations as part of 3T3-NRU-phototoxicity-assay, which was regulatory accepted in all EU member states in 2000 and in the OECD member states in 2004 as a test guideline (TG 432)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463415/using-chromatin-immunoprecipitation-in-toxicology-a-step-by-step-guide-to-increasing-efficiency-reducing-variability-and-expanding-applications
#14
Shaun D McCullough, Doan M On, Emma C Bowers
Histone modifications work in concert with DNA methylation to regulate cellular structure, function, and response to environmental stimuli. More than 130 unique histone modifications have been described to date, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) allows for the exploration of their associations with the regulatory regions of target genes and other DNA/chromatin-associated proteins across the genome. Many variations of ChIP have been developed in the 30 years since its earliest version came into use, which makes it challenging for users to integrate the procedure into their research programs...
May 2, 2017: Current Protocols in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461240/safety-pharmacology-methods-and-models-in-an-evolving-regulatory-environment
#15
EDITORIAL
Michael K Pugsley, Tessa de Korte, Simon Authier, Hai Huang, Michael V Accardi, Michael J Curtis
This editorial prefaces the annual themed issue on safety pharmacology (SP) methods published in the Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods (JPTM). We highlight here the content derived from the recent 2016 Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS), Canadian Society of Pharmacology and Therapeutics (CSPT), and Japanese Safety Pharmacology Society (JSPS) joint meeting held in Vancouver, B.C., Canada. This issue of JPTM continues the tradition of providing a publication summary of articles primarily presented at the joint meeting with direct bearing on the discipline of SP...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459300/the-reciprocal-calculation-procedure-for-setting-occupational-exposure-limits-for-hydrocarbon-solvents-an-update
#16
Richard H McKee, M David Adenuga, Juan-Carlos Carrillo
Hydrocarbon solvents are liquid hydrocarbon fractions, often with complex compositions. Due to the potential for human exposure, primarily to the more volatile solvents, substantial effort has been directed towards the development of occupational exposure recommendations. Because of the complex and variable nature of these substances, a proposed approach is to calculate occupational exposure levels (OELs) using an adaptation of the mixture formula developed by the ACGIH® in which "group guidance values" are assigned to similar constituents...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450071/good-cell-culture-practices-in-vitro-toxicology
#17
Chantra Eskes, Ann-Charlotte Boström, Gerhard Bowe, Sandra Coecke, Thomas Hartung, Giel Hendriks, David Pamies, Alain Piton, Costanza Rovida
Good Cell Culture Practices (GCCP) is of high relevance to in vitro toxicology. The European Society of Toxicology In Vitro (ESTIV), the Center for Alternatives for Animal Testing (CAAT) and the In Vitro Toxicology Industrial Platform (IVTIP) joined forces to address by means of an ESTIV 2016 pre-congress session the different aspects and applications of GCCP. The covered aspects comprised the current status of the OECD guidance documents on Good In Vitro Method Practices, the importance of quality assurance for new technological advances in in vitro toxicology including stem cells, and the optimized implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Laboratory Practices for regulatory testing purposes...
April 24, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440957/the-role-of-high-throughput-screening-in-ecotoxicology-and-engineered-nanomaterials
#18
REVIEW
Andrew Barrick, Amélie Châtel, Mélanie Bruneau, Catherine Mouneyrac
The field of environmental toxicology developed as a result of growing concerns about anthropogenic influences on the environment and how to ameliorate ecological impact. Many governmental bodies are beginning to emphasize prevention rather than mitigation when addressing novel products, leading to more of a focus on identifying potential toxicity prior to release. With the exponential advances in their development and sale, novel metamaterials and biotechnology are set to dramatically outpace the capabilities of current testing strategies...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433707/genetic-susceptibility-to-toxicologic-lung-responses-among-inbred-mouse-strains-following-exposure-to-carbon-nanotubes-and-profiling-of-underlying-gene-networks
#19
Evan A Frank, Vinicius S Carreira, Kumar Shanmukhappa, Mario Medvedovic, Daniel R Prows, Jagjit S Yadav
The risk of human exposure to fiber nanoparticles has risen in recent years due to increases in the manufacture and utilization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). CNTs are present as airborne particulates in occupational settings and their hazard potential has been demonstrated in experimental lung exposure studies using inbred mouse strains. However, it is not known whether different inbred strains differ in lung responses to CNTs by virtue of their genetics. In this work, common inbred strains (BALB/c, C57Bl/6, DBA/2, and C3H/He) were exposed to CNTs via oropharyngeal aspiration and lung histology and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were evaluated over 28days with the objective of evaluating sensitivity/resistance among strains...
April 19, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433587/pharmacokinetic-and-toxicology-comparator-testing-of-biosimilar-drugs-assessing-need
#20
Paul Baldrick
A key element in the development of a biosimilar molecule is the comparability of the biological activity/nonclinical similarity to the innovator drug. Although some regulatory guidelines are encouraging little or no in vivo testing, currently a common practice is to perform at least one toxicology and/or one pharmacokinetic (PK) study to assess if any different findings occur for in-life, clinical pathology and histopathological parameters or in exposure. An exercise was performed in which the results of such testing were evaluated...
April 20, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
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