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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775996/interplay-between-adenylate-metabolizing-enzymes-and-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#1
REVIEW
Marcella Camici, Simone Allegrini, Maria Grazia Tozzi
Purine nucleotides are involved in a variety of cellular functions, such as energy storage and transfer, and signalling, in addition to being the precursors of nucleic acids and cofactors of many biochemical reactions. They can be generated through two separate pathways, the de novo biosynthesis pathway and the salvage pathway. De novo purine biosynthesis leads to the formation of IMP, from which the adenylate and guanylate pools are generated by two additional steps. The salvage pathways utilize hypoxanthine, guanine and adenine to generate the corresponding mononucleotides...
May 18, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775968/in-silico-structure-prediction-and-inhibition-mechanism-studies-of-athda14-as-revealed-by-homology-modeling-docking-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#2
Ming-Lang Zhao, Wang Wang, Hu Nie, Sha-Sha Cao, Lin-Fang Du
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a significant role in the epigenetic mechanism by catalyzing deacetylation of lysine on histone in both animals and plants. HDACs involved in growth, development and response to stresses in plants. Arabidopsis thaliana histone deacetylase 14 (AtHDA14) is found to localize in the mitochondria and chloroplasts, and it involved in photosynthesis and melatonin biosynthesis. However, its mechanism of action was still unknowns so far. Therefore, in this study, we constructed AtHDA14 protein model using homology modeling method, validated using PROCHECK and presented using Ramachandran plots...
May 6, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775961/antioxidant-response-elements-discovery-classes-regulation-and-potential-applications
#3
REVIEW
Azhwar Raghunath, Kiruthika Sundarraj, Raju Nagarajan, Frank Arfuso, Jinsong Bian, Alan P Kumar, Gautam Sethi, Ekambaram Perumal
Exposure to antioxidants and xenobiotics triggers the expression of a myriad of genes encoding antioxidant proteins, detoxifying enzymes, and xenobiotic transporters to offer protection against oxidative stress. This articulated universal mechanism is regulated through the cis-acting elements in an array of Nrf2 target genes called antioxidant response elements (AREs), which play a critical role in redox homeostasis. Though the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE system involves many players, AREs hold the key in transcriptional regulation of cytoprotective genes...
May 7, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775960/strategies-to-decrease-oxidative-stress-biomarker-levels-in-human-medical-conditions-a-meta-analysis-on-8-iso-prostaglandin-f-2%C3%AE
#4
Thomas J van 't Erve
The widespread detection of elevated oxidative stress levels in many medical conditions has led to numerous efforts to design interventions to reduce its effects. Efforts have been wide-ranging, from dietary changes to administration of antioxidants, supplements, e.g., omega-3-fatty acids, and many medications. However, there is still no systemic assessment of the efficacy of treatments for oxidative stress reduction across a variety of medical conditions. The goal of this meta-analysis is, by combining multiple studies, to quantitate the change in the levels of the popular oxidative stress biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α ) after a variety of treatment strategies in human populations...
May 9, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775959/adolescent-smokers-response-to-reducing-the-nicotine-content-of-cigarettes-acute-effects-on-withdrawal-symptoms-and-subjective-evaluations
#5
Rachel N Cassidy, Suzanne M Colby, Jennifer W Tidey, Kristina M Jackson, Patricia A Cioe, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Dorothy Hatsukami
BACKGROUND: Mandating a reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes to a minimally addictive level could dramatically reduce smoking rates in the US. However, little is known about the effects of reduced nicotine content cigarettes in adolescents. METHODS: Following overnight abstinence, adolescent daily smokers (ages 15-19, n = 50) reported on their craving, withdrawal, and positive and negative affect pre- and post- ad lib smoking of one cigarette containing varying nicotine content (15...
May 15, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775933/observing-hno-3-release-dependent-upon-metal-complexes-in-malonic-acid-nitrate-droplets
#6
Xu Shao, Feng-Min Wu, Hui Yang, Shu-Feng Pang, Yun-Hong Zhang
Although the dicarboxylic acid has been reported to react with nitrate for aged internally mixed aerosols in atmosphere, the quantitative nitrate depletion dependent upon composition in particles is still not well constrained. The chemical composition evolutions for malonic acid/sodium nitrate (MA/SN), malonic acid/magnesium nitrate (MA/MN) and malonic acid/calcium nitrate (MA/CN) particles with the organic to inorganic molar ratio (OIR) of 1:1 are investigated by vacuum Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
May 9, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775914/current-radiological-situation-in-areas-of-ukraine-contaminated-by-the-chernobyl-accident-part-1-human-dietary-exposure-to-caesium-137-and-possible-mitigation-measures
#7
I Labunska, V Kashparov, S Levchuk, D Santillo, P Johnston, S Polishchuk, N Lazarev, Y Khomutinin
This study reports for the first time temporal trends for the period of 2011-2016 in 137 Cs content in cow's milk originating from private farms and households of 14 settlements located in the territories of the Rivne region, Ukraine. These areas are still radioactively contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in 1986. In 2016, the average 137 Cs activity concentration in milk exceeded the Ukrainian Permissible Level (PL) for adults of 100 Bq/l in samples from 6 settlements and the PL for children of 40 Bq/l in 8 settlements, reaching activity concentration of around 500 Bq/l in some samples...
May 15, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775912/an-accurate-sleep-stages-classification-system-using-a-new-class-of-optimally-time-frequency-localized-three-band-wavelet-filter-bank
#8
Manish Sharma, Deepanshu Goyal, P V Achuth, U Rajendra Acharya
Sleep related disorder causes diminished quality of lives in human beings. Sleep scoring or sleep staging is the process of classifying various sleep stages which helps to detect the quality of sleep. The identification of sleep-stages using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is an arduous task. Just by looking at an EEG signal, one cannot determine the sleep stages precisely. Sleep specialists may make errors in identifying sleep stages by visual inspection. To mitigate the erroneous identification and to reduce the burden on doctors, a computer-aided EEG based system can be deployed in the hospitals, which can help identify the sleep stages, correctly...
May 10, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775900/hordenine-protects-against-hyperglycemia-associated-renal-complications-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#9
Shuhao Su, Meng Cao, Guangyuan Wu, Zi Long, Xiaodong Cheng, Junshu Fan, Zhongrui Xu, Hongfei Su, Yiming Hao, Ge Li, Jie Peng, Shuang Li, Xin Wang
The worldwide prevalence of diabetes and associated metabolic diseases has dramatically increased. Pharmacological treatment of diabetes is still limited. Hordenine (HOR), a phenethylamine alkaloid, is a natural constituent in many plants. The present study was designed to explore the possible anti-diabetic effect of HOR in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Combined treatment of HOR and insulin significantly reduced fasting and postprandial blood glucose level in diabetic mice. HOR and insulin did not show evident protective effect against structural and functional injuries of pancreas...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775899/hispidulin-alleviates-high-glucose-induced-podocyte-injury-by-regulating-protective-autophagy
#10
Fengbo Wu, Sijia Li, Nan Zhang, Wei Huang, Xiang Li, Manyi Wang, Ding Bai, Bo Han
OBJECTIVES: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common complications in patients with diabetes, and the discovery of novel targeted therapeutic approaches for DN treatment still faces severe challenges. In the current study, we aimed to discover a novel natural product for potential DN treatment and determine its molecular mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methylthiazoltetrazolium (MTT) assay was employed to evaluate cell viability. Transmission electron microscopy, GFP-LC3 fluorescence fusion plasmid, and Annexin V/PI apoptosis assay were carried out to determine cellular autophagy and apoptosis...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775856/a-simple-ultrasensitive-electrochemical-sensor-for-simultaneous-determination-of-gallic-acid-and-uric-acid-in-human-urine-and-fruit-juices-based-on-zirconia-choline-chloride-gold-nanoparticles-modified-carbon-paste-electrode
#11
Seyed Alireza Shahamirifard, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Zahra Razmi, Shaaker Hajati
The determination of gallic acid (GA) and uric acid (UA) is essential due to their biological properties. Numerous methods have been reported for the analysis of GA and UA in various real samples. However, the development of a simple, rapid and practical sensor still remains a great challenge. Here, a carbon paste electrode (CPE) was modified by nanocomposite containing zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs), Choline chloride (ChCl) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to construct ZrO2 -ChCl-AuNPs/CPE as electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous electro-oxidation of GA and UA...
May 8, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775843/transfer-of-radionuclides-and-dose-assessment-to-ants-and-anthills-in-a-swedish-forest-ecosystem
#12
K Rosén, L Lenoir, K Stark, M Vinichuk, S Sundell-Bergman
In forest ecosystems soil organisms are important for immobilization, translocation and recycling of radionuclides. Still, there is a lack of studies on the role of insects such as ants in the turnover of radionuclides and how radioactivity affects an ant community. In this study seven anthills were sampled in an area that was heavily contaminated after the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Samples of ant and anthill materials were taken from different depths of the anthills as well as from the surrounding soil and the activity concentrations of 137 Cs were determined...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775818/carbon-aerogel-based-supercapacitors-modified-by-hummers-oxidation-method
#13
Yuelong Xu, Bin Ren, Shasha Wang, Lihui Zhang, Zhenfa Liu
Carbon aerogels of an inter-connected three-dimensional (3D) structure are a potential carbon material for supercapacitors. We report a new oxidation modification method to prepare a series of modified carbon aerogels (OM-CA) by Hummers oxidation method. Oxidation-modified carbon aerogels (OM-CA) are obtained from carbon aerogel powders oxidized by Hummers method. Sulfuric acid stoichiometry is studied in order to investigate the effect of the surface oxygen group on surface area and electrochemical performance...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775817/janus-graphene-oxide-nanosheet-a-promising-additive-for-enhancement-of-polymeric-membranes-performance-prepared-via-phase-inversion
#14
Mahdi Akbari, Mojtaba Shariaty-Niassar, Takeshi Matsuura, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail
Although polymeric membranes find important role in water and waste water treatment in recent years, their fouling is still an important problem. Application of hydrophilic nanoparticles (NPs) is one of the proposed methods for reducing fouling of membranes but their dispersion and stability in hydrophobic polymer matrix is challenging. In this study Janus functionalization of the NPs was introduced as a promising technique toward achieving this goal. Polysulfone (PSf) membranes containing various concentrations of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and Janus graphene oxide (Janus GO) nanosheets (as additives) were fabricated via phase inversion...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775749/a-novel-oncogene-urg4-urgcp-and-its-role-in-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Yavuz Dodurga, Mücahit Seçme, N Lale Şatıroğlu-Tufan
Oncogenes are mutated form of normal cellular genes called as proto-oncogenes and conduce to the cancer development process. Despite the fact that so many genes have been described, new genes with oncogenic characteristic and potential or tumor supressoring activity are still being defined. Recently, Up-regulated gene 4/Upregulator of cell proliferation (URG4/URGCP), a novel gene, induced by hepatitis-Bvirus-encoded X antigen (HBxAg), has been identified. URG4/URGCP gene was registered to the National Center for Biotechnology Information-GenBank (NCBI-GenBank, Entrez GeneID: 55665 and Entrez Nucleotide ID NM_017920)...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775734/defining-the-osteoarthritis-patient-back-to-the-future
#16
REVIEW
Geoffrey P Dobson, Hayley L Letson, Andrea Grant, Peter McEwen, Kaushik Hazratwala, Matthew Wilkinson, Jodie L Morris
The history of osteoarthritis (OA) is important because it can help broaden our perspective on past and present controversies. The naming of OA, beginning with Heberden's nodes, is itself a fascinating story. According to Albert Hoffa, R. Llewellyn Jones and Archibald Edward Garrod, the name OA was introduced in the mid-19th century by surgeon Richard von Volkmann who distinguished it from rheumatoid arthritis and gout. Others preferred the terms 'chronical rheumatism', 'senile arthritis', 'hypertrophic arthritis' or 'arthritis deformans'...
May 15, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775728/opioid-free-anaesthesia-why-and-how-a-contextual-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Patrice Forget
If the use of natural opiates, such as opium, is more than millennial, the history of synthetic opioids begins after 1950, with the development of the so-called 'modern' anaesthetic techniques. In 1962, in Belgium, the use of fentanyl, the first synthetic opioid for use in anaesthesia, is described. Subsequently, the use of opioids at high doses during surgery became common. However, over the last twenty years, many studies have questioned this practice, highlighting the many unknowns as the side effects of these molecules...
May 15, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775716/ovalbumin-as-a-carrier-to-significantly-enhance-the-aqueous-solubility-and-photostability-of-curcumin-interaction-and-binding-mechanism-study
#18
Yujia Liu, Yanxue Cai, Danyang Ying, Yinlian Fu, Yahong Xiong, Xueyi Le
Egg ovalbumin (OVA) as a macromolecular carrier has the potential to improve the solubility and stability of insolubility bioactive molecules, however, their binding behavior and the mechanism is still ambiguous. In this work, the curcumin was selected as the target to study the interaction and binding mechanism between curcumin and OVA by thermodynamic titration technique in combination with molecular dynamic simulation. The results suggested that the binding included two steps: first, curcumin molecule entered into the hydrophobic pocket of OVA by hydrophobic interaction; and second the interaction was enhanced via hydrogen bonds, resulting in static fluorescence quenching and secondary structural change of OVA...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775615/extracellular-matrix-protein-dmp1-suppresses-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#19
Shufan Zhang, Huixuan Wan, Peng Wang, Mengmeng Liu, Gongchen Li, Chunxue Zhang, Yao Sun
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are self-renewing and multipotent stem cells which was investigated for diverse clinical applications. However, complex mechanism of MSCs fate determination is still not fully disclosed. Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins contribute to maintain MSCs stemness by providing extracellular microenvironment. Increasing evidences show that ECM proteins could also regulate the fate of MSCs directly. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is an ECM protein enrich in bone tissue and terminal cells, which well-known in promoting osteoblasts and osteocytes maturation, and facilitate mineralization...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775572/gene-therapy-with-antisense-oligonucleotides-silencing-c-myc-reduces-neointima-formation-and-vessel-wall-thickness-in-a-mouse-model-of-vein-graft-disease
#20
Christina Maria Steger, Nikolaos Bonaros, Ralf Joachim Rieker, Johannes Bonatti, Thomas Schachner
Gene therapy for avoiding intimal hyperplasia of vein grafts after coronary artery bypass grafting is still discussed controversially. A promising application of gene therapy in vein grafts is the use of antisense oligonucleotides to block the expression of genes encoding cell cycle regulatory proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells. C-myc, either directly or by regulating the expression of other proteins, controls cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell survival, tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, cell metabolism, production of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and also participates in cell transformation...
May 15, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
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