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Lotte H J M Lemmens, Viola N L S Müller, Arnoud Arntz, Marcus J H Huibers
We present a systematic empirical update and critical evaluation of the current status of research aimed at identifying a variety of psychological mediators in various forms of psychotherapy for depression. We summarize study characteristics and results of 35 relevant studies, and discuss the extent to which these studies meet several important requirements for mechanism research. Our review indicates that in spite of increased attention for the topic, advances in theoretical consensus about necessities for mechanism research, and sophistication of study designs, research in this field is still heterogeneous and unsatisfactory in methodological respect...
September 20, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Yanjun Liu, Yanting Liu, Hao Li, Xindi Fu, Hanwen Guo, Ruihong Meng, Wenjing Lu, Ming Zhao, Hongtao Wang
Aromatic compounds (ACs) emitted from landfills have attracted a lot of attention of the public due to their adverse impacts on the environment and human health. This study assessed the health risk impacts of the fugitive ACs emitted from the working face of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in China. The emission data was acquired by long-term in-situ samplings using a modified wind tunnel system. The uncertainty of aromatic emissions is determined by means of statistics and the emission factors were thus developed...
October 19, 2016: Environment International
Riaz A Agha, Alexander J Fowler, Shivanchan Rajmohan, Ishani Barai, Dennis P Orgill
INTRODUCTION: Case series have been a long held tradition within the surgical literature and are still frequently published. Reporting guidelines can improve transparency and reporting quality. No guideline exists for reporting case series and our recent systematic review highlights key data being missed from such reports. Our objective was to develop reporting guidelines for surgical case series. METHODS: A Delphi consensus exercise was conducted to determine items to include in the reporting guideline...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Jinshan Guo, Gloria B Kim, Dingying Shan, Jimin P Kim, Jianqing Hu, Wei Wang, Fawzi G Hamad, Guoying Qian, Elias B Rizk, Jian Yang
For the first time, a convenient copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC, click chemistry) was successfully introduced into injectable citrate-based mussel-inspired bioadhesives (iCMBAs, iCs) to improve both cohesive and wet adhesive strengths and elongate the degradation time, providing numerous advantages in surgical applications. The major challenge in developing such adhesives was the mutual inhibition effect between the oxidant used for crosslinking catechol groups and the Cu(II) reductant used for CuAAC, which was successfully minimized by adding a biocompatible buffering agent typically used in cell culture, 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES), as a copper chelating agent...
October 12, 2016: Biomaterials
Xiaoling Yuan, Zifeng Dong
BACKGROUND Ischemic stroke (IS) is a leading cause of disability and death and NOTCH3 as a gene related with cardiac-cerebral vascular disease plays a vital role in IS development. However, the reports about the effect of genetic variants in NOTCH3 gene on IS are still few. MATERIAL AND METHODS In order to explore the association between NOTCH3 polymorphisms and IS, 134 patients with IS and 115 controls were enrolled in this case-control study. Polymerase chain reaction was used to do the genotyping of polymorphisms...
October 22, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Letícia Couto Garcia, Danilo Bandini Ribeiro, Fabio de Oliveira Roque, Jose Manuel Ochoa-Quintero, William F Laurance
In November 2015, a large mine-tailing dam owned by Samarco Corporation collapsed in Brazil, generating a massive wave of toxic mud that spread down the Doce River, killing 19 people and affecting biodiversity across hundreds of kilometers of river, riparian lands, and Atlantic coast. Besides the disaster's serious human and socioeconomic tolls, we estimate the regional loss of environmental services to be ~US$5.21 billion/year. Although our estimate is conservative, it is still six times higher than the fine imposed on Samarco by Brazilian environmental authorities...
October 22, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Iêda Maria Martinez Paino, Fabrício Santos, Valtencir Zucolotto
Graphene Oxide (GO) has received enormous attention regarding its possible applications in medical areas including cancer treatment. Nevertheless, graphene biocompatibility and its interactions with cancer, normal and immune system cells still remain a major issue. In the current study, we focused on the immunological impact of GO in the oxidative burst by GO produced in fresh isolated primary human neutrophils, the most abundant leukocyte of immune system. We also studied the GO cytotoxicity, cell uptake and genotoxicity in fresh isolated primary human monocyte, neutrophil, human carcinoma cervical (HeLa) and L929 cells...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Zorica D Knežević-Jugović, Sanja Ž Grbavčić, Jelena R Jovanović, Andrea B Stefanović, Dejan I Bezbradica, Dušan Ž Mijin, Mirjana G Antov
A selection of best combination of adequate immobilization support and efficient immobilization method is still a key requirement for successful application of immobilized enzymes on an industrial level. Eupergit(®) supports exhibit good mechanical and chemical properties and allow establishment of satisfactory hydrodynamic regime in enzyme reactors. This is advantageous for their wide application in enzyme immobilization after finding the most favorable immobilization method. Methods for enzyme immobilization that have been previously reported as efficient considering the obtained activity of immobilized enzyme are presented: direct binding to polymers via their epoxy groups, binding to polymers via a spacer made from ethylene diamine/glutaraldehyde, and coupling the periodate-oxidized sugar moieties of the enzymes to the polymer beads...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Slava Ilnytskyy, Andriy Bilichak
Next-generation sequencing became a method of choice for the investigation of small RNA transcriptomes in plants and animals. Although a technical side of sequencing itself is becoming routine, and experimental costs are affordable, data analysis still remains a challenge, especially for researchers with limited computational experience. Here, we present a detailed description of a computational workflow designed to take raw sequencing reads as input, to obtain small RNA predictions, and to detect the differentially expressed microRNAs as a result...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Andriy Bilichak, Andrey Golubov, Igor Kovalchuk
The discovery of small RNAs in plants and animals almost two decades ago attracted a significant interest towards epigenetic regulation of gene expression and the practical implementation of the gained knowledge in applied studies. New and sometimes unexpected functions have been ascribed to sRNAs almost every couple of years since their discovery, hence indicating that the complete role of sRNAs in plant and animal physiology is still barely understood. Next-generation sequencing technologies allow to generate high-resolution profiles of sRNAs for the consequent analysis and possibly to discover novel functions of sRNAs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Pavlina Sasheva, Ueli Grossniklaus
Over the last years, it has become increasingly clear that environmental influences can affect the epigenomic landscape and that some epigenetic variants can have heritable, phenotypic effects. While there are a variety of methods to perform genome-wide analyses of DNA methylation in model organisms, this is still a challenging task for non-model organisms without a reference genome. Differentially methylated region-representational difference analysis (DMR-RDA) is a sensitive and powerful PCR-based technique that isolates DNA fragments that are differentially methylated between two otherwise identical genomes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ana Mladenovič, Sandra Hamler, Nina Zupančič
The environmental acceptability of geotechnical composites made of treated municipal sewage sludge (SwS) and paper ash (PA) after two different curing periods has been investigated. The mineral composition of such composites, including their content of major oxides, is mainly influenced by the PA. The content of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the initial materials and in the composites varies considerably. In the SwS the Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni and Zn contents are above the legally permitted limits. The PTE content of PA are lower, but still somewhat above the permitted values for Ba and Cu...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Emine Unal, Claudio Guarneri, Anastasiya Atanasova Chokoeva, Uwe Wollina, Georgi Tchernev
Terra firma-forme dermatosis (TFFD) belongs to the group of "dirty dermatoses" and represents a not well-known and surely underestimated vexing skin condition. Firstly described by Duncan, Tschen and Knox in 1987, it accounts for a few case series in the literature and has a still undefined aetiology. The authors present an additional report of TFFD, occurring in a young Caucasian girl, and briefly review the current medical literature on the topic.
October 21, 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Zhuqing Leslie Li, Yonghui Shi, Yinyi Ding, Yumei Ran, Guowei Le
Oxidized tyrosine (O-Tyr) products have been detected in commercial food and have been demonstrated to induce liver injury in our previous study, but the precise mechanisms of the impact induced by dietary O-Tyr are still unclear. Kidney plays an important role in the metabolism of protein. Accumulation of O-Tyr products, especially the dityrosine (Dityr) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), in vivo was shown to be associated with many kidney diseases. Therefore, this study determined whether chronic exposure to dietary O-Tyr impaired renal function in rats...
October 21, 2016: Amino Acids
Xiaona Zhang, Xiaoxuan Sun, Junhong Wang, Liou Tang, Anmu Xie
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is thought to be one of the most frequent preceding symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the prevalence of RBD in PD stated in the published studies is still inconsistent. We conducted a meta and meta-regression analysis in this paper to estimate the pooled prevalence. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE and EBSCO up to June 2016 for related articles. STATA 12.0 statistics software was used to calculate the available data from each research...
October 21, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Ines Teichert, Miriam Lutomski, Ramona Märker, Minou Nowrousian, Ulrich Kück
During the sexual life cycle of filamentous fungi, multicellular fruiting bodies are generated for the dispersal of spores. The filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora has a long history as a model system for studying fruiting body formation, and two collections of sterile mutants have been generated. However, for most of these mutants, the underlying genetic defect remains unknown. Here, we investigated the mutant spadix (spd) that was generated by X-ray mutagenesis in the 1950s and terminates sexual development after the formation of pre-fruiting bodies (protoperithecia)...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Giovanni Sala, Fernand Gobet
Experts' remarkable ability to recall meaningful domain-specific material is a classic result in cognitive psychology. Influential explanations for this ability have focused on the acquisition of high-level structures (e.g., schemata) or experts' capability to process information holistically. However, research on chess players suggests that experts maintain some reliable memory advantage over novices when random stimuli (e.g., shuffled chess positions) are presented. This skill effect cannot be explained by theories emphasizing high-level memory structures or holistic processing of stimuli, because random material does not contain large structures nor wholes...
October 21, 2016: Memory & Cognition
Miriam Krischke, Georg Hempel, Swantje Völler, Nicolas André, Maurizio D'Incalci, Gianni Bisogno, Wolfgang Köpcke, Matthias Borowski, Ralf Herold, Alan V Boddy, Joachim Boos
PURPOSE: Doxorubicin is a key component in many pediatric oncology treatment regimens; still pharmacology data on which current dosing regimens are based are very limited. METHODS: We conducted a multinational pharmacokinetic study investigating age dependency of doxorubicin metabolism and elimination in children with cancer. One hundred and one patients treated with doxorubicin according to a cancer-specific national or European therapeutic trial were recruited...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Jie Gao, John L Williams, Esra Roan
Growth plate chondrocytes are responsible for bone growth through proliferation and differentiation. However, the way they experience physiological loads and regulate bone formation, especially during the later developmental phase in the mature growth plate, is still under active investigation. In this study, a previously developed multiscale finite element model of the growth plate is utilized to study the stress and strain distributions within the cartilage at the cellular level when rapidly compressed to 20 %...
October 21, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Yanhong Li, Xiaolong Sui, Hua Zhu, Yanfeng Xu, Lan Huang, Yuhuan Xu, Yunlin Han, Xiaochun Feng, Chuan Qin
Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a systemic vasculitis mediated by autologous immune complex. Animal models of HSP are scarce. Here, we describe the characteristics of HSP rabbit model in the acute and recovery phase. First, we constructed the HSP rabbit models, and then assessed immunologic indicators of models by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoturbidimetry. Histomorphological characteristics were analyzed by haematoxylin-eosin, immunofluorescence and special staining. In the acute stage (24 h) after antigen challenge, the model group rabbits featured skin ecchymosis and abnormal laboratory examination results...
October 21, 2016: Archives of Dermatological Research
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