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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342444/scarlet-fever-epidemic-in-china-caused-by-streptococcus-pyogenes-serotype-m12-epidemiologic-and-molecular-analysis
#1
Yuanhai You, Mark R Davies, Melinda Protani, Liam McIntyre, Mark J Walker, Jianzhong Zhang
From 2011, Hong Kong and mainland China have witnessed a sharp increase in reported cases, with subsequent reports of epidemic scarlet fever in North Asia and the United Kingdom. Here we examine epidemiological data and investigate the genomic context of the predominantly serotype M12 Streptococcus pyogenes scarlet fever isolates from mainland China. Incident case data was obtained from the Chinese Nationwide Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System. The relative risk of scarlet fever in recent outbreak years 2011-2016 was calculated using the median age-standardised incidence rate, compared to years 2003-2010 prior this outbreak...
January 11, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341923/purification-chitooligosaccharide-binding-properties-and-thermal-stability-of-cia24-a-new-pp2-like-phloem-exudate-lectin-from-ivy-gourd-coccinia-indica
#2
Kishore Babu Bobbili, Debparna Datta, Saradamoni Mondal, Sirilatha Polepalli, Michael Mormann, Musti J Swamy
PP2-like chitin binding phloem exudate lectins, abundant in the sieve tube of cucurbits, have been implicated to play key roles in wound sealing and antipathogenic responses of the plant. Here we report the affinity purification, macromolecular characterization and carbohydrate binding properties of a new chitooligosaccharide-specific lectin from the phloem exudate of ivy gourds (Coccinia indica). The protein, CIA24, has a subunit mass of 24 kDa. Partial sequence analysis indicated that CIA24 exhibits high homology with CIA17 and other Cucurbitaceae PP2 proteins whereas CD spectroscopic studies suggested that β-sheets constitute the predominant secondary structure...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341765/magnetic-fluctuations-precursor-phenomena-and-phase-transition-in-mnsi-under-a-magnetic-field
#3
C Pappas, L J Bannenberg, E Lelièvre-Berna, F Qian, C D Dewhurst, R M Dalgliesh, D L Schlagel, T A Lograsso, P Falus
The reference chiral helimagnet MnSi is the first system where Skyrmion lattice correlations have been reported. At a zero magnetic field the transition at T_{C} to the helimagnetic state is of first order. Above T_{C}, in a region dominated by precursor phenomena, neutron scattering shows the buildup of strong chiral fluctuating correlations over the surface of a sphere with radius 2π/ℓ, where ℓ is the pitch of the helix. It has been suggested that these fluctuating correlations drive the helical transition to first order following a scenario proposed by Brazovskii for liquid crystals...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341707/anomalous-acoustic-plasmon-mode-from-topologically-protected-states
#4
Xun Jia, Shuyuan Zhang, Raman Sankar, Fang-Cheng Chou, Weihua Wang, K Kempa, E W Plummer, Jiandi Zhang, Xuetao Zhu, Jiandong Guo
Plasmons, the collective excitations of electrons in the bulk or at the surface, play an important role in the properties of materials, and have generated the field of "plasmonics." We report the observation of a highly unusual acoustic plasmon mode on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) Bi_{2}Se_{3}, using momentum resolved inelastic electron scattering. In sharp contrast to ordinary plasmon modes, this mode exhibits almost linear dispersion into the second Brillouin zone and remains prominent with remarkably weak damping not seen in any other systems...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341673/chiral-spin-mode-on-the-surface-of-a-topological-insulator
#5
H-H Kung, S Maiti, X Wang, S-W Cheong, D L Maslov, G Blumberg
Using polarization-resolved resonant Raman spectroscopy, we explore collective spin excitations of the chiral surface states in a three dimensional topological insulator, Bi_{2}Se_{3}. We observe a sharp peak at 150 meV in the pseudovector A_{2} symmetry channel of the Raman spectra. By comparing the data with calculations, we identify this peak as the transverse collective spin mode of surface Dirac fermions. This mode, unlike a Dirac plasmon or a surface plasmon in the charge sector of excitations, is analogous to a spin wave in a partially polarized Fermi liquid, with spin-orbit coupling playing the role of an effective magnetic field...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341641/simultaneous-deep-tunneling-and-classical-hopping-for-hydrogen-diffusion-on-metals
#6
Wei Fang, Jeremy O Richardson, Ji Chen, Xin-Zheng Li, Angelos Michaelides
Hydrogen diffusion on metals exhibits rich quantum behavior, which is not yet fully understood. Using simulations, we show that many hydrogen diffusion barriers can be categorized into those with parabolic tops and those with broad tops. With parabolic-top barriers, hydrogen diffusion evolves gradually from classical hopping, to shallow tunneling, to deep tunneling as the temperature (T) decreases, and noticeable quantum effects persist at moderate T. In contrast, with broad-top barriers quantum effects become important only at low T and the classical-to-quantum transition is sharp, at which classical hopping and deep tunneling both occur...
September 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340968/a-novel-blink-detection-method-based-on-pupillometry-noise
#7
Ronen Hershman, Avishai Henik, Noga Cohen
Pupillometry (or the measurement of pupil size) is commonly used as an index of cognitive load and arousal. Pupil size data are recorded using eyetracking devices that provide an output containing pupil size at various points in time. During blinks the eyetracking device loses track of the pupil, resulting in missing values in the output file. The missing-sample time window is preceded and followed by a sharp change in the recorded pupil size, due to the opening and closing of the eyelids. This eyelid signal can create artificial effects if it is not removed from the data...
January 16, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339266/long-term-trend-analysis-on-total-and-extreme-precipitation-over-shasta-dam-watershed
#8
Kinya Toride, Dylan L Cawthorne, Kei Ishida, M Levent Kavvas, Michael L Anderson
California's interconnected water system is one of the most advanced water management systems in the world, and understanding of long-term trends in atmospheric and hydrologic behavior has increasingly being seen as vital to its future well-being. Knowledge of such trends is hampered by the lack of long-period observation data and the uncertainty surrounding future projections of atmospheric models. This study examines historical precipitation trends over the Shasta Dam watershed (SDW), which lies upstream of one of the most important components of California's water system, Shasta Dam, using a dynamical downscaling methodology that can produce atmospheric data at fine time-space scales...
January 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339234/stoichiometric-variation-and-loading-capacity-of-a-high-loading-anammox-attached-film-expanded-bed-aaeeb-reactor
#9
Yanlong Zhang, Haiyuan Ma, Rong Chen, Qigui Niu, Yu-You Li
The nitrogen loading rate (NLR) of an anammox attached film expanded bed (AAFEB) reactor was increased from 5.0 to 60.0 gN/L/d. During the stable operational period, the TN removal efficiency maintained at 87.3 ± 2.5%, and a maximum nitrogen removal rate (NRR) of 44.9 ± 0.3 gN/L/d was achieved. Overload resulted in the sharp deterioration of reactor performance, the ratio of (Food/Microorganism)/SAA should be maintained at lower than 66 ± 7% to ensure the stable operation of the AAFEB reactor...
January 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339139/improved-coronary-magnetic-resonance-angiography-using-gadobenate-dimeglumine-in-pediatric-congenital-heart-disease
#10
Miguel Silva Vieira, Markus Henningsson, Nathalie Dedieu, Vassilios S Vassiliou, Aaron Bell, Sujeev Mathur, Kuberan Pushparajah, Carlos Alberto Figueroa, Tarique Hussain, René Botnar, Gerald F Greil
BACKGROUND: CMRA in pediatrics remains challenging due to the smaller vessel size, high heart rates (HR), potential image degradation caused by limited patient cooperation and long acquisition times. High-relaxivity contrast agents have been shown to improve coronary imaging in adults, but limited data is available in children. We sought to investigate whether gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) together with self-navigated inversion-prepared coronary magnetic resonance angiography (CMRA) sequence design improves coronary image quality in pediatric patients...
January 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338038/does-the-leading-pharmaceutical-reform-in-china-really-solve-the-issue-of-overly-expensive-healthcare-services-evidence-from-an-empirical-study
#11
Yunzhen He, Guanshen Dou, Qiaoyun Huang, Xinyu Zhang, Yingfeng Ye, Mengcen Qian, Xiaohua Ying
BACKGROUND: Healthcare system reform of Sanming city has become a leading healthcare reform model in China. It has developed a rigorous pharmaceutical reform consisted of the Zero Mark-up Drug Policy and the Centralized Procurement of Medicine Policy to bring down drug expenses and total health expenditures. However, despite the credit and much attention have been given to Sanming's pharmaceutical reform, its impact still remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the impact of the pharmaceutical reform of Sanming on both drug and total health expenditures...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337784/the-sharp-end-of-pilonidal-disease
#12
Martijn P Gosselink, Grahame C Ctercteko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336711/circulating-serum-interleukin-6-serum-chitinase-3-like-protein-1-and-plasma-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-are-not-predictive-for-remission-and-radiographic-progression-in-patients-with-early-rheumatoid-arthritis-post-hoc-explorative-and-validation-studies
#13
C H Brahe, C Dehlendorff, M Østergaard, J S Johansen, L M Ørnbjerg, K Hørslev-Petersen, K Stengaard-Pedersen, P Junker, T Ellingsen, H Lindegaard, I Hansen, T Lottenburger, S Jacobsen, A G Jurik, M L Hetland
OBJECTIVE: To investigate serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), serum chitinase-3-like protein-1 (YKL-40), and plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as measures of disease activity and predictors of clinical remission and radiographic progression in two early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHOD: Treatment-naïve patients with early RA (< 6 months' duration) and active disease, participating in two investigator-initiated RCTs, were treated according to a predefined treat-to-target algorithm aiming at inflammatory control, using methotrexate (MTX) + cyclosporine versus MTX + placebo (CIMESTRA study, n = 150, 5 year follow-up) or MTX + adalimumab versus MTX + placebo (OPERA study, n = 180, 2 year follow-up)...
January 16, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336187/efficacy-and-safety-of-sirukumab-in-japanese-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-rheumatoid-arthritis-inadequately-controlled-by-disease-modifying-anti-rheumatic-drugs-subgroup-analysis-of-a-phase-3-study
#14
Tsutomu Takeuchi, Yoshiya Tanaka, Hisashi Yamanaka, Masayoshi Harigai, Toshikazu Nakano, Koshiro Akagi, Yoshifumi Ukyo, Benjamin Hsu
Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sirukumab in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis uncontrolled by disease modifying antirheumatic drugs. Methods This subgroup analysis based on a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 52-week phase 3 study (SIRROUND-D) assessed American College of Rheumatology (ACR)20 response at week 16 and van der Heijde-modified Sharp score (vdH-S) at week 52 (coprimary endpoints). Results A total of 168 (Japanese)/1670 patients received sirukumab 50 mg/4 weeks (q4w, n = 58), 100 mg/every 2 weeks (q2w, n = 54), or placebo (n = 56) subcutaneously...
January 16, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335929/computational-model-to-investigate-the-relative-contributions-of-different-neuromuscular-properties-of-tibialis-anterior-on-force-generated-during-ankle-dorsiflexion
#15
Ariba Siddiqi, Sridhar Poosapadi Arjunan, Dinesh Kant Kumar
This study describes a new model of the force generated by tibialis anterior muscle with three new features: single-fiber action potential, twitch force, and pennation angle. This model was used to investigate the relative effects and interaction of ten age-associated neuromuscular parameters. Regression analysis (significance level of 0.05) between the neuromuscular properties and corresponding simulated force produced at the footplate was performed. Standardized slope coefficients were computed to rank the effect of the parameters...
January 16, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335790/echinococcus-multilocularis-cestoda-cyclophyllidea-taeniidae-origin-differentiation-and-functional-ultrastructure-of-the-oncospheral-tegument-and-hook-region-membrane
#16
Zdzisław Świderski, Jordi Miquel, Samira Azzouz-Maache, Anne-Françoise Pétavy
Both the oncospheral tegument and the hook region membrane (HRM) of Echinococcus multilocularis hexacanths originate from a syncytial binucleate complex that appears in the early stage of morphogenesis and organogenesis of the hexacanth larva. The primordium of this binucleate complex forms a binucleate syncytial cap or "calotte" situated beneath the inner envelope at one pole of the developing embryo. During oncospheral differentiation, the binucleate perikaryon of the syncytial cap is sunk progressively deeper into the central part of the embryo, but remains always connected with the distal cytoplasm by a tendrillar cytoplasmic connection or bridge...
January 15, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335778/hippocampal-area-ca2-properties-and-contribution-to-hippocampal-function
#17
REVIEW
Vincent Robert, Sadiyah Cassim, Vivien Chevaleyre, Rebecca A Piskorowski
This review focuses on area CA2 of the hippocampus, as recent results have revealed the unique properties and surprising role of this region in encoding social, temporal and contextual aspects of memory. Originally identified and described by Lorente de No, in 1934, this region of the hippocampus has unique intra-and extra-hippocampal connectivity, sending and receiving input to septal and hypothalamic regions. Recent in vivo studies have indicated that CA2 pyramidal neurons encode spatial information during immobility and play an important role in the generation of sharp-wave ripples...
January 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335604/dentate-network-activity-is-necessary-for-spatial-working-memory-by-supporting-ca3-sharp-wave-ripple-generation-and-prospective-firing-of-ca3-neurons
#18
Takuya Sasaki, Verónica C Piatti, Ernie Hwaun, Siavash Ahmadi, John E Lisman, Stefan Leutgeb, Jill K Leutgeb
Complex spatial working memory tasks have been shown to require both hippocampal sharp-wave ripple (SWR) activity and dentate gyrus (DG) neuronal activity. We therefore asked whether DG inputs to CA3 contribute to spatial working memory by promoting SWR generation. Recordings from DG and CA3 while rats performed a dentate-dependent working memory task on an eight-arm radial maze revealed that the activity of dentate neurons and the incidence rate of SWRs both increased during reward consumption. We then found reduced reward-related CA3 SWR generation without direct input from dentate granule neurons...
January 15, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335249/hypertension-and-diabetes-mellitus-coprediction-and-time-trajectories
#19
Vasilis Tsimihodimos, Clicerio Gonzalez-Villalpando, James B Meigs, Ele Ferrannini
Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension overlap in the population. In many subjects, development of diabetes mellitus is characterized by a relatively rapid increase in plasma glucose values. Whether a similar phenomenon occurs during the development of hypertension is not known. We analyzed the pattern of blood pressure (BP) changes during the development of hypertension in patients with or without diabetes mellitus using data from the MCDS (Mexico City Diabetes Study; a population-based study of diabetes mellitus in Hispanic whites) and in the FOS (Framingham Offspring Study, a community-based study in non-Hispanic whites) during a 7-year follow-up...
January 15, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334944/changes-in-malaria-epidemiology-in-germany-2001-2016-a-time-series-analysis
#20
Sabine Vygen-Bonnet, Klaus Stark
BACKGROUND: German surveillance data showed a sharp rise of malaria cases in 2014 and 2015 due to the increased arrival of refugees from malaria endemic countries. A time series analysis of data from 2001 to 2016 was performed in order to describe the epidemiology of imported malaria in Germany in general and of the recent increase in particular. RESULTS: In total, 11,678 malaria cases were notified between 2001 and 2016 (range 526-1063 cases/year). Newly arriving refugees averaged 10 cases/year (1...
January 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
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