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Hui Jiang, Yicun Wang, Zhantao Deng, Jiewen Jin, Jia Meng, Shuo Chen, Jun Wang, Yang Qiu, Ting Guo, Jianning Zhao
Wear particle-induced osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening in arthroplasty failure, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Due to long follow-ups necessary for detection and sporadic occurrence, it is challenging to assess the pathogenesis ofparticle-induced osteolysis in clinical cases. Hence, optimal animal models are required for further studies. The murine model of calvarial osteolysis established by exposure to CoCrMo particles is an effective and valid tool for assessing the interactions between particles and various cells in aseptic loosening...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Piran R Kidambi, Dhanushkodi D Mariappan, Nicholas T Dee, Andrey Vyatskikh, Sui Zhang, Rohit Karnik, A John Hart
Scalable, cost-effective synthesis and integration of graphene is imperative to realize large-area applications such as nanoporous atomically thin membranes (NATMs). Here, we report a scalable route to the production of NATMs via high-speed, continuous synthesis of large-area graphene by roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition (CVD), combined with casting of a hierarchically porous polymer support. To begin, we designed and built a two zone roll-to-roll graphene CVD reactor, which sequentially exposes the moving foil substrate to annealing and growth atmospheres, with a sharp, isothermal transition between the zones...
March 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Alexander E Kossak, Benjamin O Stephens, Yuan Tian, Pan Liu, Mingwei Chen, Thomas J Kempa
We propose and validate herein a solution-phase synthetic strategy relying on in situ photo-stimulation and reduction of metal-halide intermediates to yield complex anisotropic and multi-component nanostructures. Exposure of AgBr nanoparticles to ultraviolet light and L-Arginine forms dimers composed of crystalline Ag and AgBr nanophases. The Ag nanoparticle nucleates at and grows from a single point on the surface of the AgBr phase, and the interface connecting these phases is atomically sharp. The complex nanostructures are generated at greater than 80% yield and are highly monodisperse in morphology and in size...
March 19, 2018: Nano Letters
Simona Patange, Michelle Girvan, Daniel R Larson
Gene expression varies across cells in a population or a tissue. This heterogeneity has come into sharp focus in recent years through developments in new imaging and sequencing technologies. However, our ability to measure variation has outpaced our ability to interpret it. Much of the variability may arise from random effects occurring in the processes of gene expression (transcription, RNA processing and decay, translation). The molecular basis of these effects is largely unknown. Likewise, a functional role of this variability in growth, differentiation and disease has only been elucidated in a few cases...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Systems Biology
Ramón Cugat, Eduard Alentorn-Geli, Xavier Cuscó, Jordi Navarro, Gilbert Steinbacher, Pedro Álvarez-Díaz, Roberto Seijas, David Barastegui, Montse García-Balletbó
Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the transtibial technique provides successful clinical outcomes. However, a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) autograft with the transtibial technique has not been used by some surgeons because of concerns with graft passage from the tibial to the femoral tunnels (sharp turn) that can damage graft fibers. In the present surgical technique, an arthroscopic, transtibial, single-bundle technique for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the BTB autograft with an easy and effective technical tip to facilitate graft passage is presented...
February 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
Arash Ahmadivand, Burak Gerislioglu, Asahi Tomitaka, Pandiaraj Manickam, Ajeet Kaushik, Shekhar Bhansali, Madhavan Nair, Nezih Pala
Engineered terahertz (THz) plasmonic metamaterials have emerged as promising platforms for quick infection diagnosis, cost-effective and real-time pharmacology applications owing to their non-destructive and harmless interaction with biological tissues in both in vivo and in vitro assays. As a recent member of THz metamaterials family, toroidal metamaterials have been demonstrated to be supporting high-quality sharp resonance modes. Here we introduce a THz metasensor based on a plasmonic surface consisting of metamolecules that support ultra-narrow toroidal resonances excited by the incident radiation and demonstrate detection of an ultralow concertation targeted biomarker...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Fahad Syed Naseerullah, Hemangkumar Javaiya, Avinash Murthy
Primary tumours of the heart are often encountered in clinical practice. Different autopsy series estimate the incidence to be anywhere from 0.001% to 0.19%. Cardiac lipoma is a rare type of tumour of the heart and pericardium. It comprises approximately 10-19% of all cardiac tumours. We present a case of a large cardiac lipoma in a fifty-year-old female. She presented with sharp chest pains, palpitations, and dizziness. Acute coronary syndrome was ruled out. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed an abnormal, large, fixed right atrial mass...
2018: Case Reports in Cardiology
Chiawen Hsieh, Yun-Wei Lin, Ching-Hsein Chen, Wenjun Ku, Fuching Ma, Hanming Yu, Chishih Chu
Natural compounds have been candidates for anticancer medicine over the last 20 years. During the process of isolating seed oil from Calophyllum inophyllum L., yellow and green pigments containing multiple compounds with an aromatic structure were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of these pigments revealed that the compounds present were identical, but the concentration of the compounds was different. Treatment with the pigments was able to induce the death of DLD-1 human colon cancer cells and increase the percentage of the cells in the sub-G1 and sub-G2 /M phases in a dose-dependent manner...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
R I MacKay
Image-guided radiotherapy has an established role in all forms of radiotherapy treatment delivery. Proton therapy seeks to deliver superior dose distributions through utilising the Bragg peak to target tumour and avoid sensitive normal tissue. The Bragg peak and sharp falloff in dose delivered by proton therapy necessitate careful treatment planning and treatment delivery. The dose distribution delivered by proton therapy is particularly sensitive to uncertainty in the prediction of proton range during treatment planning and deviations from the planned delivery during the course of the fractionated treatment...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Ketan K Mane, Kevin B Rubenstein, Najlla Nassery, Adam L Sharp, Ejaz A Shamim, Navdeep S Sangha, Ahmed Hassoon, Mehdi Fanai, Zheyu Wang, David E Newman-Toker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
Philip Mease, Désirée van der Heijde, Robert Landewé, Shephard Mpofu, Proton Rahman, Hasan Tahir, Atul Singhal, Elke Boettcher, Sandra Navarra, Karin Meiser, Aimee Readie, Luminita Pricop, Ken Abrams
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of subcutaneous (s.c.) secukinumab, an interleukin-17A inhibitor, on clinical signs and symptoms and radiographic progression in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). METHODS: Adults (n=996) with active PsA were randomised 2:2:2:3 to s.c. secukinumab 300 mg or 150 mg with loading dose (LD), 150 mg without LD or placebo. All groups received secukinumab or placebo at baseline, weeks 1, 2 and 3 and then every 4 weeks from week 4...
March 17, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Jéssica Ks Pachú, José B Malaquias, Wesley Ac Godoy, Francisco de S Ramalho, Bruna R Almeida, Fabrício Rossi
Precise estimates of the lower (Tmin ) and higher (Tmax ) thermal thresholds as well as the temperature range that provides optimum performance (Topt ) enable to obtain the desired number of individuals in conservation systems, rearing and release of natural enemies. In this study, the relationship between the development rates of Cycloneda sanguinea L. (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) and temperature was described using non-linear models developed by Analytis, Brière, Lactin, Lamb, Logan and Sharpe & DeMichele...
April 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Alireza Alikhani, Milad Gharooni, Hamed Abiri, Fatemeh Farokhmanesh, Mohammad Abdolahad
Monitoring the pH dependent behavior of normal and cancer cells by impedimetric biosensor based on Silicon Nanowires (SiNWs) was introduced to diagnose the invasive cancer cells. Autophagy as a biologically activated process in invasive cancer cells during acidosis, protect them from apoptosis in lower pH which presented in our work. As the autophagy is the only activated pathways which can maintain cellular proliferation in acidic media, responses of SiNW-ECIS in acidified cells could be correlated to the probability of autophagy activation in normal or cancer cells...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Sherly X Li, Fumiaki Imamura, Matthias B Schulze, Jusheng Zheng, Zheng Ye, Antonio Agudo, Eva Ardanaz, Dagfinn Aune, Heiner Boeing, Miren Dorronsoro, Courtney Dow, Guy Fagherazzi, Sara Grioni, Marc J Gunter, José María Huerta, Daniel B Ibsen, Marianne Uhre Jakobsen, Rudolf Kaaks, Timothy J Key, Kay-Tee Khaw, Cecilie Kyrø, Francesca Romana Mancini, Elena Molina-Portillo, Neil Murphy, Peter M Nilsson, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, Alaitz Poveda, J Ramón Quirós, Fulvio Ricceri, Ivonne Sluijs, Annemieke M W Spijkerman, Anne Tjonneland, Rosario Tumino, Anna Winkvist, Claudia Langenberg, Stephen J Sharp, Elio Riboli, Robert A Scott, Nita G Forouhi, Nicholas J Wareham
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gene-macronutrient interactions may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes but research evidence to date is inconclusive. We aimed to increase our understanding of the aetiology of type 2 diabetes by investigating potential interactions between genes and macronutrient intake and their association with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We investigated the influence of interactions between genetic risk scores (GRSs) for type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and BMI and macronutrient intake on the development of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct, a prospective case-cohort study across eight European countries (N = 21,900 with 9742 incident type 2 diabetes cases)...
March 17, 2018: Diabetologia
Klára Marečková, Radek Mareček, Petra Bencurova, Jana Klánová, Ladislav Dušek, Milan Brázdil
The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of prenatal and early postnatal stress on hippocampal volume in young adulthood. In sharp contrast to numerous results in animal models, our data from a neuroimaging follow-up (n = 131) of a community-based birth cohort from the Czech Republic (European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood) showed that in typically developing young adults, hippocampal volume was not associated with birth weight, stressful life events during the prenatal or early postnatal period, or dysregulated mood and wellbeing in the mother during the early postnatal period...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hwei-Ming Peng, Chase Barlow, Richard J Auchus
Unlike most of the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450s, microsomal P450 17A1 and mitochondrial P450 11B2 catalyze sequential multi-step reactions in steroid biosynthesis. The membrane phospholipid composition might be one parameter that modulates the efficiency and processivity of specific pathways. Here we systematically examined the effects of physiologically relevant phospholipids on the catalysis of purified P450 17A1, P450 11B2, and P450 11B1 in reconstituted assay systems. Both dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC, 18:1) and dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC, 12:0) were found to be very efficient in reconstituting 17-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase reactions of P450 17A1...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Audrey M Bernstein, Robert Ritch, J Mario Wolosin
Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is an age-related disease involving the deposition of aggregated fibrillar material (XFM) at extracellular matrices in tissues that synthesize elastic fibers. Its main morbidity is in the eye, where XFM accumulations form on the surface of the ciliary body, iris and lens. Exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) occurs in a high proportion of persons with XFS and can be a rapidly progressing disease. Worldwide, XFG accounts for about 25% of open-angle glaucoma cases. XFS and XFG show a sharp age-dependence, similarly to the many age-related diseases classified as aggregopathies...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Rebecca C Richmond, Gemma C Sharp, Georgia Herbert, Charlotte Atkinson, Caroline Taylor, Sohinee Bhattacharya, Doris Campbell, Marion Hall, Nabila Kazmi, Tom Gaunt, Wendy McArdle, Susan Ring, George Davey Smith, Andy Ness, Caroline L Relton
Background: It has been proposed that maternal folic-acid supplement use may alter the DNA-methylation patterns of the offspring during the in-utero period, which could influence development and later-life health outcomes. Evidence from human studies suggests a role for prenatal folate levels in influencing DNA methylation in early life, but this has not been extended to consider persistent effects into adulthood. Methods: To better elucidate the long-term impact of maternal folic acid in pregnancy on DNA methylation in offspring, we carried out an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) nested within the Aberdeen Folic Acid Supplementation Trial (AFAST-a trial of two different doses: 0...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Manon Ragonnet-Cronin, Celia Jackson, Amanda Bradley-Stewart, Celia Aitken, Andrew McAuley, Norah Palmateer, Rory Gunson, David Goldberg, Catriona Milosevic, Andrew J Leigh Brown
Harm reduction has dramatically reduced HIV incidence among people who inject drugs (PWID). In Glasgow, Scotland, <10 infections/year have been diagnosed among PWID since the mid-90s. However, in 2015 a sharp rise in diagnoses was noted among PWID: many were subtype C with two identical drug resistant mutations and some displayed low avidity, suggesting the infections were linked and recent.We collected Scottish pol sequences and identified closely related sequences from public databases. Genetic linkage was ascertained among 228 Scottish, 1820 UK and 524 global sequences...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Dorothy W Gietzen, Sarah H Lindström, James W Sharp, Pok Swee Teh, Michael J Donovan
Background: Low protein amounts are used in ketogenic diets (KDs), where an essential (indispensable) amino acid (IAA) can become limiting. Because the chemically sensitive, seizurogenic, anterior piriform cortex (APC) is excited by IAA limitation, an imbalanced KD could exacerbate seizure activity. Objective: We questioned whether dietary IAA depletion worsens seizure activity in rodents fed KDs. Methods: In a series of 6 trials, male rats or gerbils of both sexes (6-8/group) were given either control diets (CDs) appropriate for each trial, a KD, or a threonine-devoid (ThrDev) diet for ≥7 d, and tested for seizures using various stimuli...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
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