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Anthony Sclafani, Austin S Vural, Karen Ackroff
In a nutrient self-selection study, CAST/EiJ mice consumed more carbohydrate than fat while C57BL/6J (B6) mice showed the opposite preference. The present study revealed similar strain differences in preferences for isocaloric fat (Intralipid) and carbohydrate (sucrose, maltodextrin) solutions in chow-fed mice. In initial 2-day choice tests, percent fat intakes of CAST and B6 mice were 4-9% and 71-81% respectively. In subsequent nutrient vs. water tests, CAST mice consumed considerably less fat but not carbohydrate compared to B6 mice...
June 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Michael W Webster, Ying-Hsin Chen, James A W Stowell, Najwa Alhusaini, Thomas Sweet, Brenton R Graveley, Jeff Coller, Lori A Passmore
Translation and decay of eukaryotic mRNAs is controlled by shortening of the poly(A) tail and release of the poly(A)-binding protein Pab1/PABP. The Ccr4-Not complex contains two exonucleases-Ccr4 and Caf1/Pop2-that mediate mRNA deadenylation. Here, using a fully reconstituted biochemical system with proteins from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we show that Pab1 interacts with Ccr4-Not, stimulates deadenylation, and differentiates the roles of the nuclease enzymes. Surprisingly, Pab1 release relies on Ccr4 activity...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Cell
Eric Augier, Estelle Barbier, Russell S Dulman, Valentina Licheri, Gaëlle Augier, Esi Domi, Riccardo Barchiesi, Sean Farris, Daniel Nätt, R Dayne Mayfield, Louise Adermark, Markus Heilig
Alcohol addiction leads to increased choice of alcohol over healthy rewards. We established an exclusive choice procedure in which ~15% of outbred rats chose alcohol over a high-value reward. These animals displayed addiction-like traits, including high motivation to obtain alcohol and pursuit of this drug despite adverse consequences. Expression of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter GAT-3 was selectively decreased within the amygdala of alcohol-choosing rats, whereas a knockdown of this transcript reversed choice preference of rats that originally chose a sweet solution over alcohol...
June 22, 2018: Science
Laura Polledo, Guy C M Grinwis, Peter Graham, Mark Dunning, Kerstin Baiker
With the exception of classic functional adenomas in dogs and horses, pituitary lesions are infrequently described in the veterinary literature. Approximately 10% of pituitary glands from asymptomatic humans contain abnormalities, but the equivalent proportion in small animals is unknown. Pituitary glands from 136 dogs and 65 cats collected during routine necropsies were examined to determine the prevalence of pituitary lesions and their histopathological diagnosis. Lesions were characterized in sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), Gordon and Sweet's and reticulin stains, and immunohistochemistry for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone, melanocyte stimulating hormone-α, and prolactin...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Paulina Schuller, Alejandra Castillo, Gabriele Voigt, Natalia Semioshkina
The root uptake of radiocaesium by different plant parts of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata) and the potential influence of K-fertilising on the transfer behaviour was studied in allophanic volcanic soils (umbric andosol and dystric fluvisol) in Chile under temperate climate and heavy rainfall conditions (∼2660 mm y-1 ) over several vegetation periods. The soils were spiked homogeneously to 0.20 m depth with 100 kBq 134 Cs m-2 and activity concentrations measured...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Y Wang, Y P Pan, L N Ye
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
C Morin, J Gandy, L A Moreno, S A Kavouras, H Martinez, J Salas-Salvadó, I Guelinckx
PURPOSE: To assess drinking occasions (volume and type) according to consumption with food in or outside meals, and location, for six countries. METHODS: A total of 10,521 participants aged 4-65 years from Argentina, Brazil, China, Indonesia, Mexico and Uruguay completed a validated 7-day fluid intake record. For each drinking event, the volume consumed, the fluid type, the location of intake, and whether the drink was accompanied by food (meal or snack) or not, was recorded...
June 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Ali Akbar Heidari-Zefreh, Mehran E Shariatpanahi, Amir Mousavi, Sepideh Kalatejari
Production of doubled haploid (DH) plants is an efficient tool in genetic and plant breeding programs; however, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is recalcitrant to microspore embryogenesis and DH production. Trying to break the barrier of DH production, three independent experiments were conducted on microspore embryogenesis of sweet pepper. In the first experiment, the effect of cold (4 °C) and heat (32 °C) pretreatments were investigated on microspore embryogenesis of three genotypes of sweet pepper including "Inspiration F1," "Maratus F1," and "Magno F1" cultivars in a factorial design with three replications...
June 20, 2018: Protoplasma
Elizabeth Sweet, Christopher W Kuzawa, Thomas W McDade
While research now consistently links consumer financial debt with adverse emotional health outcomes, specific forms of debt and their impact on measures of physical health are underexplored. This gap in knowledge is significant because different forms of loans and debt may have different experiential qualities. In this paper, we focus on a type of unsecured debt - short-term/payday loan borrowing - that has risen dramatically in recent decades in the United States and is characterized by predatory, discriminatory, and poorly regulated lending practices...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
Mostafa Rad, Marzieh Torkmannejad Sabzevary, Zahra Mohebbi Dehnavi
BACKGROUND: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is the emergence of periodic one or more symptoms of symptoms before menstruation and in the first few days of menstruation. Lifestyle is one of the series of factors that affect the health of people. Activity, smoking, and food intake are factors associated with lifestyle, and evidence suggests that women and girls with PMS do not have an adequate life span. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with PMS in female high school students...
2018: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
Kentaro Serizawa, Hirokazu Tanaka, Yasuyoshi Morita, Takahide Taniguchi, Takashi Ashida, Itaru Matsumura
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous group of clonal disorders of hematopoietic stem cells, characterized by dysplastic hematopoiesis and dysregulated immune system resulting in various clinical conditions. Paraneoplastic inflammatory syndromes, which are well known to be associated with MDS, show response to immune-modulated therapy and often disappear during the course of hematologic management. Azacitidine (5-Aza) was shown to prolong survival of high-risk MDS patients, however, the effects of 5-Aza on paraneoplastic inflammation in MDS have yet to be elucidated...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Narjara Lopes de Abreu, Ruy José Válka Alves, Sérgio Ricardo Sodré Cardoso, Yann J K Bertrand, Filipe Sousa, Climbiê Ferreira Hall, Bernard E Pfeil, Alexandre Antonelli
Background: Current evidence suggests that for more robust estimates of species tree and divergence times, several unlinked genes are required. However, most phylogenetic trees for non-model organisms are based on single sequences or just a few regions, using traditional sequencing methods. Techniques for massive parallel sequencing or next generation sequencing (NGS) are an alternative to traditional methods that allow access to hundreds of DNA regions. Here we use this approach to resolve the phylogenetic incongruence found in Polystachya Hook...
2018: PeerJ
Andrea Ma Omengue, Eugène Sobngwi, Mesmin Dehayem, Eric V Balt, Anne Mo Boli, Simeon P Choukem, Jean F Gautier, Jean-Claude Mbanya
The reliability of capillary blood glucose measurements is tremendously important for patients' care and follow-up. Some factors independent of glucose control could however affect readings during ambulatory monitoring of capillary glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. We sought to evaluate the impact of three body lotions commonly used in Cameroon on different strata of glycaemia. We explored their influence over time on measured capillary glucose values. We enrolled 16 participants. Eligible individuals were adult patients with diabetes (n=12) stratified into three levels of capillary glucose values (100 ± 40 mg/dL [5...
April 2018: European Endocrinology
Rocío Angulo
The study reported four experiments aiming to test the effects of the pre-exposure schedule and water deprivation on the generalization of a conditioned taste aversion in rats, with a particular focus on testing whether or not the concurrent schedule might enhance generalization. In two experiments, non-water-deprived rats received concurrent, intermixed, or blocked exposure to a sweet-acid solution and a salty-acid solution before conditioning of one of these compounds and testing of both flavors. During pre-exposure, the rats consumed a greater amount of the sweet-acid solution than the salty-acid solution (Experiments 1 and 2), consumption of the former increasing during pre-exposure while consumption of the latter decreased (Experiment 1)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Hongru Su, Renren Yang, Qinglong Deng, Wenhao Qian, Jinming Yu
BACKGROUND: This study aims to understand the deciduous dental caries status of preschool children in Xuhui District of Shanghai, China and to analyze the associated risk factors. METHODS: In January of 2016, a cross-sectional investigation was conducted to examine the oral health of all the kindergarten children in Xuihui District of Shanghai, China. Meanwhile, a field questionnaire survey was conducted with the children's guardians to ascertain the potential risk factors associated with deciduous dental caries...
June 19, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Seraid Caynas-Rojas, Gabriela Rodríguez-García, Ilse Delint-Ramírez, María Isabel Miranda
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has reciprocal projections with many cerebral structures that are crucial in the control of food ingestion behavior and reward processing; therefore, the mPFC has an important function in taste memory recognition. Previous results indicate that long-term consumption of sugar produces changes in appetitive re-learning and suggest that this could trigger an escalating consumption due to the inability to learn new negative consequences related to the same taste. Further evidence suggests that general identity reward value could be encoded in the mPFC...
June 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Jing Yuan, Luxin Wang
Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) is a high-acidity fruit, with two varieties available on the market. One is the green-fleshed, fuzzy, sweet but tangy-tasting kiwifruit, and the other is the yellow-fleshed variety called "golden" kiwifruit. While the whole kiwifruit is sold at room temperature at grocery stores, sliced kiwifruit is usually sold as a part of fruit salad in the refrigerated section. The survival of a five-strain Escherichia coli O157:H7 cocktail, a five-strain Salmonella cocktail, and a five-strain Listeria monocytogenes cocktail was evaluated on whole and sliced green and golden kiwifruit...
June 19, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Fabio Bruni, Camilla Di Mino, Silvia Imberti, Sylvia E McLain, Natasha Hazel Rhys, Maria Antonietta Ricci
Neutron diffraction experiments have been performed to investigate and compare the structure of the hydration shell of three monosaccharides, namely fructose, glucose and mannose. It is found that, in spite of their differences with respect to many thermodynamical quantities, bio-protective properties against environmental stresses and taste; the influence of these monosaccharides on the bulk water solvent structure is virtually identical. Conversely, these sugars interact with the neighboring water molecules by forming H-bonds of different length and strength...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Yao Pan, Hongyan Li, Shi-Lian Zheng, Bing Zhang, Zeyuan Deng
The hydrophilic extracts of eggplant peel (HEEP) and purple sweet potato (HEPP), lipophilic extracts of tomato (LET) and carrot (LEC) were mixed in different ratios to assess the significance on the compatibility of aliments, based on their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory interactions in H9c2 cells. The results indicated that groups of some combinational extracts (HEPP-HEEP: F1/10, LEC-HEEP: F3/10, LEC-HEPP: F3/10) showed stronger synergistic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects than individual groups...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Adam Hulme, Jason Thompson, Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen, Gemma J M Read, Paul M Salmon
OBJECTIVES: There have been recent calls for the application of the complex systems approach in sports injury research. However, beyond theoretical description and static models of complexity, little progress has been made towards formalising this approach in way that is practical to sports injury scientists and clinicians. Therefore, our objective was to use a computational modelling method and develop a dynamic simulation in sports injury research. METHODS: Agent-based modelling (ABM) was used to model the occurrence of sports injury in a synthetic athlete population...
June 18, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
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