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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040053/periostin-as-a-biomarker-for-nasal-polyps-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#1
Alice Z Maxfield, Lukas D Landegger, Christopher D Brook, Ashton E Lehmann, Adam P Campbell, Regan W Bergmark, Konstantina M Stankovic, Ralph Metson
Objective Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein that is elevated in the sinonasal tissues of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The purpose of this study was to determine whether serum periostin could serve as a molecular biomarker of nasal polyp burden in sinonasal disease. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Academic medical center. Subjects and Methods Serum periostin levels were measured by ELISA on blood samples collected from patients undergoing sinus surgery for CRS (n = 71), further stratified by phenotype as defined by nasal polyps and asthma...
October 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038841/the-maternal-microbiome-during-pregnancy-and-allergic-disease-in-the-offspring
#2
REVIEW
Peter J Vuillermin, Laurence Macia, Ralph Nanan, Mimi Lk Tang, Fiona Collier, Susanne Brix
There is substantial epidemiological and mechanistic evidence that the increase in allergic disease and asthma in many parts of the world in part relates to changes in microbial exposures and diet acting via the composition and metabolic products of the intestinal microbiome. The majority of research in this field has focused on the gut microbiome during infancy, but it is increasingly clear that the maternal microbiome during pregnancy also has a key role in preventing an allergy-prone immune phenotype in the offspring...
October 16, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038036/overexpression-of-notch-ligand-delta-like-1-by-dendritic-cells-enhances-their-immunoregulatory-capacity-and-exerts-antiallergic-effects-on-th2-mediated-allergic-asthma-in-mice
#3
Chen-Chen Lee, Chu-Lun Lin, Sy-Jye Leu, Yueh-Lun Lee
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells, and Notch ligand Delta-like-1 (DLL1) on DCs was implicated in type 1T helper (Th1) differentiation. In this study, we produced genetically engineered bone marrow-derived DCs that expressed DLL1 (DLL1-DCs) by adenoviral transduction. DLL1-DCs exerted a fully mature phenotype, and had positive effects on expression levels of interleukin (IL)-12 and costimulatory molecules. Coculture of allogeneic T cells with ovalbumin (OVA)-pulsed DLL1-DCs enhanced T cell proliferative responses and promoted Th1 cell differentiation...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038008/fibrinogen-cleavage-products-and-tlr4-promote-the-generation-of-programmed-cell-death-1-ligand-2-pd-l2-dendritic-cells-in-allergic-asthma
#4
Minkyoung Cho, Jeong-Eun Lee, Hoyong Lim, Hyun-Woo Shin, Roza Khalmuratova, Garam Choi, Hyuk Soon Kim, Wahn Soo Choi, Young-Jun Park, Inbo Shim, Byung-Seok Kim, Chang-Yuil Kang, Jae-Ouk Kim, Shinya Tanaka, Masato Kubo, Yeonseok Chung
BACKGROUND: Inhaled protease allergens preferentially trigger Th2-mediated inflammation in allergic asthma. The role of dendritic cells (DCs) on the induction of Th2 cell responses in allergic asthma has been well documented; however, the mechanism by which protease allergens induce Th2-favorable DCs in the airway remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine a subset of DCs responsible for Th2 cell responses in allergic asthma and the mechanism by which protease allergens induce the DC subset in the airway...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036019/targeting-the-interleukin-4-and-interleukin-13-pathways-in-severe-asthma-current-knowledge-and-future-needs
#5
Amit D Parulekar, Christina C Kao, Zuzana Diamant, Nicola A Hanania
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into phenotypes and endotypes based upon clinical or biological characteristics. Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 play a key role in type 2 (T2) asthma. This article reviews the signaling pathway of IL-4 and IL-13 and highlights its targeted therapy in severe asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Several clinical trials of biologics targeting the IL-4/IL-13 pathway have recently been completed. In patients with severe, uncontrolled asthma, targeting IL-13 alone with biologics including lebrikizumab and tralokinumab has not shown consistent reduction in asthma exacerbations...
October 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036018/precision-medicine-in-asthma-linking-phenotypes-to-targeted-treatments
#6
Kian F Chung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease consisting of different phenotypes that are driven by different mechanistic pathways. The purpose of this review is to emphasize the important role of precision medicine in asthma management. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite asthma heterogeneity, the approach to management has been on the basis of disease severity, with the most severe patients reserved for the maximum treatments with corticosteroids and bronchodilators...
October 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035619/personalized-medicine-with-biologics-for-severe-type-2-asthma-current-status-and-future-prospects
#7
Marie Godar, Christophe Blanchetot, Hans de Haard, Bart N Lambrecht, Guy Brusselle
Asthma affects more than 300 million people worldwide and poses a large socioeconomic burden, particularly in the 5% to 10% of severe asthmatics. So far, each entry of new biologics in clinical trials has led to high expectations for treating all severe asthma forms, but the outcome has only been successful if the biologic, as add-on treatment, targeted specific patient subgroups. Indeed, we now realize that asthma is a heterogeneous disease with multiple phenotypes, based on distinct pathophysiological mechanisms, called endotypes...
October 16, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027824/a-computable-phenotype-for-asthma-case-identification-in-adult-and-pediatric-patients-external-validation-in-the-chicago-area-patient-outcomes-research-network-capricorn
#8
Majid Afshar, Valerie G Press, Rachel G Robison, Abel N Kho, Sindhura Bandi, Ashvini Biswas, Pedro C Avila, Harsha Vardhan Madan Kumar, Byung Yu, Edward T Naureckas, Sharmilee M Nyenhuis, Christopher D Codispoti
OBJECTIVE: Comprehensive, rapid, and accurate identification of patients with asthma for clinical care and engagement in research efforts is needed. The original development and validation of a computable phenotype for asthma case identification occurred at a single institution in Chicago and demonstrated excellent test characteristics. However, its application in a diverse payer mix, across different health systems and multiple electronic health record vendors, and in both children and adults was not examined...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025889/characterisation-of-asthma-subgroups-associated-with-circulating-ykl-40-levels
#9
Jose L Gomez, Xiting Yan, Carole T Holm, Nicole Grant, Qing Liu, Lauren Cohn, Vera Nezgovorova, Deborah A Meyers, Eugene R Bleecker, Gina M Crisafi, Nizar N Jarjour, Linda Rogers, Joan Reibman, Geoffrey L Chupp
The chitinase-like protein YKL-40 mediates airway inflammation and serum levels are associated with asthma severity. However, asthma phenotypes associated with YKL-40 levels have not been precisely defined.We conducted an unsupervised cluster analysis of asthma patients treated at the Yale Center for Asthma and Airways Disease (n=156) to identify subgroups according to YKL-40 level. The resulting YKL-40 clusters were cross-validated in cohorts from the Severe Asthma Research Programme (n=167) and the New York University/Bellevue Asthma Repository (n=341)...
October 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020468/comparative-features-of-asthma-with-frequent-or-infrequent-exacerbations-a-longitudinal-study-of-retrospective-and-prospective-events
#10
Marie-Ève Boulay, Claudia Pruneau-Pomerleau, Hélène Villeneuve, Francine Deschesnes, Lyne Ringuette, Louis-Philippe Boulet
BACKGROUND: A "frequent exacerbator phenotype" has been described, mostly in the population of patients with severe asthma. Further data are needed on such exacerbation-prone patients in milder asthma. AIM: To compare the characteristics of frequent and nonfrequent exacerbators in asthma of different severities and to assess the stability of the exacerbator status. METHODS: This was an observational study comparing baseline data from frequent (≥2 exacerbations in the past year) and nonfrequent (<2 exacerbations in the past year) exacerbators...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017221/-biologicals-in-the-treatment-of-bronchial-asthma
#11
I Haasler, C Taube
Biologicals are a therapeutic option for patients with severe asthma. Difficult asthma in patients with untreated comorbidities or persistent trigger factors is much more common than severe refractory asthma. Optimized medical treatment, adherence to medication, elimination of trigger factors and treatment of comorbidities are essential before escalating the therapy with a biological. A careful phenotyping of patient with severe asthma is necessary because all available biological are only effective in certain phenotypes of the disease...
October 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016970/a-genome-by-environment-interaction-classifier-for-precision-medicine-personal-transcriptome-response-to-rhinovirus-identifies-children-prone-to-asthma-exacerbations
#12
Vincent Gardeux, Joanne Berghout, Ikbel Achour, A Grant Schissler, Qike Li, Colleen Kenost, Jianrong Li, Yuan Shang, Anthony Bosco, Donald Saner, Marilyn J Halonen, Daniel J Jackson, Haiquan Li, Fernando D Martinez, Yves A Lussier
Objective: To introduce a disease prognosis framework enabled by a robust classification scheme derived from patient-specific transcriptomic response to stimulation. Materials and Methods: Within an illustrative case study to predict asthma exacerbation, we designed a stimulation assay that reveals individualized transcriptomic response to human rhinovirus. Gene expression from peripheral blood mononuclear cells was quantified from 23 pediatric asthmatic patients and stimulated in vitro with human rhinovirus...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992358/role-of-galectin-3-in-the-pathophysiology-underlying-allergic-lung-inflammation-in-a-timp-1-knockout-model-of-murine-asthma
#13
Manoj J Mammen, Mark F Sands, Elaine Abou-Jaoude, Ravikumar Aalinkeel, Jessica L Reynolds, Neil U Parikh, Umesh Sharma, Stanley A Schwartz, Supriya D Mahajan
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory respiratory disease characterized by airway inflammation, airway hyper-responsiveness and reversible airway obstruction. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the various endotypes of asthma could lead to novel and more personalized therapies for individuals with asthma. Utilizing a Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) knockout murine allergic asthma model, we previously showed that Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 deficiency results in an asthma phenotype, exhibiting airway hyperreactivity, enhanced eosinophilic inflammation, and TH2 cytokine gene and protein expression following sensitization with ovalbumin...
October 9, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990062/regulation-of-m1%C3%A2-type-and-m2%C3%A2-type-macrophage-polarization-in-raw264-7-cells-by-galectin%C3%A2-9
#14
Ran Lv, Qi Bao, Yan Li
Generally considered as a potent pro‑inflammatory signal, β‑galactosidelectin suppresses T cell receptor activation, can both promote and inhibit integrin‑mediated adhesion and is required in nuclear pre‑mRNA splicing. Galectin‑9 (Gal‑9), a member of β‑galactoside lectin, is involved many processes of T cell‑mediated diseases (such as autoimmune diseases and asthma) and immunomodulation of macrophages. Macrophages are involved in the occurrence of inflammation, development and digestion and other stages...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985770/systemic-inflammation-mediates-the-detrimental-effects-of-obesity-on-asthma-control
#15
X Zhang, J Zheng, L Zhang, Y Liu, G P Chen, H P Zhang, L Wang, D Y Kang, L G Wood, G Wang
BACKGROUND: Obesity negatively impacts asthma control, but the inflammatory mechanisms are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To explore which systemic inflammatory mediators mediate the effects of obesity on asthma control. METHODS: The subjects with stable asthma (n = 108) underwent assessment of clinical characteristics, which included usingThe Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ)-6. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) of more than or equal to 30 kg/m2, overweight was defined as BMI between 25 to 29...
October 2, 2017: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983453/remote-sensing-between-liver-and-intestine-importance-of-microbial-metabolites
#16
Zidong Donna Fu, Julia Yue Cui
Recent technological advancements including metagenomics sequencing and metabolomics have allowed the discovery of critical functions of gut microbiota in obesity, malnutrition, neurological disorders, asthma, and xenobiotic metabolism. Classification of the human gut microbiome into distinct "enterotypes" has been proposed to serve as a new paradigm for understanding the interplay between microbial variation and human disease phenotypes, as many organs are affected by gut microbiota modifications during the pathogenesis of diseases...
June 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979129/dupilumab-in-the-management-of-moderate-to-severe-asthma-the-data-so-far
#17
REVIEW
Pilar Barranco, Elsa Phillips-Angles, Javier Dominguez-Ortega, Santiago Quirce
Severe asthma constitutes illness in a relatively small proportion of all patients with asthma, but it is a major public health problem - with considerable effect on morbidity, mortality, as well as a high burden on health care resources. Regardless of effective treatments being widely available and the existence of treatment guidelines, a large population of severe asthma cases remain uncontrolled. Achieving and maintaining asthma control in this group of patients is, therefore, of utmost importance. The recognition of distinct inflammatory phenotypes within this population has driven the development of targeted biological therapies - particularly, selective targeted monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979112/sputum-cell-count-biomarkers-in-the-differentiation-of-asthma-copd-and-asthma-copd-overlap
#18
Jie Gao, Wutie Zhou, Bida Chen, Weiming Lin, Sifang Wu, Feng Wu
INTRODUCTION: Cell count in induced sputum is a noninvasive biomarker to assess airway inflammation phenotypes. Accordingly, sputum cell counts are extensively used in the treatment of asthma and COPD. Nevertheless, the clinical application of sputum cell counts in patients with asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate sputum cell counts in patients with ACO which are different from those in patients with asthma and COPD and also to examine the relationship between sputum cell counts in bronchial reversibility and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976216/how-should-treatment-approaches-differ-depending-on-the-severity-of-asthma
#19
Maciej Kupczyk, Piotr Kuna
Asthma is nowadays regarded as a syndrome of various overlapping phenotypes with defined clinical characteristics, different underlying inflammatory mechanisms, identifiable genetic background, environmental risk factors and possible biomarkers. There are no doubts that due to the diversity of asthma, a 'one size fits all' management of the disease is no longer valid. Areas covered: Nowadays asthma management is based on the control of the disease, and the goals of asthma treatment are defined as good symptom control, decreased future risk of exacerbations, fixed airflow limitation, and side-effects of treatment...
October 16, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974677/longitudinal-outcomes-of-different-asthma-phenotypes-in-primary-care-an-observational-study
#20
Rishi J Khusial, Jacob K Sont, Rik J B Loijmans, Jiska B Snoeck-Stroband, Pim J J Assendelft, Tjard R J Schermer, Persijn J Honkoop
While asthma presentation is heterogeneous, current asthma management guidelines in primary care are quite homogeneous. In this study we aim to cluster patients together into different phenotypes, that may aid the general practitioner in individualised asthma management. We analysed data from the ACCURATE trial, containing 611 adult asthmatics, 18-50 year-old, treated in primary care, with one year follow-up. Variables obtained at baseline (n = 14), were assessed by cluster analysis. Subsequently, established phenotypes were assessed separately on important asthma outcomes after one year follow-up: asthma control (Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ)), quality of life (Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ)), exacerbation-rate and medication-usage...
October 3, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
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