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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454096/jak-stat-inhibitors-and-other-small-molecule-cytokine-antagonists-for-the-treatment-of-allergic-disease
#1
REVIEW
Michael D Howell, Carolyn Fitzsimons, Paul Smith
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of janus kinase (JAK), chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T-helper 2 cells (CRTH2), and phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors in allergic disorders. DATA SOURCES: PubMed literature review. STUDY SELECTIONS: Articles included in this review discuss the emerging mechanism of action of small molecule inhibitors and their utilization in atopic dermatitis (AD), asthma, and allergic rhinitis (AR)...
February 14, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449341/airway-autoimmune-inflammatory-response-aair-syndrome-an-asthma-autoimmune-overlap-disorder
#2
Chantal Y Spencer, Jennifer Millman, Keila Veiga, Alfin G Vicencio
Asthma encompasses numerous phenotypes that may require alternate approaches to diagnosis and therapy, particularly for patients whose symptoms remain poorly controlled despite escalating treatment. We describe 3 patients with apparent asthma who demonstrated unusual findings on cryobiopsy by flexible bronchoscopy and responded to therapy directed against autoimmune disease.
February 15, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445292/late-onset-asthma-current-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
Tsunahiko Hirano, Kazuto Matsunaga
Because the pathophysiology of asthma has diverse characteristics, to manage the disease effectively, it is important for clinicians to distinguish among the clinical phenotypes. Among them, adult-onset asthma, that is, late-onset asthma (LOA), is increasing because of the aging of the population. The phenotype of LOA is largely divided into two types according to the presence or absence of eosinophilic inflammation, T-helper (Th)2- and non-Th2-associated LOA. Especially in Th2 LOA related to rhinosinusitis, as pulmonary function at onset is poor and asthma exacerbations occur frequently, it is important to detect this phenotype in the early phase by using a biomarker of Th2-type inflammation such as fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE NO )...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437007/blood-eosinophils-as-biomarkers-to-drive-treatment-choices-in-asthma-and-copd
#4
Francesco Patalano, Konstantinos Kostikas, Caterina Brindicci
Both asthma and COPD are complex, heterogeneous conditions comprising a wide range of phenotypes, some of which are refractory to currently available treatments. Elucidation of these phenotypes and identification of biomarkers with which to recognize them and guide appropriate treatment remains a priority. This review describes the utility of blood eosinophils as a surrogate biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation, a common feature of specific asthma and COPD phenotypes. The role of blood eosinophils in airway disease is described, as is their relevance in reflecting airway eosinophilia...
February 12, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427989/diagnosis-and-management-of-severe-asthma
#5
Kian Fan Chung
Severe therapy-resistant asthma has been defined as "asthma which requires treatment with high dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) plus a second controller (and/or systemic corticosteroids) to prevent it from becoming 'uncontrolled' or which remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy". Patients who usually present with 'difficult-to-treat asthma' should first be assessed to determine whether he/she has asthma with the exclusion of other diagnoses and if so, whether the asthma can be classified as severe therapy-resistant...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427988/emerging-concepts-in-evidence-based-asthma-management
#6
Helen K Reddel
Asthma management is in an intriguing phase, with acceptance of asthma as a heterogeneous condition with different phenotypes and underlying mechanisms and the potential for personalized asthma care, in parallel with increasing evidence about the population-level impact of basic strategies to increase access to medicines and improve inhaler technique and adherence. These changes have been facilitated by a more comprehensive view of evidence, including both randomized controlled trials with high internal validity and pragmatic and observational studies with high generalizability to patients in clinical practice...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427984/controlling-the-risk-domain-in-pediatric-asthma-through-personalized-care
#7
William C Anderson, Stanley J Szefler
Strategies to control the risk domain of NHLBI EPR-3 (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Expert Panel Report-3) asthma guidelines, which includes exacerbations requiring systemic corticosteroids, reduction in lung growth, and progressive loss of lung function, and treatment-related adverse effects, are evolving in children and adolescents. Increasing evidence demonstrates that children and adolescents with asthma are at risk of a reduction in lung growth, leading to lower lung function and potentially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as adults...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420086/a-review-of-obesity-and-asthma-across-the-life-span
#8
Faiza Khalid, Fernando Holguin
OBJECTIVE: This literature review aims to compare obese-asthmatic adults and children, and to characterize differences and similarities between the two subgroups from epidemiological, demographical, phenotypical, and physiological perspectives. METHODS: Literature search was conducted using Pubmed database with "obesity," "asthma," "epidemiology," "cluster analysis," "demography," "mechanics," and ''FeNO'' as search terms. METHODS: Articles investigating epidemiological, demographic, phenotypical variation, and mechanical aspects of breathing specifically in obese asthmatics were identified...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414651/high-fat-diet-induces-airway-hyperresponsiveness-partly-through-activating-cd38-signaling-pathway
#9
Lei Chong, Weixi Zhang, Gang Yu, Hailin Zhang, Lili Zhu, Haiyan Li, Youyou Shao, Changchong Li
CD38 is a plasma membrane bound multifunctional enzyme. It can be activated by inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-13, inducing calcium responses to agonist in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC). Previous studies have found that high-fat-diet (HFD) induced obesity exhibited innate airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). This study aimed to detect the effect of CD38 signaling pathway on the AHR of overweight/obese mice. The HFD-fed mice exhibited a significantly higher baseline airway resistance (Rn), and the increasing rates of Rn responded to increasing doses of methacholine compared with the LFD-fed mice...
February 1, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411555/innate-immune-response-to-viral-infections-in-primary-bronchial-epithelial-cells-is-modified-by-the-atopic-status-of-asthmatic-patients
#10
Sylwia Moskwa, Wojciech Piotrowski, Jerzy Marczak, Małgorzata Pawełczyk, Anna Lewandowska-Polak, Marzanna Jarzębska, Małgorzata Brauncajs, Anna Głobińska, Paweł Górski, Nikolaos G Papadopoulos, Michael R Edwards, Sebastian L Johnston, Marek L Kowalski
PURPOSE: In order to gain an insight into determinants of reported variability in immune responses to respiratory viruses in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) from asthmatics, the responses of HBEC to viral infections were evaluated in HBECs from phenotypically heterogeneous groups of asthmatics and in healthy controls. METHODS: HBECs were obtained during bronchoscopy from 10 patients with asthma (6 atopic and 4 non-atopic) and from healthy controls (n=9) and grown as undifferentiated cultures...
March 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411551/can-controlling-endoplasmic-reticulum-dysfunction-treat-allergic-inflammation-in-severe-asthma-with-fungal-sensitization
#11
REVIEW
Jae Seok Jeong, So Ri Kim, Yong Chul Lee
Severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease entity to which diverse cellular components and pathogenetic mechanisms contribute. Current asthma therapies, including new biologic agents, are mainly targeting T helper type 2 cell-dominant inflammation, so that they are often unsatisfactory in the treatment of severe asthma. Respiratory fungal exposure has long been regarded as a precipitating factor for severe asthma phenotype. Moreover, as seen in clinical definitions of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS), fungal allergy-associated severe asthma phenotype is increasingly thought to have distinct pathobiologic mechanisms requiring different therapeutic approaches other than conventional treatment...
March 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406360/asthma-in-inner-city-children-recent-insights-united-states
#12
Cullen M Dutmer, Haejin Kim, Daniel A Searing, Edward M Zoratti, Andrew H Liu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Children living in US inner cities experience disparate burdens of asthma, especially in severity, impairment, exacerbations, and morbidity. Investigations seeking to better understand the factors and mechanisms underlying asthma prevalence, severity, and exacerbation in children living in these communities can lead to interventions that can narrow asthma disparities and potentially benefit all children with asthma. This update will focus on recent (i.e. late 2016-2017) advances in the understanding of asthma in US inner city children...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398922/severe-bronchial-asthma-in-children-a-review-of-novel-biomarkers-used-as-predictors-of-the-disease
#13
REVIEW
Samuel N Uwaezuoke, Adaeze C Ayuk, Joy N Eze
Severe asthma or therapy-resistant asthma in children is a heterogeneous disease that affects all age-groups. Given its heterogeneity, precision in diagnosis and treatment has become imperative, in order to achieve better outcomes. If one is thus able to identify specific patient phenotypes and endotypes using the appropriate biomarkers, it will assist in providing the patient with more personalized and appropriate treatment. However, there appears to be a huge diagnostic gap in severe asthma, as there is no single test yet that accurately determines disease phenotype...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389732/development-of-allergic-sensitization-and-its-relevance-to-paediatric-asthma
#14
Ceyda Oksel, Adnan Custovic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent evidence on the distinct atopic phenotypes and their relationship with childhood asthma. We start by considering definitions and phenotypic classification of atopy and then review evidence on its association with asthma in children. RECENT FINDINGS: It is now well recognized that both asthma and atopy are complex entities encompassing various different sub-groups that also differ in the way they interconnect...
January 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389731/role-of-epigenetics-in-the-development-of-childhood-asthma
#15
Elizabeth J Davidson, Ivana V Yang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epigenetic marks are emerging as mediators of genetics and the environment on complex disease phenotypes, including childhood asthma and allergy. RECENT FINDINGS: Epigenome-wide association studies over the past year have added to the growing body of evidence supporting significant associations of epigenetic regulation of gene expression and asthma and allergy. Studies in children have identified signatures of eosinophils in peripheral blood, Th2 cell transcription factors and cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and epithelial dysfunction in the respiratory epithelium...
January 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383778/obese-asthmatics-are-characterised-by-altered-adipose-tissue-macrophage-activation
#16
Hashim A Periyalil, Lisa G Wood, Timothy A Wright, Constantin Karihaloo, Malcolm R Starkey, April S Miu, Katherine J Baines, Philip M Hansbro, Peter G Gibson
Adipose tissue-derived inflammation is linked to obesity-related co-morbidities. This study aimed to quantify and immuno-phenotype adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) from obese asthmatics and obese non-asthmatics, and to examine associations between adipose tissue, systemic and airway inflammation. Visceral (VAT) and sub-cutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue were collected from obese adults undergoing bariatric surgery and processed to obtain the stromovascular fraction. Pro- (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages were quantified by flow cytometry...
January 31, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382592/the-obese-asthma-phenotype-in-children-an-exacerbating-situation
#17
Cristina Longo, Gillian Bartlett, Tibor Schuster, Francine M Ducharme, Brenda MacGibbon, Tracie A Barnett
BACKGROUND: Current evidence regarding the relationship between childhood obesity, decreased response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), and poor asthma control is conflicting. OBJECTIVES: We assessed if obesity: i) is associated with time-to-first exacerbation among children with asthma initiating Step-3 maintenance therapies; ii) modifies the effectiveness of Step-3 therapies. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted from clinical data linked to health and drug administrative databases...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380695/how-to-control-asthma-with-personalized-management-where-do-we-stand-now
#18
Meng Wang, Yuan Yao, Shanqun Jiang, Fang Tao, Rui Tang, Jinlu Sun
Asthma is one of the most significant diseases worldwide and causes overwhelming costs physically and economically. The heterogeneity of asthma has been a hot topic, and an increasing amount of research has been conducted on this issue. The study of asthma has revealed various groups of asthma patients who share phenotypic characteristics that naturally elicit the need for personalized asthma therapy. Clinical evidence has shown that a 'one size fits all' approach does not apply to all asthma patients because of the large variability in treatment responses to asthma medication...
January 28, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380115/effects-of-diet-induced-obesity-on-tracheal-responsiveness-to-methacholine-tracheal-visfatin-level-and-lung-histological-changes-in-ovalbumin-sensitized-female-wistar-rats
#19
Rana Keyhanmanesh, Mohammad Reza Alipour, Hadi Ebrahimi, Mohammad Reza Aslani
Many studies have shown a close relationship between obesity and asthma severity. In the present study, the effects of diet-induced obesity were examined on airway responsiveness to methacholine in addition to visfatin level in female Wistar rats' tracheae after sensitization with ovalbumin. The rats were divided into four groups: control with normal diet (ND), ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized with normal diet (S + ND), high-fat diet (HFD), and OVA-sensitized with a high-fat diet (S + HFD). The animals were fed for 8 weeks with standard pelts or high-fat diet and then sensitized and challenged with OVA or saline for another 4 weeks...
January 29, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369067/evidence-establishing-a-link-between-prenatal-and-early-life-stress-and-asthma-development
#20
Maria José Rosa, Alison G Lee, Rosalind J Wright
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to provide an update on our evolving understanding of the effects of stress in pregnancy and during early development on the onset of asthma-related phenotypes across childhood, adolescence, and into early adulthood. RECENT FINDINGS: Accumulating evidence over the past 2 decades has established that prenatal and early-life psychological stress and stress correlates (e.g., maternal anxiety or depression) increase the risk for childhood respiratory disorders...
January 23, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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