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asthma endotypes or phenotypes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153414/association-of-interleukin-1-receptor-like-1-gene-polymorphisms-with-eosinophilic-phenotype-in-japanese-adults-with-asthma
#1
Hideki Inoue, Isao Ito, Akio Niimi, Hisako Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi Oguma, Tomoko Tajiri, Toshiyuki Iwata, Tadao Nagasaki, Yoshihiro Kanemitsu, Toshitaka Morishima, Tomomitsu Hirota, Mayumi Tamari, Sally E Wenzel, Michiaki Mishima
BACKGROUND: IL1RL1 (ST2) is involved in Th2 inflammation including eosinophil activation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IL1RL1 gene are associated with asthma development and increased peripheral blood eosinophil counts. However, the association between IL1RL1 SNPs and eosinophilic phenotype among adults with asthma remains unexplored. METHODS: In a primary cohort of 110 adult Japanese patients with stable asthma, we examined the associations between IL1RL1 SNPs and clinical measurements including forced expiratory volume (FEV1), airway reversibility of FEV1, exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), serum soluble-ST2 (sST2) levels, peripheral blood eosinophil differentials and serum total IgE level...
November 2017: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146272/obstruction-phenotype-as-a-predictor-of-asthma-severity-and-instability-in-children
#2
Ronald L Sorkness, Edward M Zoratti, Meyer Kattan, Peter J Gergen, Michael D Evans, Cynthia M Visness, Michelle Gill, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey, Carolyn M Kercsmar, Andrew H Liu, George T O'Connor, Jacqueline A Pongracic, Dinesh Pillai, Christine A Sorkness, Alkis Togias, Robert A Wood, William W Busse
BACKGROUND: Small airways instability, resulting in premature airway closure, has been recognized as a risk for asthma severity and poor control. Although spirometry has limited sensitivity for detecting small airway dysfunction, a focus on the air-trapping component of obstruction may identify a risk factor for asthma instability. OBJECTIVE: To use spirometric measurements to identify patterns of airway obstruction in children, and define obstruction phenotypes that relate to asthma instability...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146235/macrophages-their-role-activation-and-polarization-in-pulmonary-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Shweta Arora, Kapil Dev, Beamon Agarwal, Pragnya Das, Mansoor Ali Syed
Macrophages, circulating in the blood or concatenated into different organs and tissues constitute the first barrier against any disease. They are foremost controllers of both innate and acquired immunity, healthy tissue homeostasis, vasculogenesis and congenital metabolism. Two hallmarks of macrophages are diversity and plasticity due to which they acquire a wobbling array of phenotypes. These phenotypes are appropriately synchronized responses to a variety of different stimuli from either the tissue microenvironment or - microbes or their products...
November 12, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141605/an-intronic-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-rs13217795-in-foxo3-is-associated-with-asthma-and-allergic-rhinitis-a-case-case-control-study
#4
Justin Z Amarin, Randa G Naffa, Haya H Suradi, Yousof M Alsaket, Nathir M Obeidat, Tareq M Mahafza, Malek A Zihlif
BACKGROUND: Asthma and allergic rhinitis are respiratory diseases with a significant global burden. Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) is a gene involved in the etiology of a number of respiratory diseases. The objective of this study is to assess the association of rs13217795, an intronic FOXO3 single-nucleotide polymorphism, with asthma and allergic rhinitis. METHODS: In this case-case-control genetic association study, genotyping was conducted using the PCR-RFLP method...
November 15, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139062/tools-in-asthma-evaluation-and-management-when-and-how-to-use-them
#5
REVIEW
Anna Mulholland, Alana Ainsworth, Naveen Pillarisetti
The goals of asthma management are accurate diagnosis, prompt initiation of treatment and monitoring of disease progression to limit potential morbidity and mortality. While the diagnosis and management is largely based on history taking and clinical examination, there are an increasing number of tools available that could be used to aid diagnosis, define phenotypes, monitor progress and assess response to treatment. Tools such as the Asthma Predictive Index could help in making predictions about the possibility of asthma in childhood based on certain clinical parameters in pre-schoolers...
November 15, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138554/characteristics-of-copd-patients-according-to-gold-classification-and-clinical-phenotypes-in-the-russian-federation-the-support-trial
#6
Vladimir Arkhipov, Daria Arkhipova, Marc Miravitlles, Andrey Lazarev, Ekaterina Stukalina
Background: The high prevalence of COPD in the Russian Federation has been demonstrated in several epidemiological studies. However, there are still no data on the clinical characteristics of these patients according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) groups and phenotypes, which could provide additional understanding of the burden of COPD, routine clinical practice, and ways to improve the treatment of patients with COPD in Russia. Patients and methods: SUPPORT was an observational multicenter study designed to obtain data about the distribution of patients with previously diagnosed COPD according to the severity of bronchial obstruction, symptom severity, risk of exacerbation, COPD phenotypes, and treatment of COPD...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134633/first-in-human-study-with-the-inhaled-tlr9-oligonucleotide-agonist-azd1419-results-in-interferon-responses-in-the-lung-and-is-safe-and-well-tolerated
#7
Sam Jackson, Albert F Candia, Stephen Delaney, Simone Floettmann, Clifford Wong, John D Campbell, Sariah Kell, Jeremy Lum, Edith Hessel, Paula Traquina, Mark McHale, Ian Robinson, John Bell, Rainard Fuhr, David Keeling, Robert L Coffman
Current asthma treatments address symptoms rather than the underlying disease pathophysiology, a better understanding of which has led to the identification of the Th2 high endotype. The activation of Toll-like receptors to induce Type I interferons directly in the lungs represents a novel therapeutic approach to reset this underlying Th2 pathophysiology with the potential to provide long-term disease modification. We present the nonclinical data and phase 1 clinical profile of an inhaled TLR9 agonist, AZD1419, a C-type CpG designed to induce interferon in the lung...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133223/phenotypical-differences-of-childhood-and-adult-onset-atopic-dermatitis
#8
Jonathan I Silverberg, Paras P Vakharia, Rishi Chopra, Ryan Sacotte, Neha Patel, Supriya Immaneni, Takeisha White, Robert Kantor, Derek Y Hsu
BACKGROUND: Little is known about adult-onset atopic dermatitis (AD). OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations and clinical characteristics of adult-onset AD. METHODS: A prospective study of 356 adults with AD (age ≥18 years) was performed using standardized questionnaires and examination. AD severity was assessed using the Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure, Eczema Area and Severity Index, Scoring Atopic Dermatitis, body surface area, and numeric rating scale for itch and sleeplessness...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133218/cluster-analysis-identifies-3-phenotypes-within-allergic-asthma
#9
María Paz Sendín-Hernández, Carmelo Ávila-Zarza, Catalina Sanz, Asunción García-Sánchez, Elena Marcos-Vadillo, Francisco J Muñoz-Bellido, Elena Laffond, Christian Domingo, María Isidoro-García, Ignacio Dávila
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous chronic disease with different clinical expressions and responses to treatment. In recent years, several unbiased approaches based on clinical, physiological, and molecular features have described several phenotypes of asthma. Some phenotypes are allergic, but little is known about whether these phenotypes can be further subdivided. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to phenotype patients with allergic asthma using an unbiased approach based on multivariate classification techniques (unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis)...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132121/the-therapeutic-potential-of-cftr-modulators-for-copd-and-other-airway-diseases
#10
REVIEW
George M Solomon, Lianwu Fu, Steven M Rowe, James F Collawn
Airways diseases, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, are common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is an ongoing unmet need for novel and effective therapies. There is an established pathophysiological link and phenotypic similarity between the chronic bronchitis phenotype of COPD and cystic fibrosis (CF). New evidence suggests that CFTR dysfunction may play a role in other common airways diseases such as COPD, non-atopic asthma and non-CF bronchiectasis. Newly approved and investigational drugs that target both mutant and wild-type CFTR channels have provided a new treatment opportunity addressing the mucus defect in pulmonary diseases that share the same pathophysiology with CF...
November 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130617/dendritic-cell-phenotype-in-severe-asthma-reflects-clinical-responsiveness-to-glucocorticoids
#11
Emma S Chambers, Alexandra M Nanzer, Paul E Pfeffer, David F Richards, Adrian R Martineau, Christopher J Griffiths, Christopher J Corrigan, Catherine M Hawrylowicz
BACKGROUND: Subsets of patients with severe asthma remain symptomatic despite prolonged, high dosage glucocorticoid therapy. We hypothesised that the clinical glucocorticoid sensitivity of these asthmatics is reflected in differences in peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets. OBJECTIVE: To compare peripheral blood leukocyte populations using flow cytometry at baseline and after 2 weeks of systemic glucocorticoid (steroid) treatment to identify immunological differences between steroid sensitive (SS) and steroid resistant (SR) asthmatics...
November 11, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129583/identification-of-atopic-dermatitis-subgroups-in-children-from-two-longitudinal-birth-cohorts
#12
Lavinia Paternoster, Olga E M Savenije, Jon Heron, David M Evans, Judith M Vonk, Bert Brunekreef, Alet H Wijga, A John Henderson, Gerard H Koppelman, Sara J Brown
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a prevalent disease with variable natural history. Longitudinal birth cohort studies provide an opportunity to define subgroups based on disease trajectories, which may represent different genetic and environmental pathomechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the existence of distinct longitudinal phenotypes of AD and test whether these findings are reproducible in two independent cohorts. METHODS: The presence of AD was examined in two birth cohort studies including 9,894 children from the UK (ALSPAC) and 3,652 from the Netherlands (PIAMA)...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127618/asthma-gerd-and-obesity-triangle-of-inflammation
#13
REVIEW
Samriti Gupta, Rakesh Lodha, S K Kabra
There is increasing prevalence of both asthma and obesity in children globally in recent years. Various epidemiological studies link obesity as a risk factor for asthma and suggest a possible causal association. Obesity asthma phenotype is considered as distinct in view of greater severity and poor asthma control. Various mechanisms underlying this phenotype have been suggested including mechanical effects of obesity and systemic inflammation, but still the exact mechanism is unclear. Also, the comorbidities like gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) lead to inflammation in airways and contribute to asthma obesity association...
November 11, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127369/suppression-of-th17-polarized-airway-inflammation-by-rapamycin
#14
Oana Joean, Anja Hueber, Felix Feller, Adan Chari Jirmo, Matthias Lochner, Anna-Maria Dittrich, Melanie Albrecht
Because Th17-polarized airway inflammation correlates with poor control in bronchial asthma and is a feature of numerous other difficult-to-treat inflammatory lung diseases, new therapeutic approaches for this type of airway inflammation are necessary. We assessed different licensed anti-inflammatory agents with known or expected efficacy against Th17-polarization in mouse models of Th17-dependent airway inflammation. Upon intravenous transfer of in vitro derived Th17 cells and intranasal challenge with the corresponding antigen, we established acute and chronic murine models of Th17-polarised airway inflammation...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108868/does-vitamin-e-prevent-asthma-or-wheeze-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Hui Wu, Chunwei Zhang, Yongqing Wang, Yanlin Li
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with multiple phenotypes. Epidemiologic studies suggest a close relationship between vitamin E and the occurrence of asthma, wheezing and atopic conditions during childhood. Previous results on its effects have been conflicting. The aim of this meta-analysis was to critically examine the current evidence on the association of vitamin E with childhood asthma and wheezing. We searched electronic databases for observational studies in English-language journals published from 2000 to 2016...
October 16, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108767/biologics-in-the-treatment-of-severe-asthma
#16
REVIEW
S Quirce, E Phillips-Angles, J Domínguez-Ortega, P Barranco
Severe asthma is defined as asthma which requires treatment with high dose inhaled corticosteroids and with a second controller drug to prevent it from becoming uncontrolled or which remains uncontrolled despite this therapy. Patients with uncontrolled severe asthma require additional treatment options as add-on therapy, including biologics. Biologic therapies in asthma are designed to block key immune regulators, such as IgE, or certain pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g. interleukin (IL)-5, IL-4, IL-13 or IL-17...
November 3, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106996/chronic-rhinosinusitis-endotypes-biomarkers-and-treatment-response
#17
Jose Gurrola, Larry Borish
It is increasingly recognized that chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) comprises a spectrum of different diseases with distinct clinical presentations and pathogenic mechanisms. Defining the distinct phenotypes and endotypes of CRS impacts prognosis and most importantly is necessary as the basis for making therapeutic decisions. The need for individualized defining of pathogenic mechanisms prior to initiating therapy extends to virtually all therapeutic considerations. This is clearly crucial with antibiotics where, barring an influence from their off-target anti-inflammatory pharmacological effects, an understanding of the role of individual biome predicts likelihood of therapeutic benefit...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103801/guiding-principles-for-use-of-newer-biologics-and-bronchial-thermoplasty-for-patients-with-severe-asthma
#18
Michael S Blaiss, Mario Castro, Bradley E Chipps, Myron Zitt, Reynold A Panettieri, Michael B Foggs
BACKGROUND: Severe asthma poses significant disease-related and economic burdens in the United States. Challenges in practice include how to define "severe asthma" for a given patient, knowing which are the right tests to perform and when, and having a better understanding of a patient's asthma phenotype. Furthermore, current guidelines do not address a clear, practical approach to treatment that is based on a patient's asthma phenotype. OBJECTIVE: To develop a consensus on the definition of severe asthma, the role of biomarkers and phenotyping severe asthma, and the use of newer biologic therapies and bronchial thermoplasty to help guide practicing clinicians...
November 2, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101938/practical-considerations-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-asthma-in-older-adults
#19
REVIEW
Barbara P Yawn, MeiLan K Han
Although often considered a disease of childhood, the prevalence of asthma in US adults aged 65 years or older is similar to that in children, with the number of older patients needing care for asthma likely to continue to increase. As with most chronic diseases, there are challenges associated with the diagnosis and management of asthma in an older population. This review discusses these challenges, suggesting practical management strategies for primary care physicians and their teams. Asthma comprises a spectrum of phenotypes, some associated with adult onset...
November 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100865/clinical-phenotypes-of-nasal-polyps-and-comorbid-asthma-based-on-cluster-analysis-of-disease-history
#20
Dawei Wu, Benjamin S Bleier, Lun Li, Xiaojun Zhan, Lichuan Zhang, Qianwen Lv, Jianting Wang, Yongxiang Wei
BACKGROUND: Nasal polyps and comorbid asthma (NPcA) is a common united airway disease and is highly heterogeneous with respect to clinical, physiologic, and pathologic parameters. The clinical phenotypes of NPcA are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We sought to explore clinical phenotypes in patients with NPcA. METHODS: Patients first diagnosed with NPcA were recruited from Rhinological Clinics and Respiratory Clinics. We clustered patients with NPcA based on parameters regarding natural courses and demographic characteristics...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
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