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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820502/oligonucleotides-targeting-periostin-ameliorates-pulmonary-fibrosis
#1
A Tomaru, T Kobayashi, J A Hinneh, P B Tonto, C N D' Alessandro-Gabazza, H Fujimoto, K Fujiwara, Y Takahashi, M Ohnishi, T Yasuma, K Nishihama, M Yoshino, K Takao, M Toda, T Totoki, Y Takei, K Yoshikawa, O Taguchi, E C Gabazza
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal disease with a median survival of 3 to 4 years after diagnosis. It is the most frequent form of a group of interstitial pneumonias of unknown etiology. Current available therapies prevent deterioration of lung function but no therapy has shown to improve survival. Periostin is a matricellular protein of the fasciclin 1 family. There is increased deposition of periostin in lung fibrotic tissues. Here, we evaluated whether small interfering RNA or antisense oligonucleotide against periostin inhibit lung fibrosis by direct administration into the lung by intranasal route...
August 18, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819702/dnazyme-based-amplified-biosensor-on-ultrasensitive-fluorescence-detection-of-pb-ii-ions-from-aqueous-system
#2
A Ravikumar, P Panneerselvam, K Radhakrishnan, Norhashimah Morad, C D Anuradha, S Sivanesan
A label -free DNAzyme amplified biosensor is found to be highly selective and sensitive towards fluorescent detection of Pb(2+) ions in aqueous media. The DNAzyme complex has designed by the hybridization of the enzyme and substrate strand. In the presence of Pb(2+), the DNAzyme activated and cleaved the substrate strand of RNA site (rA) into two oligonucleotide fragments. Further, the free fragment was hybridized with a complementary strand on the surface of MBs. After magnetic separation, SYBER Green I was added and readily intercalate with the dsDNA to gives a bright fluorescence signal with intensity directly proportional to the concentration of Pb(2+)ions...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819247/delta-inulin-based-adjuvants-promote-the-generation-of-polyfunctional-cd4-t-cell-responses-and-protection-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#3
Claudio Counoupas, Rachel Pinto, Gayathri Nagalingam, Warwick J Britton, Nikolai Petrovsky, James A Triccas
There is an urgent need for the rational design of safe and effective vaccines to protect against chronic bacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Advax™ is a novel adjuvant based on delta inulin microparticles that enhances immunity with a minimal inflammatory profile and has entered human trials to protect against viral pathogens. In this report we determined if Advax displays broad applicability against important human pathogens by assessing protective immunity against infection with M. tuberculosis...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819113/insights-into-the-role-of-endonuclease-v-in-rna-metabolism-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#4
Daniel García-Caballero, Guiomar Pérez-Moreno, Antonio M Estévez, Luis Miguel Ruíz-Pérez, Antonio E Vidal, Dolores González-Pacanowska
Inosine may arise in DNA as a result of oxidative deamination of adenine or misincorporation of deoxyinosine triphosphate during replication. On the other hand, the occurrence of inosine in RNA is considered a normal and essential modification induced by specific adenosine deaminases acting on mRNA and tRNA. In prokaryotes, endonuclease V (EndoV) can recognize and cleave inosine-containing DNA. In contrast, mammalian EndoVs preferentially cleave inosine-containing RNA, suggesting a role in RNA metabolism for the eukaryotic members of this protein family...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818598/serotype-determination-of-salmonella-by-xtag-assay
#5
Zhibei Zheng, Wei Zheng, Haoqiu Wang, Jincao Pan, Xiaoying Pu
Currently, no protocols or commercial kits are available to determine the serotypes of Salmonella by using Luminex MAGPIX®. In this study, an xTAG assay for serotype determination of Salmonella suitable for Luminex MAGPIX® is described and 228 Salmonella isolates were serotype determined by this xTAG assay. The xTAG assay consists of two steps: 1) Multiplex PCR to amplify simultaneously O, H and Vi antigen genes of Salmonella, and 2) Magplex-TAG™ microsphere hybridization to identify accurately the specific PCR products of different antigens...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818035/comparative-analysis-of-inosine-substituted-duplex-dna-by-circular-dichroism-and-x-ray-crystallography
#6
Justin P Peters, Ewa A Kowal, Pradeep S Pallan, Martin Egli, L James Maher
Leveraging structural biology tools, we report the results of experimentsseeking to determine if the different mechanical properties of DNA polymers with base analog substitutions can be attributed, at least in part, to induced changes from classical B-form DNA. The underlying hypothesis is that different inherent bending and twisting flexibilities may characterize non-canonical B-DNA, so that it is inappropriate to interpret mechanical changes caused by base analog substitution as resulting simply from 'electrostatic' or 'base stacking' influences without considering the larger context of altered helical geometry...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817787/evaluation-of-the-electron-transfer-flavoprotein-etf-as-an-antibacterial-target-in-burkholderia-cenocepacia
#7
Maria S Stietz, Christina Lopez, Osasumwen Osifo, Marcelo Tolmasky, Silvia T Cardona
There are hundreds of essential genes in multidrug resistant bacterial genomes, but only a few of their products are exploited as antibacterial targets. An example is the electron flavoprotein (ETF) which is required for growth and viability in <i>Burkholderia cenocepacia</i>. Here, we evaluated ETF as an antibiotic target for <i>Burkholderia cepacia</i> complex (Bcc). Depletion of the bacterial ETF during infection of <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> significantly extended survival of the nematodes, proving that ETF is essential for survival of <i>B...
August 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817209/huntington-s-disease-a-clinical-review
#8
Peter McColgan, Sarah J Tabrizi
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fully penetrant neurodegenerative disease caused by a dominantly inherited CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene on chromosome 4. In Western populations HD has a prevalence of 10.6-13.7 individuals per 100,000. It is characterised by cognitive, motor and psychiatric disturbance. At the cellular level mutant huntingtin results in neuronal dysfunction and death through a number of mechanisms, including disruption of proteostasis, transcription and mitochondrial function and direct toxicity of the mutant protein...
August 17, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817122/single-cell-mechanogenetics-using-monovalent-magnetoplasmonic-nanoparticles
#9
Ji-Wook Kim, Daeha Seo, Jung-Uk Lee, Kaden M Southard, Yongjun Lim, Daehyun Kim, Zev J Gartner, Young-Wook Jun, Jinwoo Cheon
Spatiotemporal interrogation of signal transduction at the single-cell level is necessary to answer a host of important biological questions. This protocol describes a nanotechnology-based single-cell and single-molecule perturbation tool, termed mechanogenetics, that enables precise spatial and mechanical control over genetically encoded cell-surface receptors in live cells. The key components of this tool are a magnetoplasmonic nanoparticle (MPN) actuator that delivers defined spatial and mechanical cues to receptors through target-specific one-to-one engagement and a micromagnetic tweezers (μMT) that remotely controls the magnitude of force exerted on a single MPN...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815049/multi-target-chimaeric-vlp-as-a-therapeutic-vaccine-in-a-model-of-colorectal-cancer
#10
Braeden Donaldson, Farah Al-Barwani, Simon J Pelham, Katie Young, Vernon K Ward, Sarah L Young
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is responsible for almost 700,000 deaths annually worldwide. Therapeutic vaccination is a promising alternative to conventional treatment for colorectal cancer, using vaccines to induce targeted immune responses against tumour-associated antigens. In this study, we have developed chimaeric virus-like particles (VLP), a form of non-infectious non-replicative subunit vaccine consisting of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) VP60 capsid proteins containing recombinantly inserted epitopes from murine topoisomerase IIα and survivin...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814237/statins-in-aortic-stenosis
#11
Karl Norrington, Emmanuel Androulakis, Evangelos Oikonomou, Georgia Vogiatzi, Dimitris Tousoulis
Calcific aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common form of valvular heart disease in Europe and North America. It is a progressive disease with a prolonged period of asymptomatic latency which eventually leads to critical left ventricular outflow tract obstruction necessitating surgical replacement of the valve. Statins are lipid-lowering drugs with a robust evidence base demonstrating clinical benefit in atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. There has therefore been significant interest in the potential benefit of statins in AS...
August 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814074/multifunctional-yolk-shell-nanostructure-as-a-superquencher-for-fluorescent-analysis-of-potassium-ion-using-guanine-rich-oligonucleotides
#12
Na Lu, Yanli Wen, Gang Liu, Lei Ding, Caixia Zeng, Ali Aldalbahi, Muhammad Khan, Govindasami Periyasami, Mostafizur Rahaman, Abdulaziz Alrohaili, Jiye Shi, Shiping Song, Lihua Wang, Min Zhang
The excellent performance of biosensor generally depends on the high signal-to-noise ratio, and the superquencher plays dominant role on the fluorescent sensors. Novel nanoquenchers exhibited high quenching efficiency in various fluorescent assays of bio/chemical molecules. Here, we developed a novel nanobiosensor using Fe3O4@C yolk-shell nanoparticles (YSNPs) and studied their quenching effect. We found the Fe3O4@C YSNP was a superquencher and exhibited an ultrastrong quenching ability, up to almost 100% quenching efficiency, toward fluorophores...
August 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809818/synthesis-of-5-galnac-conjugated-oligonucleotides-a-comparison-of-solid-and-solution-phase-conjugation-strategies
#13
Isaiah Cedillo, Dana Chreng, Elyse Engle, Lijian Chen, Andrew K McPherson, Andrew A Rodriguez
Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) conjugated to triantennary N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc) ligands represent an emerging approach to antisense therapy. Our current generation of GalNAc-ASO conjugates link the GalNAc to the 5'-terminus of the ASO. The conjugation reaction can be accomplished using solution-phase or solid-phase techniques. Here we show a direct comparison of a solution-phase and a solid-phase conjugation strategy. The solution-phase approach, using amine-pentafluorophenyl (PFP) ester coupling, is higher yielding and gives material of slightly higher purity, but requires several additional unit operations and longer production time...
August 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806910/multi-target-chimaeric-vlp-as-a-therapeutic-vaccine-in-a-model-of-colorectal-cancer
#14
Braeden Donaldson, Farah Al-Barwani, Simon J Pelham, Katie Young, Vernon K Ward, Sarah L Young
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is responsible for almost 700,000 deaths annually worldwide. Therapeutic vaccination is a promising alternative to conventional treatment for colorectal cancer, using vaccines to induce targeted immune responses against tumour-associated antigens. In this study, we have developed chimaeric virus-like particles (VLP), a form of non-infectious non-replicative subunit vaccine consisting of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) VP60 capsid proteins containing recombinantly inserted epitopes from murine topoisomerase IIα and survivin...
August 15, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805807/notch-signaling-pathway-and-gene-expression-profiles-during-early-in-vitro-differentiation-of-liver-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-to-osteoblasts
#15
Ksymena Urbanek, Marta Lesiak, Daniel Krakowian, Halina Koryciak-Komarska, Wirginia Likus, Piotr Czekaj, Damian Kusz, Aleksander L Sieroń
Notch signaling is a key signaling pathway for cell proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, we formulated a working hypothesis that Notch signaling can be used to detect early osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells. Changes in expression and distribution of Notch 1, 2, 3, and Delta1 in the cytoplasm and nuclei of rat liver-derived mesenchymal stromal cells differentiating into osteoblasts were investigated, together with the displacement of intracellular domains (ICDs) of the receptors...
August 14, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804220/antitumor-macrophage-response-to-bacillus-pumilus-ribonuclease-binase
#16
Anna Makeeva, Julian Rodriguez-Montesinos, Pavel Zelenikhin, Alexander Nesmelov, Klaus T Preissner, Hector A Cabrera-Fuentes, Olga N Ilinskaya
Extracellular bacterial ribonucleases such as binase from Bacillus pumilus possess cytotoxic activity against tumor cells with a potential for clinical application. Moreover, they may induce activation of tumor-derived macrophages either into the M1-phenotype with well-documented functions in the regulation of the antitumor immune response or into M2-macrophages that may stimulate tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. In this study, binase or endogenous RNase1 (but not RNA or short oligonucleotides) stimulated the expression of activated NF-κB p65 subunit in macrophages...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802410/evaluation-of-24-locus-miru-vntr-genotyping-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-cluster-investigations-in-four-jurisdictions-in-the-united-states-2006-2010
#17
Larry D Teeter, J Steven Kammerer, Smita Ghosh, Duc T M Nguyen, Padmaja Vempaty, Jane Tapia, Roque Miramontes, Wendy A Cronin, Edward A Graviss
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses a combination of spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) analyses as part of the National TB Genotyping Service (NTGS). The NTGS expansion from 12-locus MIRU-VNTR (MIRU12) to 24-locus MIRU-VNTR (MIRU24) in 2009 enhanced the ability to discriminate Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. In the current study, we investigated the MIRU24 concordance among epidemiologic-linked tuberculosis (TB) patients in four U...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801905/pcr-assembly-of-synthetic-promoters
#18
Hodan Mohamed, David Gould
In this chapter, we describe a two-step assembly PCR method to construct synthetic promoters. Essentially, this method takes advantage of specific annealing between complimentary DNA sequences to build random TFBS combinations within the assembled PCR products. A DNA polymerase is then employed to fill in the unpaired nucleotides in the generated sequences and also to amplify the assembled PCR products. We have used this method to generate synthetic promoters whereby the orientation of the TFBS can be controlled, the spacing between TFBS can be predetermined, and also the full diversity of the consensus TFBS can be covered through the use of degenerate oligonucleotides ...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801621/efficient-generation-of-conditional-knockout-mice-via-sequential-introduction-of-lox-sites
#19
Takuro Horii, Sumiyo Morita, Mika Kimura, Naomi Terawaki, Mihiro Shibutani, Izuho Hatada
Conditional knockout using Cre/lox is essential for functional analysis of genes. CRISPR/Cas in combination with two sets of guide RNAs and a single-stranded oligonucleotide enables simultaneous insertion of two lox sequences. However, this method induces double-strand breaks at two sites on the same chromosome, which causes an undesirable chromosomal deletion and reduces the flanked lox (flox) rate. To solve this problem, we investigated a method that sequentially introduces each lox sequence at the 1-cell and 2-cell embryonic stages, respectively...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801461/structural-basis-of-human-prdm9-allele-c-specific-recognition-of-its-cognate-dna-sequence
#20
Anamika Patel, Xing Zhang, Robert M Blumenthal, Xiaodong Cheng
PRDM9 is the only mammalian gene that has been associated with speciation. The PR/SET domain 9 (PRDM9) protein is a major determinant of meiotic recombination hotspots, and acts through sequence-specific DNA binding via its C2H2 zinc finger (ZF) tandem array, which is highly polymorphic within and between species. The most common human variant, PRDM9 allele A (PRDM9a), contains 13 fingers (ZF1-13). Allele C (PRDM9c) is the second-most common among African populations, and differs from PRDM9a by an arginine-to-serine change (R764S) in ZF9, and by replacement of ZF11 with two other fingers, yielding 14 fingers in PRDM9c...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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