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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934818/effects-of-zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein-on-lipid-metabolism-of-liver-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#1
Guoqiang Fan, Yu Qiao, Shixing Gao, Jun Guo, Ruqian Zhao, Xiaojing Yang
Zinc alpha2 glycoprotein (ZAG) is a new type of adipokine involved in adipose tissue mobilization, however, little is known about its lipid metabolism effect in liver. Therefore, we investigated the effects of ZAG in the regulation of hepatic lipid accumulation. Mice were randomly divided into two groups; one was fed a normal diet and another was fed a high-fat diet for eight weeks to establish obesity model. After that, the normal diet group was divided into ND (injection of pcDNA3.1) and NDZ (injection of ZAG recombinant plasmid) and the high-fat diet group was divided into HF (injection of pcDNA3...
September 21, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934731/fasting-spot-urine-ph-is-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-the-japanese-population
#2
Masanori Shimodaira, Shinji Okaniwa, Tomohiro Nakayama
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between urine pH and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components while controlling for covariates. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 5,430 Japanese subjects (4691 without MetS; 739 with MetS) undergoing health assessments. Partial correlation analysis and analysis of covariance were used for controlling confounding parameters (age, gender, serum uric acid (UA) levels, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and smoking and drinking statuses)...
September 19, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934589/low-dietary-protein-and-high-carbohydrate-infant-formula-affects-the-microbial-ecology-of-the-large-intestine-in-neonatal-rats
#3
Wenguang Fan, Haiwei Ren, Yingying Cao, Yonggang Wang, Guicheng Huo
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a low dietary protein and high carbohydrate infant formula on the large intestine of neonatal rats. A total of 24 neonatal SD rats (14d old) were randomly assigned to the low-protein, high-carbohydrate infant formula-fed group (IF group) and a human breast milk-fed group (HF group). After 7 days, we selected 6 rats at random from each group to study. No significantly different microbial colonization patterns were observed in the two groups at the phylum level...
September 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934563/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#4
Hanny Al-Samkari, Nancy Berliner
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a life-threatening disorder characterized by unbridled activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages resulting in hypercytokinemia and immunemediated injury of multiple organ systems. It is seen in both children and adults and is recognized as primary (driven by underlying genetic mutations that abolish critical proteins required for normal function of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells) or secondary (resulting from a malignant, infectious, or autoimmune stimulus without an identifiable underlying genetic trigger)...
September 13, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934550/structural-and-mechanical-roles-for-the-c-terminal-non-repetitive-domain-become-apparent-in-recombinant-spider-aciniform-silk
#5
Lingling Xu, Thierry Lefèvre, Kathleen E Orrell, Qing Meng, Michèle Auger, Xiang-Qin Liu, Jan K Rainey
Spider aciniform (or wrapping) silk is the toughest of the seven types of spider silks/glue due to a combination of high elasticity and strength. Like most spider silk proteins (spidroins), aciniform spidroin (AcSp1) has a large core repetitive domain flanked by relatively short N- and C-terminal non-repetitive domains (the NTD and CTD, respectively). The major ampullate silk protein (MaSp) CTD has been shown to control protein solubility and fiber formation, but the aciniform CTD function remains unknown. Here, we compare fiber mechanical properties, solution-state structuring, and fibrous state secondary structural composition and orientation relative to native aciniform silk for two AcSp1 repeat units with or without fused AcSp1- and MaSp-derived CTDs alongside three AcSp1 repeat units without a CTD...
September 21, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934548/controlling-styrene-maleic-acid-lipid-particles-through-raft
#6
Anton A A Smith, Henriette Elisabeth Autzen, Tomas Laursen, Vincent Wu, Max Yen, Aaron Hall, Scott D Hansen, Yifan Cheng, Ting Xu
The ability of styrene maleic acid copolymers to dissolve lipid membranes into nanosized lipid particles is a facile method of obtaining membrane proteins in solubilized lipid discs while conserving part of its native lipid environment. While the currently used copolymers can readily extract membrane proteins in native nanodiscs, their highly disperse composition is likely to influence the dispersity of the discs as well as the extraction efficiency. In this study, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer was used to control the polymer architecture and dispersity of molecular weights with a high-precision...
September 21, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934505/combining-asymmetric-13c-labeling-and-isotopic-filter-edit-noesy-a-novel-strategy-for-rapid-and-logical-rna-resonance-assignment
#7
Regan M LeBlanc, Andrew P Longhini, Stuart F J Le Grice, Bruce A Johnson, Theodore K Dayie
Although ∼98% of the human genomic output is transcribed as non-protein coding RNA, <2% of the protein data bank structures comprise RNA. This huge structural disparity stems from combined difficulties of crystallizing RNA for X-ray crystallography along with extensive chemical shift overlap and broadened linewidths associated with NMR of RNA. While half of the deposited RNA structures in the PDB were solved by NMR methods, the usefulness of NMR is still limited by the high cost of sample preparation and challenges of resonance assignment...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934494/derivatives-of-bst-like-gss-polymerase-with-improved-processivity-and-inhibitor-tolerance
#8
Igor P Oscorbin, Ekaterina A Belousova, Ulyana A Boyarskikh, Aleksandr I Zakabunin, Evgeny A Khrapov, Maksim L Filipenko
At the moment, one of the actual trends in medical diagnostics is a development of methods for practical applications such as point-of-care testing, POCT or research tools, for example, whole genome amplification, WGA. All the techniques are based on using of specific DNA polymerases having strand displacement activity, high synthetic processivity, fidelity and, most significantly, tolerance to contaminants, appearing from analysed biological samples or collected under purification procedures. Here, we have designed a set of fusion enzymes based on catalytic domain of DNA polymerase I from Geobacillus sp...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934480/hydroxyl-radical-footprinting-combined-with-molecular-modeling-identifies-unique-features-of-dna-conformation-and-nucleosome-positioning
#9
Alexey K Shaytan, Hua Xiao, Grigoriy A Armeev, Carl Wu, David Landsman, Anna R Panchenko
Nucleosomes are the most abundant protein-DNA complexes in eukaryotes that provide compaction of genomic DNA and are implicated in regulation of transcription, DNA replication and repair. The details of DNA positioning on the nucleosome and the DNA conformation can provide key regulatory signals. Hydroxyl-radical footprinting (HRF) of protein-DNA complexes is a chemical technique that probes nucleosome organization in solution with a high precision unattainable by other methods. In this work we propose an integrative modeling method for constructing high-resolution atomistic models of nucleosomes based on HRF experiments...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934455/drug-susceptibility-evaluation-of-an-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-by-analyzing-recombinant-neuraminidase-proteins
#10
Larisa V Gubareva, Katrina Sleeman, Zhu Guo, Hua Yang, Erin Hodges, Charles T Davis, Tatiana Baranovich, James Stevens
Background: Neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors are the recommended antiviral medications for influenza treatment. However, their therapeutic efficacy can be compromised by NA changes that emerge naturally and/or following antiviral treatment. Knowledge of which molecular changes confer drug resistance of influenza A(H7N9) viruses (group 2NA) remains sparse. Methods: Fourteen amino acid substitutions were introduced into the NA of A/Shanghai/2/2013(H7N9). Recombinant N9 (recN9) proteins were expressed in a baculovirus system in insect cells and tested using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention standardized NA inhibition (NI) assay with oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir, and laninamivir...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934453/an-adjuvanted-a-h5n1-subvirion-vaccine-elicits-virus-specific-antibody-response-and-improves-protection-against-lethal-influenza-viral-challenge-in-mouse-model-of-protein-energy-malnutrition
#11
Enitra N Jones, Samuel Amoah, Weiping Cao, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Shivaprakash Gangappa
Background: Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) increases susceptibility to infectious diseases, including influenza infection, but no studies have addressed the potential influences of PEM on the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of avian influenza A(H5N1) vaccine. Methods: We investigated the role of PEM on vaccine-mediated protection after a lethal challenge with recombinant A(H5N1) virus using isocaloric diets providing either adequate protein (AP; 18% protein) or very low protein (VLP; 2% protein) in an established murine model of influenza vaccination...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934434/high-sensitivity-assays-for-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-by-immuno-polymerase-chain-reaction-detection-of-pfideh-and-pfldh-antigens
#12
Jianbing Mu, John F Andersen, Jesus G Valenzuela, Thomas E Wellems
Background: Rapid diagnostic tests based on Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein II (PfHRP-II) and P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) antigens are widely deployed for detection of P. falciparum infection; however, these tests often miss cases of low-level parasitemia, and PfHRP-II tests can give false-negative results when P. falciparum strains do not express this antigen. Methods: We screened proteomic data for highly expressed P. falciparum proteins and compared their features to those of PfHRP-II and PfLDH biomarkers...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934418/systems-biotechnology-for-protein-production-in-pichia-pastoris
#13
Richard J Zahrl, David A Peña, Diethard Mattanovich, Brigitte Gasser
The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (syn. Komagataella spp.) is one of the most important production systems for heterologous proteins. After the first genome sequences were published in 2009, tremendous effort was made to establish systems-level analytical methods. Methylotrophic lifestyle was one of the most thoroughly investigated topics, studied at the levels of transcriptome, proteome and metabolic flux. Also the responses of P. pastoris to environmental stress conditions experienced during high cell density production processes were studied...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934394/microrna-455-3p-as-a-potential-peripheral-biomarker-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Subodh Kumar, Murali Vijayan, P Hemachandra Reddy
The purpose of our study was to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) as early detectable peripheral biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To achieve our objective, we assessed miRNAs in serum samples from AD patients and Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects relative to healthy controls. We used Affymetrix microarray analysis and validated differentially expressed miRNAs using qRT-PCR. We further validated miRNA data using AD postmortem brains, amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice and AD cell lines. We identified a gradual upregulation of four miRNAs: miR-455-3p, miR-4668-5p, miR-3613-3p and miR-4674...
October 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934393/neurofibromatosis-type-1-alternative-splicing-is-a-key-regulator-of-ras-erk-signaling-and-learning-behaviors-in-mice
#15
Hieu T Nguyen, Melissa N Hinman, Xuan Guo, Alok Sharma, Hiroyuki Arakawa, Guangbin Luo, Hua Lou
Appropriate activation of the Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) protein signaling cascade within the brain is crucial for optimal learning and memory. One key regulator of this cascade is the Nf1 Ras GTPase activating protein (RasGAP), which attenuates Ras/ERK signaling by converting active Ras is bound to guanosine triphosphate, activating Ras into inactive Ras is bound to guanosine diphosphate, inactivating Ras. A previous study using embryonic stem cells and embryonic stem cell-derived neurons indicated that Nf1 RasGAP activity is modulated by the highly regulated alternative splicing of Nf1 exon 23a...
October 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934368/a-single-danio-rerio-hars-gene-encodes-both-cytoplasmic-and-mitochondrial-histidyl-trna-synthetases
#16
Ashley L Waldron, Sara Helms Cahan, Christopher S Franklyn, Alicia M Ebert
Histidyl tRNA Synthetase (HARS) is a member of the aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (ARS) family of enzymes. This family of 20 enzymes is responsible for attaching specific amino acids to their cognate tRNA molecules, a critical step in protein synthesis. However, recent work highlighting a growing number of associations between ARS genes and diverse human diseases raises the possibility of new and unexpected functions in this ancient enzyme family. For example, mutations in HARS have been linked to two different neurological disorders, Usher Syndrome Type IIIB and Charcot Marie Tooth peripheral neuropathy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934365/murine-glomerular-transcriptome-links-endothelial-cell-specific-molecule-1-deficiency-with-susceptibility-to-diabetic-nephropathy
#17
Xiaoyi Zheng, Fariborz Soroush, Jin Long, Evan T Hall, Puneeth K Adishesha, Sanchita Bhattacharya, Mohammad F Kiani, Vivek Bhalla
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of kidney disease; however, there are no early biomarkers and no cure. Thus, there is a large unmet need to predict which individuals will develop nephropathy and to understand the molecular mechanisms that govern this susceptibility. We compared the glomerular transcriptome from mice with distinct susceptibilities to DN at four weeks after induction of diabetes, but before histologic injury, and identified differential regulation of genes that modulate inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934355/study-of-myelin-structure-changes-during-the-nerve-fibers-demyelination
#18
Natalia N Rodionova, Elvin S Allakhverdiev, Georgy V Maksimov
Raman, NMR and EPR spectroscopy and electrophysiology methods were used to investigate the excitability and the packaging of myelin lipid layers and its viscosity during nerve exposure to pronase E. It was established that during exposure of nerve to pronase E the action potential (AP) conduction velocity and the Schwann cell (SC) (or myelin) water ordering increases, but the nerve myelin refractive index and internode incisions numbers decrease. This effect included two periods-short- and long-time period, probably, because the first one depends on SC protein changes and the second one-on the nerve fiber internode demyelination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934329/biochemical-and-biomechanical-properties-of-the-pacemaking-sinoatrial-node-extracellular-matrix-are-distinct-from-contractile-left-ventricular-matrix
#19
Jessica M Gluck, Anthony W Herren, Sergey Yechikov, Hillary K J Kao, Ambereen Khan, Brett S Phinney, Nipavan Chiamvimonvat, James W Chan, Deborah K Lieu
Extracellular matrix plays a role in differentiation and phenotype development of its resident cells. Although cardiac extracellular matrix from the contractile tissues has been studied and utilized in tissue engineering, extracellular matrix properties of the pacemaking sinoatrial node are largely unknown. In this study, the biomechanical properties and biochemical composition and distribution of extracellular matrix in the sinoatrial node were investigated relative to the left ventricle. Extracellular matrix of the sinoatrial node was found to be overall stiffer than that of the left ventricle and highly heterogeneous with interstitial regions composed of predominantly fibrillar collagens and rich in elastin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934323/identification-chromosomal-arrangements-and-expression-analyses-of-the-evolutionarily-conserved-prmt1-gene-in-chicken-in-comparison-with-its-vertebrate-paralogue-prmt8
#20
Yi-Chun Wang, Chien-Wen Wang, Wen-Chang Lin, Yun-Jung Tsai, Chien-Ping Chang, Yu-Jen Lee, Min-Jon Lin, Chuan Li
Nine protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) are conserved in mammals and fish. Among these, PRMT1 is the major type I PRMT for asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) formation and is the most conserved and widely distributed one. Two chicken prmt1 splicing variants were assembled and confirmed by RT-PCR experiments. However, only two scaffolds containing single separate prmt1 exon with high GC contents are present in the current chicken genome assembly. Besides, prmt1 exons are scattered in separate small scaffolds in most avian species...
2017: PloS One
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