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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900770/what-are-standardized-literacy-and-numeracy-tests-testing-evidence-of-the-domain-general-contributions-to-students-standardized-educational-test-performance
#1
Steven J Howard, Stuart Woodcock, John Ehrich, Sahar Bokosmaty
BACKGROUND: A fundamental aim of standardized educational assessment is to achieve reliable discrimination between students differing in the knowledge, skills and abilities assessed. However, questions of the purity with which these tests index students' genuine abilities have arisen. Specifically, literacy and numeracy assessments may also engage unintentionally assessed capacities. AIMS: The current study investigated the extent to which domain-general processes - working memory (WM) and non-verbal reasoning - contribute to students' standardized test performance and the pathway(s) through which they exert this influence...
November 30, 2016: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875931/early-numeracy-skills-in-preschool-aged-children-a-review-of-neurocognitive-findings-and-implications-for-assessment-and-intervention
#2
Kimberly P Raghubar, Marcia A Barnes
OBJECTIVES: The goals are to (1) provide a review of the typical and atypical development of early numeracy; (2) present what is known about the neurocognitive underpinnings of early numeracy; and (3) discuss the implications for early assessment and intervention. METHOD: Studies on the development of typical and atypical early numeracy are reviewed with a particular focus on longitudinal findings including those from our work on spina bifida myelomeningocele. Implications of this research for assessment are presented...
November 23, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875175/proact-iterative-design-of-a-patient-centered-visualization-for-effective-prostate-cancer-health-risk-communication
#3
Anzu Hakone, Lane Harrison, Alvitta Ottley, Nathan Winters, Caitlin Gutheil, Paul K J Han, Remco Chang
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the US, and yet most cases represent localized cancer for which the optimal treatment is unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests that the available treatment options, including surgery and conservative treatment, result in a similar prognosis for most men with localized prostate cancer. However, approximately 90% of patients choose surgery over conservative treatment, despite the risk of severe side effects like erectile dysfunction and incontinence. Recent medical research suggests that a key reason is the lack of patient-centered tools that can effectively communicate personalized risk information and enable them to make better health decisions...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872667/the-relationship-between-accuracy-of-numerical-magnitude-comparisons-and-children-s-arithmetic-ability-a-study-in-iranian-primary-school-children
#4
Hamdollah Manzari Tavakoli
The relationship between children's accuracy during numerical magnitude comparisons and arithmetic ability has been investigated by many researchers. Contradictory results have been reported from these studies due to the use of many different tasks and indices to determine the accuracy of numerical magnitude comparisons. In the light of this inconsistency among measurement techniques, the present study aimed to investigate this relationship among Iranian second grade children (n = 113) using a pre-established test (known as the Numeracy Screener) to measure numerical magnitude comparison accuracy...
November 2016: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836461/cognition-in-people-with-prader-willi-syndrome-insights-into-genetic-influences-on-cognitive-and-social-development
#5
REVIEW
Joyce Whittington, Anthony Holland
We present a mini-review of cognition in Prader-Willi syndrome. Studies cited include findings on general ability (IQ), IQ correlates with family members, strengths and weaknesses in cognitive profiles in genetic subtypes, attainment in literacy and numeracy, language, comprehension, modality preferences, executive functions, and social cognition. The latter includes investigations of theory of mind, emotion recognition, face processing and knowledge of social norms. Results from research on mouse models and brain imaging studies relevant to cognition are briefly discussed...
November 8, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830362/numeracy-predicts-risk-of-pre-hospital-decision-delay-a-retrospective-study-of-acute-coronary-syndrome-survival
#6
Dafina Petrova, Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Andrés Catena, Edward Cokely, Ana Heredia Carrasco, Antonio Arrebola Moreno, José Antonio Ramírez Hernández
BACKGROUND: Many patients delay seeking medical attention during acute coronary syndromes (ACS), profoundly increasing their risk for death and major disability. Although research has identified several risk factors, efforts to improve patient decision making have generally been unsuccessful, prompting a call for more research into psychological factors. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to estimate the relationship between ACS decision delay and numeracy, a factor closely related to general decision making skill and risk literacy...
November 9, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822612/perceived-life-expectancy-is-associated-with-colorectal-cancer-screening-in-england
#7
Lindsay C Kobayashi, Christian von Wagner, Jane Wardle
BACKGROUND: Cancer screening is a behavior that represents investment in future health. Such investment may depend on how much 'future' a person expects. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prospective association between perceived personal life expectancy and participation in fecal occult blood test screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) in a national program. METHODS: Data were from interviews with 3975 men and women in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) within the eligible age range for the national screening program (60 to 74 years)...
November 7, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799748/factors-affecting-medication-adherence-in-elderly-people
#8
Hyekyung Jin, Yeonhee Kim, Sandy Jeong Rhie
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL) associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160) aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788790/health-literacy-knowledge-and-patient-satisfaction-before-kidney-transplantation
#9
J Jones, N Rosaasen, J Taylor, R Mainra, A Shoker, D Blackburn, J Wilson, H Mansell
BACKGROUND: Poor health literacy is associated with inferior outcomes in kidney transplant recipients, and knowledge remains suboptimal in this population. The goal of this study was to characterize the health literacy, kidney transplant knowledge, medication beliefs, and education satisfaction in a cohort of patients waiting to undergo kidney transplantation. METHODS: All patients on the wait-list in 1 Canadian center were invited to participate in the study. A research assistant administered the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults and its numeracy section, the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, the Kidney Transplant Understanding Tool, and questions regarding satisfaction...
October 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771012/concept-mapping-as-an-approach-for-expert-guided-model-building-the-example-of-health-literacy
#10
Renate Soellner, Norbert Lenartz, Georg Rudinger
Concept mapping served as the starting point for the aim of capturing the comprehensive structure of the construct of 'health literacy.' Ideas about health literacy were generated by 99 experts and resulted in 105 statements that were subsequently organized by 27 experts in an unstructured card sorting. Multidimensional scaling was applied to the sorting data and a two and three-dimensional solution was computed. The three dimensional solution was used in subsequent cluster analysis and resulted in a concept map of nine "clusters": (1) self-regulation, (2) self-perception, (3) proactive approach to health, (4) basic literacy and numeracy skills, (5) information appraisal, (6) information search, (7) health care system knowledge and acting, (8) communication and cooperation, and (9) beneficial personality traits...
October 11, 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744030/a-healthcare-navigation-tool-assesses-asthma-self-management-and-health-literacy
#11
Luzmercy Perez, Knashawn H Morales, Heather Klusaritz, Xiaoyan Han, Jingru Huang, Marisa Rogers, Ian M Bennett, Cynthia S Rand, Grace Ndicu, Andrea J Apter
BACKGROUND: Self-management of moderate/severe asthma depends upon patients' ability to: 1) navigate (access health care to obtain diagnoses and treatment), 2) use inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) properly, and 3) understand ICS function. OBJECTIVE: To test whether navigation skills (medication recall, knowledge of copay requirements ability to provide information needed for a medical visit about a persistent cough unresponsive to medication), are related to other self-management skills and to health literacy...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731526/health-literacy-literacy-numeracy-and-nutrition-label-understanding-and-use-a-scoping-review-of-the-literature
#12
L Malloy-Weir, M Cooper
BACKGROUND: Low health literacy, literacy and numeracy have been identified as barriers to consumer understanding and the interpretation of nutrition-related information. To inform policy and dietetic practice, we examined the extent, range and nature of research on empirical relationships between health literacy, literacy or numeracy and the understanding and use of nutrition labels. METHODS: A scoping review of the literature was conducted. A search of eight databases on 15 April 2014 and 26 May 2016 returned 651 and 173 records, respectively...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707700/cognitive-linguistic-and-motor-abilities-in-a-multigenerational-family-with-childhood-apraxia-of-speech
#13
Bronwyn Carrigg, Louise Parry, Elise Baker, Lawrence D Shriberg, Kirrie J Ballard
OBJECTIVE: This study describes the phenotype in a large family with a strong, multigenerational history of severe speech sound disorder (SSD) persisting into adolescence and adulthood in approximately half the cases. Aims were to determine whether a core phenotype, broader than speech, separated persistent from resolved SSD cases; and to ascertain the uniqueness of the phenotype relative to published cases. METHOD: Eleven members of the PM family (9-55 years) were assessed across cognitive, language, literacy, speech, phonological processing, numeracy, and motor domains...
October 5, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678378/structural-mapping-in-statistical-word-problems-a-relational-reasoning-approach-to-bayesian-inference
#14
Eric D Johnson, Elisabet Tubau
Presenting natural frequencies facilitates Bayesian inferences relative to using percentages. Nevertheless, many people, including highly educated and skilled reasoners, still fail to provide Bayesian responses to these computationally simple problems. We show that the complexity of relational reasoning (e.g., the structural mapping between the presented and requested relations) can help explain the remaining difficulties. With a non-Bayesian inference that required identical arithmetic but afforded a more direct structural mapping, performance was universally high...
September 27, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668834/the-association-of-graph-literacy-with-use-of-and-skills-using-an-online-personal-health-record-in-outpatient-veterans
#15
Jorge G Ruiz, Allen D Andrade, Christie Hogue, Chandana Karanam, Sisir Akkineni, David Cevallos, Ramanakumar Anam, Joseph Sharit
Personal health records (PHRs) are intended to increase patients' access to and ownership over their health care information for self-management purposes. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of graph literacy with adoption of an online PHR and, among adopters with self-reported skills, the frequency of use and intent to return to use the PHR . We conducted a cross-sectional survey of veterans receiving outpatient care. We measured health literacy, numeracy, graph literacy, and Internet and PHR adoption and use...
2016: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667776/seeing-what-you-want-to-see-how-imprecise-uncertainty-ranges-enhance-motivated-reasoning
#16
Nathan F Dieckmann, Robin Gregory, Ellen Peters, Robert Hartman
In this article, we consider a novel criterion for evaluating representations of uncertainty ranges, namely, the extent to which a representation enhances motivated reasoning. In two studies, we show that perceptions of the distribution underlying ambiguous numerical ranges are affected by the motivations and worldviews of end users. This motivated reasoning effect remained after controlling for objective numeracy and fluid intelligence but was attenuated when the correct interpretation was made clear. We suggest that analysts and communicators explicitly consider the potential for motivated evaluation when evaluating uncertainty displays...
September 26, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662442/perceptions-of-provider-communication-among-vulnerable-patients-with-diabetes-influences-of-medical-mistrust-and-health-literacy
#17
Richard O White, Rosette J Chakkalakal, Caroline A Presley, Aihua Bian, Jonathan S Schildcrout, Kenneth A Wallston, Shari Barto, Sunil Kripalani, Russell Rothman
Patient-provider communication is modifiable and is linked to diabetes outcomes. The association of communication quality with medical mistrust is unknown. We examined these factors within the context of a low-literacy/numeracy-focused intervention to improve diabetes care, using baseline data from diverse patients enrolled in a randomized trial of a health communication intervention. Demographics, measures of health communication (Communication Assessment Tool [CAT], Interpersonal Processes of Care survey [IPC-18]), health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults), depression, medical mistrust, and glycemic control were ascertained...
2016: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661291/how-are-information-seeking-scanning-and-processing-related-to-beliefs-about-the-roles-of-genetics-and-behavior-in-cancer-causation
#18
Erika A Waters, Courtney Wheeler, Jada G Hamilton
Understanding that cancer is caused by both genetic and behavioral risk factors is an important component of genomic literacy. However, a considerable percentage of people in the United States do not endorse such multifactorial beliefs. Using nationally representative cross-sectional data from the U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (N = 2,529), we examined how information seeking, information scanning, and key information-processing characteristics were associated with endorsing a multifactorial model of cancer causation...
2016: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649816/visual-attention-and-academic-performance-in-children-with-developmental-disabilities-and-behavioural-attention-deficits
#19
Hannah E Kirk, Kylie Gray, Deborah M Riby, John Taffe, Kim M Cornish
Despite well-documented attention deficits in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), distinctions across types of attention problems and their association with academic attainment has not been fully explored. This study examines visual attention capacities and inattentive/hyperactive behaviours in 77 children aged 4 to 11 years with IDD and elevated behavioural attention difficulties. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 23), Down syndrome (DS; n = 22), and non-specific intellectual disability (NSID; n = 32) completed computerized visual search and vigilance paradigms...
September 21, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646872/what-factors-moderate-self-other-discrepancies-in-decision-making-results-from-a-vaccination-scenario
#20
Dafina Petrova, Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Joop van der Pligt
When we make risky decisions for others, we tend to follow social norms about risks. This often results in making different decisions for others than we would make for ourselves in a similar situation (i.e., self-other discrepancies). In an experiment, we investigated self-other discrepancies in young adults' decisions to purchase a vaccine against a sexually-transmitted virus for themselves or for another person (i.e., the target of the decision). When the target's preferences were in line with social norms, surrogates showed large self-other discrepancies in line with these norms...
2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
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