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Numeracy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811256/cognitive-estimation-performance-of-patients-with-focal-frontal-and-posterior-lesions
#1
Lisa Cipolotti, Sarah E MacPherson, Sara Gharooni, Natasja van-Harskamp, Tim Shallice, Edgar Chan, Parashkev Nachev
The Cognitive Estimation Test (CET) is a widely used test to investigate estimation abilities requiring complex processes such as reasoning, the development and application of appropriate strategies, response plausibility checking as well as general knowledge and numeracy (e.g., Shallice and Evans, 1978; MacPherson et al., 2014). Thus far, it remains unknown whether the CET is both sensitive and specific to frontal lobe dysfunction. Neuroimaging techniques may not represent a useful methodology for answering this question since the complex processes involved are likely to be associated with a large network of brain regions, some of which are not functionally necessary to successfully carry out the CET...
August 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810522/unrepresented-community-odour-impact-improving-engagement-strategies
#2
J E Hayes, R M Fisher, R J Stevenson, C Mannebeck, R M Stuetz
Complaints for odour causing industry continue to increase in numeracy and severity. One assessment approach using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O), has been used primarily to identify priority odourants within a standardised panel. We investigated the variation of response between participants of average and high olfactory sensitivity, and discovered that current GC-MS/O methodologies do not represent the entirety of community odour impact. Based on these results we constructed a Biosolids Processing Odour Wheel followed by a Community Odour Wheel for use by untrained community members and site operators...
August 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792973/the-effects-of-normal-aging-on-multiple-aspects-of-financial-decision-making
#3
Dorien F Bangma, Anselm B M Fuermaier, Lara Tucha, Oliver Tucha, Janneke Koerts
OBJECTIVES: Financial decision-making (FDM) is crucial for independent living. Due to cognitive decline that accompanies normal aging, older adults might have difficulties in some aspects of FDM. However, an improved knowledge, personal experience and affective decision-making, which are also related to normal aging, may lead to a stable or even improved age-related performance in some other aspects of FDM. Therefore, the present explorative study examines the effects of normal aging on multiple aspects of FDM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771221/childhood-outcomes-following-preterm-prelabor-rupture-of-the-membranes-pprom-a-population-based-record-linkage-cohort-study
#4
C L Roberts, P Wagland, S Torvaldsen, J R Bowen, J P Bentley, J M Morris
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine child health, development and educational outcomes for infants born following preterm prelabor rupture of the membrane (PPROM). STUDY DESIGN: Population-based record linkage cohort study using data from NSW, Australia, 2001 to 2014. RESULTS: Of 121 822 births at 20 to 37 weeks, 18 799 (15%) followed PPROM, 56 406 (46%) followed spontaneous labor and 46 617 (38%) were planned. Compared with infants of a similar gestational age born following spontaneous labor or planned delivery, exposure to PPROM did not increase the risk of childhood mortality, childhood hospitalization, developmentally vulnerable at school entry, low reading or numeracy scores...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764895/numeracy-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-comparison-of-patients-from-the-percept-study-to-a-german-probabilistic-sample
#5
Wolfgang Gaissmaier, Helge Giese, Mirta Galesic, Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Juergen Kasper, Ingo Kleiter, Sven G Meuth, Sascha Köpke, Christoph Heesen
OBJECTIVE: A shared decision-making approach is suggested for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. To properly evaluate benefits and risks of different treatment options accordingly, MS patients require sufficient numeracy - the ability to understand quantitative information. It is unknown whether MS affects numeracy. Therefore, we investigated whether patients' numeracy was impaired compared to a probabilistic national sample. METHODS: As part of the larger prospective, observational, multicenter study PERCEPT, we assessed numeracy for a clinical study sample of German MS patients (N=725) with a standard test and compared them to a German probabilistic sample (N=1001), controlling for age, sex, and education...
July 17, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750907/barriers-to-technology-use-among-older-heart-failure-individuals-in-managing-their-symptoms-after-hospital-discharge
#6
Linda Nguyen, Karim Keshavjee, Norm Archer, Christopher Patterson, Femida Gwadry-Sridhar, Catherine Demers
BACKGROUND: In North America, heart failure (HF) is the leading cause for hospital readmission. Supportive technology, such as computers and tablets, could potentially assist patients with self-care to manage their condition after hospital discharge; however, older individuals have difficulties in adopting technology to manage their condition. METHOD: This study used a mixed methods design to identify barriers to technology use in HF self-care. In the qualitative phase, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 HF patients and 10 informal caregivers or care partners (CP)...
September 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738407/pain-and-learning-in-primary-school-a-population-based-study
#7
Silja Kosola, Lisa K Mundy, Susan M Sawyer, Louise Canterford, Danielle A van der Windt, Kate M Dunn, George C Patton
Despite the frequency of pain among children, little is known about its effects on learning and school outcomes. The objective of this study was to quantify the association of pain and academic achievement while taking into account the presence of co-occurring emotional symptoms. A population-based stratified random sample of 1239 students aged 8 to 9 years from primary schools in Melbourne, Australia, was recruited for the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study. Children indicated sites of pain that had lasted for a day or longer in the past month using a pain manikin...
June 21, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736251/patient-centered-approaches-to-creating-understandable-health-information
#8
REVIEW
Anobel Y Odisho, John L Gore
As care delivery shifts to further include patients in shared decision-making, patient-centered health information can balance the information asymmetry between patients and providers. Patient health literacy, numeracy, and graph literacy must match that of health information materials to create understandable health information that empowers patients to participate in shared decision-making. We consider an iterative approach focused on three key steps: assessment of the specific information needs of the selected patient community, assessment of that community's ability to receive and understand health information, and evaluation of the materials developed to assess effectiveness...
July 20, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730883/affected-aspects-regarding-literacy-and-numeracy-in-children-treated-for-brain-tumors
#9
Malin Lönnerblad, Riikka Lovio, Eva Berglund, Ingrid Van't Hooft
The aim of this study was to investigate the test results of reading speed, reading comprehension, word comprehension, spelling, basic arithmetic skills, and number sense (intuitive understanding of numbers) by children treated for brain tumors. This is a retrospective study based on medical records, including standardized academic tests. In the years of 2010 to 2014, all children in the area of Stockholm between 7 and 18 years (IQ <70) who had no major linguistic or motor difficulties after they had undergone treatment for brain tumors were offered a special education assessment one year after treatment, at school start, or the year before a transition from one stage to another...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708296/household-socioeconomic-status-and-parental-investments-direct-and-indirect-relations-with-school-readiness-in-ghana
#10
Sharon Wolf, Dana Charles McCoy
This study examines how parent socioeconomic status (SES) directly and indirectly predicts children's school readiness through pathways of parental investment. Data come from direct assessments with preschool children and surveys with their primary caregivers in Ghana at the start of the 2015-2016 school year (N = 2,137; Mage  = 5.2 years). Results revealed SES-related gaps in all parental investment characteristics and child school readiness skills. Preschool involvement served as the primary mediating mechanism in the path from SES to most school readiness skills, though it did not predict executive function...
July 14, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706500/executive-functions-do-not-mediate-prospective-relations-between-indices-of-physical-activity-and-academic-performance-the-active-smarter-kids-ask-study
#11
Katrine N Aadland, Yngvar Ommundsen, Eivind Aadland, Kolbjørn S Brønnick, Arne Lervåg, Geir K Resaland, Vegard F Moe
Changes in cognitive function induced by physical activity have been proposed as a mechanism for the link between physical activity and academic performance. The aim of this study was to investigate if executive function mediated the prospective relations between indices of physical activity and academic performance in a sample of 10-year-old Norwegian children. The study included 1,129 children participating in the Active Smarter Kids (ASK) trial, followed over 7 months. Structural equation modeling (SEM) with a latent variable of executive function (measuring inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility) was used in the analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704410/improving-numeracy-through-values-affirmation-enhances-decision-and-stem-outcomes
#12
Ellen Peters, Brittany Shoots-Reinhard, Mary Kate Tompkins, Dan Schley, Louise Meilleur, Aleksander Sinayev, Martin Tusler, Laura Wagner, Jennifer Crocker
Greater numeracy has been correlated with better health and financial outcomes in past studies, but causal effects in adults are unknown. In a 9-week longitudinal study, undergraduate students, all taking a psychology statistics course, were randomly assigned to a control condition or a values-affirmation manipulation intended to improve numeracy. By the final week in the course, the numeracy intervention (statistics-course enrollment combined with values affirmation) enhanced objective numeracy, subjective numeracy, and two decision-related outcomes (financial literacy and health-related behaviors)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691169/academic-performance-in-primary-school-children-with-common-emotional-and-behavioral-problems
#13
Lisa K Mundy, Louise Canterford, Dawn Tucker, Jordana Bayer, Helena Romaniuk, Susan Sawyer, Petra Lietz, Gerry Redmond, Jenny Proimos, Nicholas Allen, George Patton
BACKGROUND: Many emotional and behavioral problems first emerge in primary school and are the forerunners of mental health problems occurring in adolescence. However, the extent that these problems may be associated with academic failure has been explored less. We aimed to quantify the association between emotional and behavioral problems with academic performance. METHODS: A stratified random sample of 8- to 9-year-olds (N = 1239) were recruited from schools in Australia...
August 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665090/the-bingo-card-sign-as-an-early-symptom-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
C L A Hawco, D F Weaver
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized pathologically by irreversible protein misfolding-induced neuronal loss, and clinically by progressive impairments in memory, judgment, decision making, literacy and numeracy. We report a patient referred to Memory Clinic with a single complaint, "reduced capacity to play bingo." We suggest that the capacity to successfully play bingo may afford clinical clues indicating an early symptom of dementia and inquiries about bingo participation may be a useful when assessing individuals for dementia...
April 10, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652467/systolic-blood-pressure-and-biochemical-assessment-of-adherence-a-cross-sectional-analysis-in-the-emergency-department
#15
Candace D McNaughton, Nancy J Brown, Russell L Rothman, Dandan Liu, Edmond K Kabagambe, Phillip D Levy, Wesley H Self, Alan B Storrow, Sean P Collins, Christianne L Roumie
Elevated blood pressure (BP) is common in the emergency department (ED), but the relationship between antihypertensive medication adherence and BP in the ED is unclear. This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that higher antihypertensive adherence is associated with lower systolic BP (SBP) in the ED among adults with hypertension who sought ED care at an academic hospital from July 2012 to April 2013. Biochemical assessment of antihypertensive adherence was performed using a mass spectrometry blood assay, and the primary outcome was average ED SBP...
August 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652070/peer-victimisation-and-academic-performance-in-primary-school-children
#16
Lisa K Mundy, Louise Canterford, Silja Kosola, Louisa Degenhardt, Nicholas B Allen, George C Patton
OBJECTIVE: Peer victimisation is a common antecedent of poor social and emotional adjustment. Its relationship with objectively measured academic performance is unclear. This study aimed to quantify the cross-sectional associations between peer victimisation and academic performance in a large population sample of children. METHODS: Eight-nine year olds were recruited from a stratified random sample of primary schools in Australia. Academic performance was measured on a national achievement test (one year of learning equals 40 points)...
June 23, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649118/numbers-for-the-innumerate-everyday-arithmetic-and-atlantic-capitalism
#17
Caitlin Rosenthal
In nineteenth-century America and the Atlantic world, the "rule of three" was usually regarded as the endpoint of a basic mathematics education. This essay considers the importance of the rule as a technology that enabled broader access to the calculations necessary to participate in the increasingly global market economy. Used by workmen, women, and even the enslaved, the rule and related tools translated basic literacy into practical numeracy. By doing so, it offered a diverse range of people the ability to negotiate more effectively...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625210/household-everyday-functioning-in-the-internet-age-online-shopping-and-banking-skills-are-affected-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#18
Steven Paul Woods, Jennifer E Iudicello, Erin E Morgan, Marizela Verduzco, Tyler V Smith, Clint Cushman
OBJECTIVES: The Internet is a fundamental tool for completing many different instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), including shopping and banking. Persons with HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) are at heightened risk for IADL problems, but the extent to which HAND interferes with the performance of Internet-based household IADLs is not known. METHODS: Ninety-three individuals with HIV disease, 43 of whom were diagnosed with HAND, and 42 HIV- comparison participants completed Internet-based tests of shopping and banking...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618918/does-guiding-toward-task-relevant-information-help-improve-graph-processing-and-graph-comprehension-of-individuals-with-low-or-high-numeracy-an-eye-tracker-experiment
#19
Carmen Keller, Alex Junghans
BACKGROUND: Individuals with low numeracy have difficulties with understanding complex graphs. Combining the information-processing approach to numeracy with graph comprehension and information-reduction theories, we examined whether high numerates' better comprehension might be explained by their closer attention to task-relevant graphical elements, from which they would expect numerical information to understand the graph. Furthermore, we investigated whether participants could be trained in improving their attention to task-relevant information and graph comprehension...
June 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618393/young-infants-visual-fixation-patterns-in-addition-and-subtraction-tasks-support-an-object-tracking-account
#20
J Gavin Bremner, Alan M Slater, Rachel A Hayes, Uschi C Mason, Caroline Murphy, Jo Spring, Lucinda Draper, David Gaskell, Scott P Johnson
Investigating infants' numerical ability is crucial to identifying the developmental origins of numeracy. Wynn (1992) claimed that 5-month-old infants understand addition and subtraction as indicated by longer looking at outcomes that violate numerical operations (i.e., 1+1=1 and 2-1=2). However, Wynn's claim was contentious, with others suggesting that her results might reflect a familiarity preference for the initial array or that they could be explained in terms of object tracking. To cast light on this controversy, Wynn's conditions were replicated with conventional looking time supplemented with eye-tracker data...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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