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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048176/meta-analysis-of-the-effect-of-natural-frequencies-on-bayesian-reasoning
#1
Michelle McDowell, Perke Jacobs
The natural frequency facilitation effect describes the finding that people are better able to solve descriptive Bayesian inference tasks when represented as joint frequencies obtained through natural sampling, known as natural frequencies, than as conditional probabilities. The present meta-analysis reviews 20 years of research seeking to address when, why, and for whom natural frequency formats are most effective. We review contributions from research associated with the 2 dominant theoretical perspectives, the ecological rationality framework and nested-sets theory, and test potential moderators of the effect...
October 19, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029347/childhood-health-and-educational-outcomes-associated-with-maternal-sleep-apnea-a-population-record-linkage-study
#2
Yu Sun Bin, Peter A Cistulli, Christine L Roberts, Jane B Ford
Objectives: Sleep apnea in pregnancy is known to adversely affect birth outcomes. Whether in utero exposure to maternal sleep apnea is associated with long-term childhood consequences is unclear. Methods: Population-based longitudinal study of singleton infants born during 2002 to 2012 was conducted using linked birth, hospital, death, developmental, and educational records from New South Wales, Australia. Maternal sleep apnea during pregnancy was identified from hospital records...
October 5, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025357/fatherhood-in-australian-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-communities-an-examination-of-barriers-and-opportunities-to-strengthen-the-male-parenting-role
#3
Lyndon Reilly, Susan Rees
Traditional Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander societies value men's role as parents; however, the importance of promoting fatherhood as a key social determinant of men's well-being has not been fully appreciated in Western medicine. To strengthen the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander male parenting role, it is vital to examine current barriers and opportunities. The first author (a male Aboriginal health project officer) conducted yarning sessions in three remote Australian communities, two being Aboriginal, the other having a high Aboriginal population...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972507/the-state-of-the-science-of-health-literacy-measurement
#4
Tam H Nguyen, Michael K Paasche-Orlow, Lauren A McCormack
Advancing health literacy (HL) research requires high-quality HL measures. This chapter provides an overview of the state of the science of HL measurement: where the field started, currently is, and should be going. It is divided into eight key sections looking at (1) the history of HL measurement, (2) the relationship between HL definitions and measurement, (3) the HL conceptual domains most and least frequently measured, (4) the methods used to validate HL measures, (5) the characteristics of the participants in the measurement validation studies, (6) the practical considerations related to administering HL measures, (7) the advantages and disadvantages of using objective versus subjective HL measures, and (8) future directions for HL measurement...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969613/diabetes-prevention-among-american-indians-the-role-of-self-efficacy-risk-perception-numeracy-and-cultural-identity
#5
Vanessa W Simonds, Adam Omidpanah, Dedra Buchwald
BACKGROUND: According to the Risk Perception Attitude (RPA) framework, classifying people according to their perceptions of disease risk and their self-efficacy beliefs allows us to predict their likelihood for engaging in preventive behaviors. Health interventions can then be targeted according to RPA group. We applied the framework to type 2 diabetes prevention behaviors among American Indians and expanded it to include culture and numeracy. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, we surveyed a sample of Northern Plains American Indians in a reservation community setting on self-reported perceptions of diabetes risk, objective diabetes risk, self-efficacy, engagement in healthy behaviors, knowledge of diabetes risk factors, and covariates including demographics, numeracy, and cultural identity...
October 2, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950855/repeated-testing-improves-achievement-in-a-blended-learning-approach-for-risk-competence-training-of-medical-students-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
C Spreckelsen, J Juenger
BACKGROUND: Adequate estimation and communication of risks is a critical competence of physicians. Due to an evident lack of these competences, effective training addressing risk competence during medical education is needed. Test-enhanced learning has been shown to produce marked effects on achievements. This study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated tests implemented on top of a blended learning program for risk competence. METHODS: We introduced a blended-learning curriculum for risk estimation and risk communication based on a set of operationalized learning objectives, which was integrated into a mandatory course "Evidence-based Medicine" for third-year students...
September 26, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933883/not-just-numeracy-and-literacy-theory-of-mind-development-and-school-readiness-among-low-income-children
#7
Elizabeth Woodburn Cavadel, Douglas A Frye
The current study investigated the role of theory of mind development in school readiness among 120 low-income preschool and kindergarten children. A short-term longitudinal design was used to examine relations among theory of mind, the understanding of teaching, and learning behaviors and their collective role in children's literacy and numeracy skills at school entry. Results replicate differences in theory of mind development among low-income children as compared to typically studied, higher-income samples...
September 21, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932246/implementation-and-evaluation-of-an-intervention-for-children-in-afghanistan-at-risk-for-substance-use-or-actively-using-psychoactive-substances
#8
Abdul Subor Momand, Elizabeth Mattfeld, Brian Morales, Manzoor Ul Haq, Thom Browne, Kevin E O'Grady, Hendrée E Jones
The present study examined the impact of a novel intervention for children at risk for substance use or actively using substances that was provided to 783 children between 4 and 18 years of age in Afghanistan. They received the Child Intervention for Living Drug-free (CHILD) protocol while in outpatient or residential treatment. CHILD included age-appropriate literacy and numeracy, drug education, basic living safety, and communication and trauma coping skills. A battery of measures examined multiple child health domains at treatment's start and end and 12 weeks later...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904336/the-relation-between-cesarean-birth-and-child-cognitive-development
#9
Cain Polidano, Anna Zhu, Joel C Bornstein
This is the first detailed study of the relation between cesarean birth and child cognitive development. We measure differences in child cognitive performance at 4 to 9 years of age between cesarean-born and vaginally-born children (n = 3,666) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). LSAC is a nationally representative birth cohort surveyed biennially. Using multivariate regression, we control for a large range of confounders related to perinatal risk factors and the socio-economic advantage associated with cesarean-born children...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903676/the-influence-of-effortful-thought-and-cognitive-proficiencies-on-the-conjunction-fallacy-implications-for-dual-process-theories-of-reasoning-and-judgment
#10
Laura D Scherer, J Frank Yates, S Glenn Baker, Kathrene D Valentine
Human judgment often violates normative standards, and virtually no judgment error has received as much attention as the conjunction fallacy. Judgment errors have historically served as evidence for dual-process theories of reasoning, insofar as these errors are assumed to arise from reliance on a fast and intuitive mental process, and are corrected via effortful deliberative reasoning. In the present research, three experiments tested the notion that conjunction errors are reduced by effortful thought. Predictions based on three different dual-process theory perspectives were tested: lax monitoring, override failure, and the Tripartite Model...
June 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900615/exploring-genetic-numeracy-skills-in-a-sample-of-u-s-university-students
#11
Margo W Bergman, Patricia Goodson, Heather Honoré Goltz
Misconceptions concerning numerical genetic risk exist even within educated populations. To more fully characterize and understand the extent of these risk misunderstandings, which have large potential impact on clinical care, we analyzed the responses from 2,576 students enrolled at 2 Southwestern universities using the PGRID tool, a 138-item web-based survey comprising measures of understanding of genetics, genetic disease, and genetic risk. The primary purpose of this study was to characterize the intersection of risk perception and knowledge, termed genetic numeracy (GN)...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885104/not-threat-but-threatening-potential-causes-and-consequences-of-gay-innumeracy
#12
Donald P Haider-Markel, Mark R Joslyn
Existing literature on numeracy suggests that people are likely to perceive outgroups as larger if the group is perceived as threatening. However, some studies also suggest that numeracy is a function of wishful thinking or even a lack of political knowledge. We engage the literature on numeracy of the gay and lesbian population by employing data from 1977 and 2013 surveys of American adults. We examine the factors that are associated with estimating the gay population. Next we explore how innumeracy may shape attitudes about homosexuality and gay rights...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884617/strengths-and-gaps-in-physicians-risk-communication-a-scenario-study-of-the-influence-of-numeracy-on-cancer-screening-communication
#13
Dafina Petrova, Olga Kostopoulou, Brendan C Delaney, Edward T Cokely, Rocio Garcia-Retamero
OBJECTIVE: Many patients have low numeracy, which impedes their understanding of important information about health (e.g., benefits and harms of screening). We investigated whether physicians adapt their risk communication to accommodate the needs of patients with low numeracy, and how physicians' own numeracy influences their understanding and communication of screening statistics. METHODS: UK family physicians ( N = 151) read a description of a patient seeking advice on cancer screening...
September 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868781/long-term-outcomes-for-large-for-gestational-age-infants-born-at-term
#14
Amina Z Khambalia, Charles S Algert, Jennifer R Bowen, Rebecca J Collie, Christine L Roberts
AIM: Large for gestational age (LGA) babies have increased risks for short-term outcomes such as shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycaemia and longer hospital stay. Little is known of long-term health, development and educational outcomes of LGA babies. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term health, mortality, development and educational outcomes for infants born LGA at term. METHODS: A population-based record linkage study of live singletons born at term (37-41 weeks of gestation) in New South Wales, Australia, from 2001 to 2006...
September 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858147/toward-meaningful-care-plan-clinical-decision-support-feasibility-and-effects-of-a-simulated-pilot-study
#15
Gail M Keenan, Karen Dunn Lopez, Yingwei Yao, Vanessa E C Sousa, Janet Stifter, Alessandro Febretti, Andrew Johnson, Diana J Wilkie
BACKGROUND: Clinical decision support (CDS) tools-with easily understood and actionable information, at the point of care-are needed to help registered nurses (RNs) make evidence-based decisions. Not clear are the optimal formats of CDS tools. Thorough, preclinical testing is desirable to avoid costly errors associated with premature implementation in electronic health records. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to determine feasibility of the protocol designed to compare multiple CDS formats and evaluate effects of numeracy and graph literacy on RN adoption of best practices and care planning time in a simulated environment...
September 2017: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837862/childhood-deprivation-and-later-life-cognitive-function-in-a-population-based-study-of-older-rural-south-africans
#16
Lindsay C Kobayashi, M Maria Glymour, Kathleen Kahn, Collin F Payne, Ryan G Wagner, Livia Montana, Farrah J Mateen, Stephen M Tollman, Lisa F Berkman
RATIONALE: Little research has evaluated the life course drivers of cognitive aging in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationships of self-rated childhood health and father's occupation during childhood with later-life cognitive function score and whether educational attainment mediated these relationships among older South Africans living in a former region of Apartheid-era racial segregation. METHODS: Data were from baseline assessments of "Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community" (HAALSI), a population-based study of 5059 men and women aged ≥40 years in 2015 in rural Agincourt sub-district, South Africa...
August 14, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832969/little-evidence-that-socioeconomic-status-modifies-heritability-of-literacy-and-numeracy-in-australia
#17
Katrina L Grasby, William L Coventry, Brian Byrne, Richard K Olson
Socioeconomic status (SES) has been found to moderate the influence of genes and the environment on cognitive ability, such that genetic influence is greater when SES is higher, and the shared environment is greater when SES is lower, but not in all Western countries. The effects of both family and school SES on the heritability of literacy and numeracy in Australian twins aged 8, 10, 12, and 14 years with 1,307, 1,235, 1,076, and 930 pairs at each age, respectively, were tested. Shared environmental influences on Grade 3 literacy were greater with low family SES, and no other moderating effects of SES were significant...
August 18, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811256/cognitive-estimation-performance-of-patients-with-focal-frontal-and-posterior-lesions
#18
Lisa Cipolotti, Sarah E MacPherson, Sara Gharooni, Natasja van-Harskamp, Tim Shallice, Edgar Chan, Parashkev Nachev
The Cognitive Estimation Test (CET) is a widely used test to investigate estimation abilities requiring complex processes such as reasoning, the development and application of appropriate strategies, response plausibility checking as well as general knowledge and numeracy (e.g., Shallice and Evans, 1978; MacPherson et al., 2014). Thus far, it remains unknown whether the CET is both sensitive and specific to frontal lobe dysfunction. Neuroimaging techniques may not represent a useful methodology for answering this question since the complex processes involved are likely to be associated with a large network of brain regions, some of which are not functionally necessary to successfully carry out the CET...
August 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810522/unrepresented-community-odour-impact-improving-engagement-strategies
#19
J E Hayes, R M Fisher, R J Stevenson, C Mannebeck, R M Stuetz
Complaints for odour causing industry continue to increase in numeracy and severity. One assessment approach using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O), has been used primarily to identify priority odourants within a standardised panel. We investigated the variation of response between participants of average and high olfactory sensitivity, and discovered that current GC-MS/O methodologies do not represent the entirety of community odour impact. Based on these results we constructed a Biosolids Processing Odour Wheel followed by a Community Odour Wheel for use by untrained community members and site operators...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792973/the-effects-of-normal-aging-on-multiple-aspects-of-financial-decision-making
#20
Dorien F Bangma, Anselm B M Fuermaier, Lara Tucha, Oliver Tucha, Janneke Koerts
OBJECTIVES: Financial decision-making (FDM) is crucial for independent living. Due to cognitive decline that accompanies normal aging, older adults might have difficulties in some aspects of FDM. However, an improved knowledge, personal experience and affective decision-making, which are also related to normal aging, may lead to a stable or even improved age-related performance in some other aspects of FDM. Therefore, the present explorative study examines the effects of normal aging on multiple aspects of FDM...
2017: PloS One
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