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Bryan D James, Robert S Wilson, Raj C Shah, Lei Yu, Zoe Arvanitakis, David A Bennett, Patricia A Boyle
BACKGROUND: Lowering the likelihood of hospitalization in older adults is a major public health goal for modern health care systems. Emerging data suggest that financial literacy is an important determinant of health outcomes in old age, but the relationship with hospitalization has not been explored. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that better financial literacy is related to lower risk of hospitalization in older persons. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study...
July 2018: Medical Care
Manuela Meraner, Oliver Musshoff, Robert Finger
The data presented here contains information on risk preferences, risk literacy and personal characteristics collected from 244 German agricultural sciences students in an online survey in 2015. Two different risk preference elicitation methods have been used. First, we used an iterative multiple price list (iMPL). Second, a simple self-assessment of risk preferences was used. Moreover, we used two different frames of the iMPL (general and context specific). Inconsistent behavior within the iMPL has been documented...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Wenhui Feng, Ashley Fox
Menu calorie labeling aims to empower customers to make healthier food choices, but researchers have questioned whether labels will empower those with greater health literacy, literacy or numeracy more, possibly reinforcing racial/ethnic or socioeconomic disparities in obesity. The goal of this study was to investigate differences in seeing and using restaurant menu calorie labels and whether differences have compounded over time. Using data from three rounds of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey covering the period 2007-2014, we investigate race-ethnic and socio-economic differences in menu label usage over time adjusting for sex, age and body weight...
June 9, 2018: Appetite
Katherine Ross, Justin Stoler, Nick Carcioppolo
Low numeracy may skew patient perceptions of information about cancer. This paper examines the relationship between self-reported measures of perceived numeracy and cancer knowledge, beliefs, and affect, using results from 3,052 respondents to the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS-3). Chi-squared tests were used to identify differences in responses between high- and low-numeracy groups using three measures of perceived numeracy. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between the three perceived numeracy measures and cancer information overload, cancer fatalism, cancer prevention knowledge, and cancer worry...
2018: PloS One
Maria Dgh Mulders, O Corneille, O Klein
The purpose of this study was to investigate objective performance on a nutrition label comprehension task, and the influence of numeracy and food-related involvement on this performance level. A pilot study (n = 45) was run to prepare the scales in French. For the main study (n = 101), participants provided demographic information and answered the nutrition label survey, the short numeracy scale and two different food-related involvement scales (i.e. the food involvement scale and the nutrition involvement scale)...
June 7, 2018: Appetite
Yen-Ming Huang, Olayinka O Shiyanbola, Paul D Smith, Hsun-Yu Chan
Introduction: The Newest Vital Sign (NVS) is a survey designed to measure general health literacy whereby an interviewer asks six questions related to information printed on a nutritional label from an ice cream container. It enables researchers to evaluate several health literacy dimensions in a short period of time, including document literacy, comprehension, quantitative literacy (numeracy), application, and evaluation. No study has empirically examined which items belong to which latent dimensions of health literacy in the NVS using factor analysis...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
Huabin Luo, Shivajirao P Patil, Qiang Wu, Ronny A Bell, Doyle M Cummings, Alyssa D Adams, Bertha Hambidge, Kay Craven, Fei Gao
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to validate a new consolidated measure of health literacy and numeracy (health literacy scale [HLS] plus the subjective numeracy scale [SNS]) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: A convenience sample (N = 102) of patients with T2DM was recruited from an academic family medicine center in the southeastern US between September-December 2017. Participants completed a questionnaire that included the composite HLS/SNS (22 questions) and a commonly used objective measure of health literacy-S-TOFHLA (40 questions)...
May 20, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Clipper F Young, Kenneth Yun, Edward Kang, Jay H Shubrook, Joy A Dugan
Type 2 diabetes is over-represented in vulnerable populations. Vulnerable patients managing diabetes are challenged with less-than-optimal processes and outcomes of care; thus, Healthy People 2020 and the American Diabetes Association have renewed the focus on social determinants of health with regard to the management of chronic diseases such as diabetes. This study explored the correlations between A1C and social and personal factors, including diabetes knowledge, diabetes numeracy, and food security. The Diabetes Numeracy Test-15, the Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy Diabetes Scale, and the U...
May 2018: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
Karma Pearce, Rebecca Golley, Lucy Lewis, Leah Cassidy, Timothy Olds, Carol Maher
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was an association between dietary patterns and children's academic performance. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 315 children aged 9-11 years from 26 schools in Australia. Academic performance was measured in 4 domains (reading, writing, numeracy, and language-subdomains: spelling, grammarm and punctuation) using the National Assessment Program in Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN). A self-reported child questionnaire collected dietary intake data...
June 2018: Journal of School Health
Takashi Yamashita, Anthony R Bardo, Roberto J Millar, Darren Liu
OBJECTIVES: Determine whether a specific numeracy skill cut-point(s) reflects an empirical threshold in the context of preventive health service utilization, and identify associations between numeracy and preventive health services utilization among middle-aged and older adults in the United States. METHODS: A nationally representative sample (n = 2,989) of adults 45 years and older from the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) was analyzed. Binary logistic regression was used to examine the utilization of dental checkup, vision screening, influenza vaccination, and osteoporosis screening, using multiple numeracy level classifications...
April 25, 2018: Clinical Gerontologist
Guiliana Mas, Tania Tello, Pedro Ortiz, Dafina Petrova, Rocío García-Retamero
Introducción: Los médicos y estudiantes de medicina necesitan comprender los datos numéricos y gráficos sobre salud para proveer información correcta a los pacientes. Objetivo: Determinar las habilidades gráficas y numéricas en estudiantes y residentes de medicina de una universidad privada de Lima, Perú. Método: Estudio descriptivo, transversal. Se aplicaron las escalas de Habilidad Numérica Objetiva, de Habilidad Numérica Subjetiva y de Habilidad Gráfica a estudiantes de medicina de los dos últimos años de la carrera de medicina y a residentes de medicina...
2018: Gaceta Médica de México
Amir Grinstein, Evan Kodra, Stone Chen, Seth Sheldon, Ory Zik
Individuals must have a quantitative understanding of the carbon footprint tied to their everyday decisions to make efficient sustainable decisions. We report research of the innumeracy of individuals as it relates to their carbon footprint. In three studies that varied in terms of scale and sample, respondents estimate the quantity of CO2 released when combusting a gallon of gasoline in comparison to several well-known metrics including food calories and travel distance. Consistently, respondents estimated the quantity of CO2 from gasoline compared to other metrics with significantly less accuracy while exhibiting a tendency to underestimate CO2...
2018: PloS One
Francisco J Schneuer, Jason P Bentley, Andrew J Davidson, Andrew Ja Holland, Nadia Badawi, Andrew J Martin, Justin Skowno, Samantha J Lain, Natasha Nassar
BACKGROUND: There has been considerable interest in the possible adverse neurocognitive effects of exposure to general anesthesia and surgery in early childhood. AIMS: The aim of this data linkage study was to investigate developmental and school performance outcomes of children undergoing procedures requiring general anesthesia in early childhood. METHODS: We included children born in New South Wales, Australia of 37+ weeks' gestation without major congenital anomalies or neurodevelopmental disability with either a school entry developmental assessment in 2009, 2012, or Grade-3 school test results in 2008-2014...
June 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Christianne L Roumie, Niral J Patel, Daniel Muñoz, Justin Bachmann, Ashton Stahl, Ryan Case, Cardella Leak, Russell Rothman, Sunil Kripalani
Background: The Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) established Clinical Data Research Networks (CDRNs) to support pragmatic research. The objective was to electronically identify, recruit, and survey coronary heart disease (CHD) patients and describe their characteristics, health status, and willingness to participate in future research. Methods: We developed a computable phenotype and assembled CHD patients 30 years or older and had visits or hospitalizations between 2009 and 2015...
June 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Valerie P Hans, Rebecca K Helm, Valerie F Reyna
Legal systems often require the translation of qualitative assessments into quantitative judgments, yet the qualitative-to-quantitative conversion is a challenging, understudied process. We conducted an experimental test of predictions from a new theory of juror damage award decision making, examining how 154 lay people engaged in the translation process in recommending money damages for pain and suffering in a personal injury tort case. The experiment varied the presence, size, and meaningfulness of an anchor number to determine how these factors influenced monetary award judgments, perceived difficulty, and subjective meaningfulness of awards...
April 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Elizabeth Perry Caldwell, Patricia Carter, Heather Becker, Michael Mackert
The purpose of this article is to discuss the use of the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) health literacy instrument in adolescents with sickle cell disease. The NVS evaluates both literacy and numeracy (the ability to understand and work with numbers) as well as the ability to locate and apply information. It is important to validate the NVS for use in adolescents, as the only currently validated instrument, the Rapid Estimate of Adolescent Literacy in Medicine-Teen (REALM-Teen), does not measure numeracy or the ability to locate or apply information...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
Belde Mutaf Yıldız, Delphine Sasanguie, Bert De Smedt, Bert Reynvoet
Home numeracy has been shown to play an important role in children's mathematical performance. However, findings are inconsistent as to which home numeracy activities are related to which mathematical skills. The present study disentangled between various mathematical abilities that were previously masked by the use of composite scores of mathematical achievement. Our aim was to shed light on the specific associations between home numeracy and various mathematical abilities. The relationships between kindergartners' home numeracy activities, their basic number processing and calculation skills were investigated...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
X N Liu, Q H Xia, H Fang, R Li, Y Y Chen, Y J Yan, P Zhou, B D Yao, Y Jiang, W G Rothman, Wanghong Xu
Objective: To evaluate the effect of health literacy and exercise-focused interventions on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in China. Methods: In this cluster randomized controlled trial, a total of 799 T2DM patients with most recent hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 7.5% (or fasting plasma glucose level ≥10 mmol/L) were recruited from 8 communities in Minhang and Changning districts of Shanghai, and randomized into a health literacy intervention group, an exercise intervention group, a comprehensive intervention group and a control group...
March 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Alaina N Talboy, Sandra L Schneider
BACKGROUND: Understanding diagnostic test outcomes requires determining the positive predictive value (PPV) of the test, which most laypeople and medical professionals struggle to do. Despite advances found with frequency formats and visual aids, less than 40% of people can typically identify this value. This study tests the impact of using congruent reference classes in problem-question pairings, evaluates the role of numeracy, and assesses how diagnostic value estimates affect the reported likelihood to use the test...
July 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Dana Elisabeth Brackney
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To contribute to both theoretical and practical understanding of the role of self-monitoring blood glucose for self-management by describing the experience of people with non-insulin-requiring Type 2 diabetes in an enhanced structured self-monitoring blood glucose intervention. BACKGROUND: The complex context of self-monitoring blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes requires a deeper understanding of the clients' illness experience with structured self-monitoring of blood glucose...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
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