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Luzmercy Perez, Knashawn H Morales, Heather Klusaritz, Xiaoyan Han, Jingru Huang, Marisa Rogers, Ian M Bennett, Cynthia S Rand, Grace Ndicu, Andrea J Apter
BACKGROUND: Self-management of moderate/severe asthma depends upon patients' ability to: 1) navigate (access health care to obtain diagnoses and treatment), 2) use inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) properly, and 3) understand ICS function. OBJECTIVE: To test whether navigation skills (medication recall, knowledge of copay requirements ability to provide information needed for a medical visit about a persistent cough unresponsive to medication), are related to other self-management skills and to health literacy...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
L Malloy-Weir, M Cooper
BACKGROUND: Low health literacy, literacy and numeracy have been identified as barriers to consumer understanding and the interpretation of nutrition-related information. To inform policy and dietetic practice, we examined the extent, range and nature of research on empirical relationships between health literacy, literacy or numeracy and the understanding and use of nutrition labels. METHODS: A scoping review of the literature was conducted. A search of eight databases on 15 April 2014 and 26 May 2016 returned 651 and 173 records, respectively...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Bronwyn Carrigg, Louise Parry, Elise Baker, Lawrence D Shriberg, Kirrie J Ballard
OBJECTIVE: This study describes the phenotype in a large family with a strong, multigenerational history of severe speech sound disorder (SSD) persisting into adolescence and adulthood in approximately half the cases. Aims were to determine whether a core phenotype, broader than speech, separated persistent from resolved SSD cases; and to ascertain the uniqueness of the phenotype relative to published cases. METHOD: Eleven members of the PM family (9-55 years) were assessed across cognitive, language, literacy, speech, phonological processing, numeracy, and motor domains...
October 5, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Eric D Johnson, Elisabet Tubau
Presenting natural frequencies facilitates Bayesian inferences relative to using percentages. Nevertheless, many people, including highly educated and skilled reasoners, still fail to provide Bayesian responses to these computationally simple problems. We show that the complexity of relational reasoning (e.g., the structural mapping between the presented and requested relations) can help explain the remaining difficulties. With a non-Bayesian inference that required identical arithmetic but afforded a more direct structural mapping, performance was universally high...
September 27, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jorge G Ruiz, Allen D Andrade, Christie Hogue, Chandana Karanam, Sisir Akkineni, David Cevallos, Ramanakumar Anam, Joseph Sharit
Personal health records (PHRs) are intended to increase patients' access to and ownership over their health care information for self-management purposes. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of graph literacy with adoption of an online PHR and, among adopters with self-reported skills, the frequency of use and intent to return to use the PHR . We conducted a cross-sectional survey of veterans receiving outpatient care. We measured health literacy, numeracy, graph literacy, and Internet and PHR adoption and use...
2016: Journal of Health Communication
Nathan F Dieckmann, Robin Gregory, Ellen Peters, Robert Hartman
In this article, we consider a novel criterion for evaluating representations of uncertainty ranges, namely, the extent to which a representation enhances motivated reasoning. In two studies, we show that perceptions of the distribution underlying ambiguous numerical ranges are affected by the motivations and worldviews of end users. This motivated reasoning effect remained after controlling for objective numeracy and fluid intelligence but was attenuated when the correct interpretation was made clear. We suggest that analysts and communicators explicitly consider the potential for motivated evaluation when evaluating uncertainty displays...
September 26, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Richard O White, Rosette J Chakkalakal, Caroline A Presley, Aihua Bian, Jonathan S Schildcrout, Kenneth A Wallston, Shari Barto, Sunil Kripalani, Russell Rothman
Patient-provider communication is modifiable and is linked to diabetes outcomes. The association of communication quality with medical mistrust is unknown. We examined these factors within the context of a low-literacy/numeracy-focused intervention to improve diabetes care, using baseline data from diverse patients enrolled in a randomized trial of a health communication intervention. Demographics, measures of health communication (Communication Assessment Tool [CAT], Interpersonal Processes of Care survey [IPC-18]), health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults), depression, medical mistrust, and glycemic control were ascertained...
2016: Journal of Health Communication
Erika A Waters, Courtney Wheeler, Jada G Hamilton
Understanding that cancer is caused by both genetic and behavioral risk factors is an important component of genomic literacy. However, a considerable percentage of people in the United States do not endorse such multifactorial beliefs. Using nationally representative cross-sectional data from the U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (N = 2,529), we examined how information seeking, information scanning, and key information-processing characteristics were associated with endorsing a multifactorial model of cancer causation...
2016: Journal of Health Communication
Hannah E Kirk, Kylie Gray, Deborah M Riby, John Taffe, Kim M Cornish
Despite well-documented attention deficits in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), distinctions across types of attention problems and their association with academic attainment has not been fully explored. This study examines visual attention capacities and inattentive/hyperactive behaviours in 77 children aged 4 to 11 years with IDD and elevated behavioural attention difficulties. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 23), Down syndrome (DS; n = 22), and non-specific intellectual disability (NSID; n = 32) completed computerized visual search and vigilance paradigms...
September 21, 2016: Developmental Science
Dafina Petrova, Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Joop van der Pligt
When we make risky decisions for others, we tend to follow social norms about risks. This often results in making different decisions for others than we would make for ourselves in a similar situation (i.e., self-other discrepancies). In an experiment, we investigated self-other discrepancies in young adults' decisions to purchase a vaccine against a sexually-transmitted virus for themselves or for another person (i.e., the target of the decision). When the target's preferences were in line with social norms, surrogates showed large self-other discrepancies in line with these norms...
2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Richard T Griffey, Candace D McNaughton, Danielle M McCarthy, Erica Shelton, Ana Castaneda-Guarderas, Angela Young-Brinn, Donna Fowler, Corita Grudszen
Health literacy is "the degree to which individuals can obtain, process and understand the basic health information needed to make appropriate health decisions and access health services needed to prevent or treat illness." The prevalence of limited health literacy (LHL) among adult ED patients is as high as 88%. Numeracy, or the "ability to understand and use numbers in daily life," is a continuum of skills that ranges from basic recognition and computation of numbers to understanding and use of high level skills such as probability, risk, and randomization...
September 19, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Jayne Pentin, Michelle Green, Joanna Smith
This is the second of two articles which aim to provide children's nurses with an opportunity to develop their knowledge and skills of medicines management when caring for children and young people. The first article considered the processes associated with effective medicines management, including the concept of human error. This article addresses essential numeracy and calculation skills that have been identified as an important risk factor associated with medication errors in children. The range of activities throughout the article will help you develop and practise numeracy skills, with the answers for each activity at the end of the article...
September 12, 2016: Nursing Children and Young People
(no author information available yet)
Numeracy and calculation are key skills for nurses. As nurses are directly accountable for ensuring medicines are prescribed, dispensed and administered safely, they must be able to understand and calculate drug doses.
September 2016: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Geir K Resaland, Eivind Aadland, Vegard Fusche Moe, Katrine N Aadland, Turid Skrede, Mette Stavnsbo, Laura Suominen, Jostein Steene-Johannessen, Øyvind Glosvik, John R Andersen, Olav M Kvalheim, Gunn Engelsrud, Lars B Andersen, Ingar M Holme, Yngvar Ommundsen, Susi Kriemler, Willem van Mechelen, Heather A McKay, Ulf Ekelund, Sigmund A Anderssen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a seven-month, school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial on academic performance in 10-year-old children. METHODS: In total, 1129 fifth-grade children from 57 elementary schools in Sogn og Fjordane County, Norway, were cluster-randomized by school either to the intervention group or to the control group. The children in the 28 intervention schools participated in a physical activity intervention between November 2014 and June 2015 consisting of three components: 1) 90min/week of physically active educational lessons mainly carried out in the school playground; 2) 5min/day of physical activity breaks during classroom lessons; 3) 10min/day physical activity homework...
October 2016: Preventive Medicine
Rachel E Patzer, Mohua Basu, Sumit Mohan, Kayla D Smith, Michael Wolf, Daniela Ladner, John J Friedewald, Mariana Chiles, Allison Russell, Laura McPherson, Jennifer Gander, Stephen Pastan
Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease, as it substantially increases a patient's survival and is cost saving compared to a lifetime of dialysis. However, transplantation is not universally chosen by patients with renal failure, and limited knowledge about the survival benefit of transplantation vs. dialysis may play a role. We created a mobile application clinical decision aid called iChoose Kidney to improve access to individualized prognosis information comparing dialysis and transplantation outcomes...
May 2016: KI Rep
Jeffrey L Jackson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Chris Lonsdale, Taren Sanders, Kristen E Cohen, Philip Parker, Michael Noetel, Tim Hartwig, Diego Vasoncellos, Morwenna Kirwan, Philip Morgan, Jo Salmon, Marj Moodie, Heather McKay, Andrew Bennie, Ron Plotnikoff, Renata L Cinelli, David Greene, Louisa R Peralta, Dylan P Cliff, Gregory S Kolt, Jennifer M Gore, Lan Gao, David R Lubans
BACKGROUND: Despite the health benefits of regular physical activity, most children are insufficiently active. Schools are ideally placed to promote physical activity; however, many do not provide children with sufficient in-school activity or ensure they have the skills and motivation to be active beyond the school setting. The aim of this project is to modify, scale up and evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention previously shown to be efficacious in improving children's physical activity, fundamental movement skills and cardiorespiratory fitness...
August 24, 2016: BMC Public Health
Sook Ja Yang, Yeon Kyung Chee
This study aimed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the Health Literacy Index for Female Marriage Immigrants (HLI-FMI). Study participants were 282 women who migrated to Korea from Asian countries to marry and had a mean age of 33.24 years and had immigrated a mean of 5.58 years ago. Data were collected between March 2013 and May 2013. An initial 31 preliminary items were developed based on literature reviews and focus group interviews, including three constructs of health literacy: skills (print, numeracy), tasks (access, understand, appraise, apply), and health contexts (health promotion and disease prevention, health care maintenance and treatment, health system navigation)...
August 11, 2016: Women & Health
Christina Riechel, Anna Christina Alegiani, Sascha Köpke, Jürgen Kasper, Michael Rosenkranz, Götz Thomalla, Christoph Heesen
BACKGROUND: Risk knowledge and active role preferences are important for patient involvement in treatment decision-making and adherence. Although knowledge about stroke warning signs and risk factors has received considerable attention, objective knowledge on secondary prevention and further self-esteem subjective knowledge have rarely been studied. The aim of our study was to investigate knowledge and treatment decisional role preferences in cerebrovascular patients compared to controls...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Jennifer S Holtzman, Kathryn A Atchison, Mark D Macek, Daniela Markovic
BACKGROUND: Existing evidence demonstrating a relationship between health literacy(HL) and periodontal health is insufficient to identify how providers can help patients manage periodontal disease. This study assessed associations between HL measures (word recognition, numeracy, and conceptual knowledge) and signs of periodontal disease. METHODS: This study included 325 new patients at a dental school clinic with an oral HL survey, full mouth radiographs, and clinical examination...
August 13, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
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