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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625210/household-everyday-functioning-in-the-internet-age-online-shopping-and-banking-skills-are-affected-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#1
Steven Paul Woods, Jennifer E Iudicello, Erin E Morgan, Marizela Verduzco, Tyler V Smith, Clint Cushman
OBJECTIVES: The Internet is a fundamental tool for completing many different instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), including shopping and banking. Persons with HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) are at heightened risk for IADL problems, but the extent to which HAND interferes with the performance of Internet-based household IADLs is not known. METHODS: Ninety-three individuals with HIV disease, 43 of whom were diagnosed with HAND, and 42 HIV- comparison participants completed Internet-based tests of shopping and banking...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618918/does-guiding-toward-task-relevant-information-help-improve-graph-processing-and-graph-comprehension-of-individuals-with-low-or-high-numeracy-an-eye-tracker-experiment
#2
Carmen Keller, Alex Junghans
BACKGROUND: Individuals with low numeracy have difficulties with understanding complex graphs. Combining the information-processing approach to numeracy with graph comprehension and information-reduction theories, we examined whether high numerates' better comprehension might be explained by their closer attention to task-relevant graphical elements, from which they would expect numerical information to understand the graph. Furthermore, we investigated whether participants could be trained in improving their attention to task-relevant information and graph comprehension...
June 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618393/young-infants-visual-fixation-patterns-in-addition-and-subtraction-tasks-support-an-object-tracking-account
#3
J Gavin Bremner, Alan M Slater, Rachel A Hayes, Uschi C Mason, Caroline Murphy, Jo Spring, Lucinda Draper, David Gaskell, Scott P Johnson
Investigating infants' numerical ability is crucial to identifying the developmental origins of numeracy. Wynn (1992) claimed that 5-month-old infants understand addition and subtraction as indicated by longer looking at outcomes that violate numerical operations (i.e., 1+1=1 and 2-1=2). However, Wynn's claim was contentious, with others suggesting that her results might reflect a familiarity preference for the initial array or that they could be explained in terms of object tracking. To cast light on this controversy, Wynn's conditions were replicated with conventional looking time supplemented with eye-tracker data...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614954/using-visual-aids-to-enhance-physician-patient-discussions-and-increase-health-literacy
#4
Michelle Pratt, Gordon E Searles
Health literacy refers to the comprehension required to make well-informed decisions regarding one's health. It is a critical component in helping patients to understand how to take their medications appropriately. However, many patients do not possess the comprehension necessary for medication adherence. The result of poor literacy is a higher incidence of misunderstanding medication instructions. Visual aids have the ability to transcend language and numeracy barriers and can therefore improve the effectiveness of communication and broaden target audiences...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604499/academic-achievement-and-risk-factors-for-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-middle-school-and-early-high-school
#5
Nardia Zendarski, Emma Sciberras, Fiona Mensah, Harriet Hiscock
OBJECTIVE: Examine academic achievement of students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the early high school period and identify potentially modifiable risk factors for low achievement. METHOD: Data were collected through surveys (adolescent, parent, and teacher) and direct assessment of Australian adolescents (12-15 yr; n = 130) with ADHD in early high school (i.e., US middle and high school grades). Academic achievement outcomes were measured by linking to individual performance on the National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) tests, direct assessment of reading and math, and teacher report of academic competence...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595599/designing-persuasive-health-materials-using-processing-fluency-a-literature-review
#6
Tsuyoshi Okuhara, Hirono Ishikawa, Masahumi Okada, Mio Kato, Takahiro Kiuchi
BACKGROUND: Health materials to promote health behaviors should be readable and generate favorable evaluations of the message. Processing fluency (the subjective experience of ease with which people process information) has been increasingly studied over the past decade. In this review, we explore effects and instantiations of processing fluency and discuss the implications for designing effective health materials. We searched seven online databases using "processing fluency" as the key word...
June 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570925/exploring-factors-influencing-hba1c-and-psychosocial-outcomes-in-people-with-type-1-diabetes-after-training-in-advanced-carbohydrate-counting
#7
Signe Schmidt, Dorte Vistisen, Thomas Almdal, Eva Hommel, Kirsten Nørgaard
AIMS: The purpose of this secondary analysis of the StenoABC Study was to identify determinants of the changes in HbA1c observed after training of people with type 1 diabetes in advanced carbohydrate counting (ACC) and automated bolus calculator (ABC) use, and further to investigate psychosocial effects of these insulin dosing approaches. METHODS: Validated diabetes-specific questionnaires were used to assess diabetes treatment satisfaction, problem areas in diabetes, fear of hypoglycemia and diabetes dependent quality of life before and one year after the training...
May 19, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569399/school-absence-and-its-effect-on-school-performance-for-children-born-with-orofacial-clefts
#8
Jane Bell, Camille Raynes-Greenow, Robin Turner, Carol Bower, Alan Dodson, Kirsten Hancock, Natasha Nassar
BACKGROUND: School absence is associated with lower performance on standardized tests. Children born with orofacial clefts (OFC) are likely to have more absence than children without OFC; however, school absence for children with OFC has not been quantified. We aimed to describe school absence and its relationship with school performance for children with and without OFC. METHODS: Population-based record-linked cohort study of children (402 with OFC, 1789 without OFC) enrolled in schools in Western Australia, 2008 to 2012...
June 1, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541513/improving-health-literacy-through-adult-basic-education-in-australia
#9
Suzanne Morony, Emma Lamph, Danielle Muscat, Don Nutbeam, Haryana M Dhillon, Heather Shepherd, Sian Smith, Aisha Khan, Julie Osborne, Wedyan Meshreky, Karen Luxford, Andrew Hayen, Kirsten J McCaffery
Adults with low literacy are less empowered to take care of their health, have poorer health outcomes and higher healthcare costs. We facilitated partnerships between adult literacy teachers and community health providers to deliver a health literacy training program in adult basic education classrooms. Following course completion we interviewed 19 adult education teachers (15 delivering the health literacy program; 4 delivering standard literacy classes) and four community health providers (CHPs) about their experiences, and analysed transcripts using Framework analysis...
May 25, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537364/psychometric-properties-of-the-english-version-of-the-oral-health-literacy-adults-questionnaire-ohl-aq
#10
P M Flynn, M T John, A Naik, N Kohli, J J VanWormer, K Self
Objective: To test the psychometric properties of the Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire (OHL-AQ) in English. The OHL-AQ was designed to test functional oral health literacy in general populations and was initially validated in Iran. Methods: The instrument was administered to 405 adult subjects (mean age 45 (SD 16) years and 67% female) attending the 2014 Minnesota State Fair. The OHL-AQ is composed of 17 items measuring four conceptual dimensions: reading comprehension, numeracy, listening, and decision-making...
December 2016: Community Dental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525723/effectiveness-of-a-decision-aid-in-potentially-vulnerable-patients-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-chest-pain-choice-multicenter-randomized-trial
#11
Kristin L Rising, Judd E Hollander, Jason T Schaffer, Jeffrey A Kline, Carlos A Torres, Deborah B Diercks, Russell Jones, Kelly P Owen, Zachary F Meisel, Michel Demers, Annie Leblanc, Nilay D Shah, Jonathan Inselman, Jeph Herrin, Victor M Montori, Erik P Hess
BACKGROUND: We test the hypotheses that use of the Chest Pain Choice (CPC) decision aid (DA) would be similarly effective in potentially vulnerable subgroups but increase knowledge more in patients with higher education and trust in physicians more in patients from racial minority groups. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized trial in adults with chest pain potentially due to acute coronary syndrome. The trial compared an intervention group engaged in shared decision making (SDM) using CPC to a control group receiving usual care (UC)...
May 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523960/the-health-literacy-dyad-the-contribution-of-future-gps-in-england
#12
Oana R Groene, Jane Wills, Nicola Crichton, Gill Rowlands, Rima R Rudd
BACKGROUND: Health literacy studies have primarily focused on the cognitive and social skills of individuals needed to gain access to, understand, and use health information. This area of study is undergoing a paradigm shift with increased attention being paid to the skills of practitioners and an examination of their contribution to the link between literacy and health outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe the health literacy related competencies of General Practice (GP) trainees who will soon be responsible for the clinical encounter...
May 19, 2017: Education for Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520750/awareness-and-trust-of-the-fda-and-cdc-results-from-a-national-sample-of-us-adults-and-adolescents
#13
Sarah D Kowitt, Allison M Schmidt, Anika Hannan, Adam O Goldstein
Trust in government agencies plays a key role in advancing these organizations' agendas, influencing behaviors, and effectively implementing policies. However, few studies have examined the extent to which individuals are aware of and trust the leading United States agencies devoted to protecting the public's health. Using two national samples of adolescents (N = 1,125) and adults (N = 5,014), we examined demographic factors, with a focus on vulnerable groups, as correlates of awareness of and trust in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the federal government...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514977/cross-cultural-adaptation-and-validation-of-the-newest-vital-sign-nvs-health-literacy-instrument-in-general-population-and-highly-educated-samples-of-brazilian-adults
#14
Renne Rodrigues, Selma Maffei de Andrade, Alberto Durán González, Marcela Maria Birolim, Arthur Eumann Mesas
OBJECTIVE: The present work aimed at cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the health literacy assessment tool Newest Vital Sign (NVS) in general population (GP) and highly educated (HE) samples of Brazilian adults. DESIGN: An expert committee reviewed the translation and back-translation processes and the cultural adaptation. The construct validity was analysed with confirmatory factor analysis and via associations with features of the study population. SETTING: The final validation test was performed in two different populations from Londrina, a large town in southern Brazil...
May 18, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507990/development-of-an-online-evidence-based-patient-information-portal-for-congenital-heart-disease-a-pilot-study
#15
Jonathan R G Etnel, Arie P J van Dijk, Jolanda Kluin, Robin A Bertels, Elisabeth M W J Utens, Eugene van Galen, Ad J J C Bogers, Johanna J M Takkenberg
OBJECTIVES: In response to an increased need for patient information on congenital heart disease in the Netherlands, we initiated a nationwide initiative to develop an online, evidence-based patient information portal, starting with a pilot project aimed at the subgroup of patients with congenital aortic and pulmonary valve disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed an information portal that aims to (1) improve patient knowledge and involvement and to subsequently reduce anxiety and decisional conflict and improve mental quality of life and (2) to support physicians in informing and communicating with their patients...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492092/use-of-descriptive-and-experiential-information-in-decision-making-by-young-and-older-adults
#16
Thomas M Hess, Erica L O'Brien, Claire M Growney, Julia G Hafer
Age differences involving decision by description versus decision by experience were examined using the same general task structure to facilitate comparisons across decision types. Experiment 1 compared younger (19-43 years) and older (65-85 years) adults in four different experimental conditions involving a choice between a low-risk, low-return bet versus a high-risk, high-return bet. Experiment 2 compared young (18-27 years) to older (60-87 years) adults using similar experimental conditions, but with decisions involving a risky versus a certain option...
May 11, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490556/maternal-alcohol-disorders-and-school-achievement-a-population-cohort-record-linkage-study-in-western-australia
#17
Sarah E Johnson, Colleen O'Leary, Carol Bower, David Lawrence, Nadia Cunningham, James Semmens, Stephen R Zubrick
OBJECTIVE: Maternal alcohol use disorder is a risk factor for a range of developmental outcomes in children. This study examines school achievement in children of Indigenous and non-Indigenous mothers with an alcohol-related diagnosis. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This is a Western Australian population cohort study of mothers with a record of an alcohol-related diagnosis classified by the International Classification of Diseases Revisions 9/10 codes as recorded on administrative databases, and of their offspring born between 1989 and 2007 (n=18 486 exposed children), with a frequency matched comparison cohort of mothers with no record of alcohol diagnosis and their offspring (n=48 262 comparison children)...
May 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490227/utilization-of-continuous-spinners-to-communicate-risk
#18
Rachel F Eyler, Sara Cordes, Benjamin R Szymanski, Liana Fraenkel
BACKGROUND: As patients become more involved in their medical care, they must consider the specific probabilities of both positive and negative outcomes associated with different treatments. Patients who are low in numeracy may be at a disadvantage when making these decisions. This study examined the use of a "spinner" to present probabilistic information compared to a numerical format and icon array. DESIGN: Subjects ( n = 151) were asked to imagine they suffered from chronic back pain...
May 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487248/associations-between-selected-dietary-behaviours-and-academic-achievement-a-study-of-australian-school-aged-children
#19
Tracy Burrows, Sharni Goldman, Richard K Olson, Brian Byrne, William L Coventry
BACKGROUND: Research investigating the effects of dietary behaviours on children's academic achievement has predominately focused on breakfast consumption. The aim of this study was to conduct secondary analysis to examine associations between a range of dietary behaviours and children's academic achievement. METHODOLOGY: Data on five dietary variables (fruit intake; vegetable intake; consumption of takeaway; sugar sweetened beverages; and breakfast) and scores in the five domains of a standardised academic achievement test known as NAPLAN (reading, writing, grammar/punctuation, spelling and numeracy) were obtained for Australian children aged 8-15 years in school grades three (n = 1185), five (n = 1147), seven (n = 1053) and nine (n = 860)...
May 6, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474962/effects-of-anti-versus-pro-vaccine-narratives-on-responses-by-recipients-varying-in-numeracy-a-cross-sectional-survey-based-experiment
#20
Wändi Bruine de Bruin, Annika Wallin, Andrew M Parker, JoNell Strough, Janel Hanmer
BACKGROUND: To inform their health decisions, patients may seek narratives describing other patients' evaluations of their treatment experiences. Narratives can provide anti-treatment or pro-treatment evaluative meaning that low-numerate patients may especially struggle to derive from statistical information. Here, we examined whether anti-vaccine (v. pro-vaccine) narratives had relatively stronger effects on the perceived informativeness and judged vaccination probabilities reported among recipients with lower (v...
April 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
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