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Valerie P Hans, Rebecca K Helm, Valerie F Reyna
Legal systems often require the translation of qualitative assessments into quantitative judgments, yet the qualitative-to-quantitative conversion is a challenging, understudied process. We conducted an experimental test of predictions from a new theory of juror damage award decision making, examining how 154 lay people engaged in the translation process in recommending money damages for pain and suffering in a personal injury tort case. The experiment varied the presence, size, and meaningfulness of an anchor number to determine how these factors influenced monetary award judgments, perceived difficulty, and subjective meaningfulness of awards...
April 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Elizabeth Perry Caldwell, Patricia Carter, Heather Becker, Michael Mackert
The purpose of this article is to discuss the use of the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) health literacy instrument in adolescents with sickle cell disease. The NVS evaluates both literacy and numeracy (the ability to understand and work with numbers) as well as the ability to locate and apply information. It is important to validate the NVS for use in adolescents, as the only currently validated instrument, the Rapid Estimate of Adolescent Literacy in Medicine-Teen (REALM-Teen), does not measure numeracy or the ability to locate or apply information...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
Belde Mutaf Yıldız, Delphine Sasanguie, Bert De Smedt, Bert Reynvoet
Home numeracy has been shown to play an important role in children's mathematical performance. However, findings are inconsistent as to which home numeracy activities are related to which mathematical skills. The present study disentangled between various mathematical abilities that were previously masked by the use of composite scores of mathematical achievement. Our aim was to shed light on the specific associations between home numeracy and various mathematical abilities. The relationships between kindergartners' home numeracy activities, their basic number processing and calculation skills were investigated...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
X N Liu, Q H Xia, H Fang, R Li, Y Y Chen, Y J Yan, P Zhou, B D Yao, Y Jiang, W G Rothman, Wanghong Xu
Objective: To evaluate the effect of health literacy and exercise-focused interventions on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in China. Methods: In this cluster randomized controlled trial, a total of 799 T2DM patients with most recent hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 7.5% (or fasting plasma glucose level ≥10 mmol/L) were recruited from 8 communities in Minhang and Changning districts of Shanghai, and randomized into a health literacy intervention group, an exercise intervention group, a comprehensive intervention group and a control group...
March 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Alaina N Talboy, Sandra L Schneider
BACKGROUND: Understanding diagnostic test outcomes requires determining the positive predictive value (PPV) of the test, which most laypeople and medical professionals struggle to do. Despite advances found with frequency formats and visual aids, less than 40% of people can typically identify this value. This study tests the impact of using congruent reference classes in problem-question pairings, evaluates the role of numeracy, and assesses how diagnostic value estimates affect the reported likelihood to use the test...
March 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Dana Elisabeth Brackney
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To contribute to both theoretical and practical understanding of the role of self-monitoring blood glucose for self-management by describing the experience of people with non-insulin requiring Type 2 diabetes in an enhanced structured self-monitoring blood glucose intervention. BACKGROUND: The complex context of self-monitoring blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes requires a deeper understanding of the clients' illness experience with structured self-monitoring of blood glucose...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Soo Jin Kang, Kang Hee Sim, Bok Rye Song, Jeong-Eun Park, Soo Jung Chang, Chanho Park, Mi Sook Lee
OBJECTIVE: To develop and examine the psychometric properties of the Korean Health Literacy Scale for Diabetes Mellitus (KHLS-DM), and to establish reasonable cutoff scores. METHODS: Initially, 299 items were generated to measure diabetes-related words, numeracy, and information utilization. Content validity assessment and preliminary tests were conducted. After exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Rasch analysis, the remaining 65 items were administered to a quota sample of 500 diabetic patients aged 40-74 years...
March 13, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Margaret A Grounds, Susan L Joslyn
Research suggests that people make better weather-related decisions when they are given numeric probabilities for critical outcomes (Joslyn & Leclerc, 2012, 2013). However, it is unclear whether all users can take advantage of probabilistic forecasts to the same extent. The research reported here assessed key cognitive and demographic factors to determine their relationship to the use of probabilistic forecasts to improve decision quality. In two studies, participants decided between spending resources to prevent icy conditions on roadways or risk a larger penalty when freezing temperatures occurred...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Miroslav Sirota, Marie Juanchich
The Cognitive Reflection Test, measuring intuition inhibition and cognitive reflection, has become extremely popular because it reliably predicts reasoning performance, decision-making, and beliefs. Across studies, the response format of CRT items sometimes differs, based on the assumed construct equivalence of tests with open-ended versus multiple-choice items (the equivalence hypothesis). Evidence and theoretical reasons, however, suggest that the cognitive processes measured by these response formats and their associated performances might differ (the nonequivalence hypothesis)...
March 27, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Ashley J Housten, Lisa M Lowenstein, Diana S Hoover, Viola B Leal, Geetanjali R Kamath, Robert J Volk
BACKGROUND: Although the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) is widely used, misidentification of individuals with low health literacy (HL) in specific HL dimensions, like numeracy, is a concern. We examined the degree to which individuals scored as "adequate" HL on the S-TOFHLA would be considered as having low HL by two additional numerical measures. METHODS: English-speaking adults aged 45-75 years were recruited from a large, urban academic medical center and a community foodbank in the United States...
March 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
Melanie Vetter, Helen O'Connor, Nicholas O'Dwyer, Rhonda Orr
BACKGROUND: Physically active learning that combines physical activity with core curriculum areas is emerging in school-based health interventions. This study investigates the effectiveness of learning an important numeracy skill of times tables (TT) while concurrently engaging in aerobic activity compared with a seated classroom approach. METHODS: Grade-4 primary school students were randomly allocated to physical activity (P) or classroom (C) groups and received the alternate condition in the following term...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Ben Clarke, Lina Shanley, Derek Kosty, Scott K Baker, Mari Strand Cary, Hank Fien, Keith Smolkowski
The purpose of this study was to investigate the incremental validity of a set of domain general cognitive measures added to a traditional screening battery of early numeracy measures. The sample consisted of 458 kindergarten students of whom 285 were designated as severely at-risk for mathematics difficulty. Hierarchical multiple regression results indicated that Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence (WASI) Matrix Reasoning and Vocabulary subtests, and Digit Span Forward and Backward measures explained a small, but unique portion of the variance in kindergarten students' mathematics performance on the Test of Early Mathematics Ability-Third Edition (TEMA-3) when controlling for Early Numeracy Curriculum Based Measurement (EN-CBM) screening measures (R²change = ...
March 26, 2018: School Psychology Quarterly
Christopher C Stewart, Lei Yu, Robert S Wilson, David A Bennett, Patricia A Boyle
OBJECTIVE: Healthcare and financial decision making among older persons has been previously associated with cognition, health and financial literacy, and risk aversion; however, the manner by which these resources support decision making remains unclear, as past studies have not systematically investigated the pathways linking these resources with decision making. In the current study, we use path analysis to examine the direct and indirect pathways linking age, education, cognition, literacy, and risk aversion with decision making...
March 22, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Sarah Blunden, Chris Magee, Kelly Attard, Larissa Clarkson, Peter Caputi, Timothy Skinner
BACKGROUND: Sleep duration and sleep schedule variability have been related to negative health and well-being outcomes in children, but little is known about Australian Indigenous children. METHODS: Data for children aged 7-9 years came from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children and the National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN). Latent class analysis determined sleep classes taking into account sleep duration, bedtimes, waketimes, and variability in bedtimes from weekdays to weekends...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Katrine N Aadland, Eivind Aadland, John R Andersen, Arne Lervåg, Vegard F Moe, Geir K Resaland, Yngvar Ommundsen
Inconsistent findings exist for the effect of school-based physical activity interventions on academic performance. The Active Smarter Kids (ASK) study revealed a favorable intervention effect of school-based physical activity on academic performance in numeracy in a subsample of 10-year-old elementary schoolchildren performing poorer at baseline in numeracy. Aiming to explain this finding, we investigated the mediating effects of executive function, behavioral self-regulation, and school related well-being in the relation between the physical activity intervention and child's performance in numeracy...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Andres F Doval, Luis Riba, Bao Ngoc N Tran, Rima Rudd, Bernard T Lee
BACKGROUND: Health literacy studies indicate that literacy skills are linked to access to information and health outcomes, potentially contributing to health disparities. In the United States, minority and immigrant populations are more likely to have lower literacy skills than are other population groups. The aim of this study is to evaluate web-based health information prepared in Spanish for Hispanic women considering breast reconstruction surgery. METHODS: A search for the term reconstrucción de seno (translation: breast reconstruction) was conducted using Google...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Joe Bathelt, Susan E Gathercole, Sally Butterfield, Duncan E Astle
Literacy and numeracy are important skills that are typically learned during childhood, a time that coincides with considerable shifts in large-scale brain organization. However, most studies emphasize focal brain contributions to literacy and numeracy development by employing case-control designs and voxel-by-voxel statistical comparisons. This approach has been valuable, but may underestimate the contribution of overall brain network organization. The current study includes children (N = 133 children; 86 male; mean age = 9...
March 13, 2018: Developmental Science
Alicia Brueggemann, Sara Gable
This brief report addresses preschoolers' selective sustained attention (SSA) and early numeracy skills and knowledge. Past research indicates that children's attention and early numeracy are positively associated, yet some concerns have emerged about the age appropriateness of tools used to measure preschoolers' SSA. This study used a new measure-the Track-It Task-that demonstrates strong psychometric properties. In total, 31 at-risk preschoolers (Mage  = 46.6 months) participated and were assessed on SSA, nonsymbolic quantity discrimination, and symbolic quantitative skills and knowledge...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Martin J Mækelæ, Steffen Moritz, Gerit Pfuhl
Background: Cognitive biases play an important role in the formation and maintenance of delusions. These biases are indicators of a weak reflective mind, or reduced engaging in reflective and deliberate reasoning. In three experiments, we tested whether a bias to accept non-sense statements as profound, treat metaphorical statements as literal, and suppress intuitive responses is related to psychotic-like experiences. Methods: We tested deliberate reasoning and psychotic-like experiences in the general population and in patients with a former psychotic episode...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
[Introduction: Low health literacy (HL) is an obstacle to therapeutic patient education (TPE), especially for people in a vulnerable situation, who are also at greater risk of chronic illnesses and their complications. It therefore seems essential to rethink TPE programmes in order to ensure greater equity based on analysis of the characteristics of HL interventions and their possible relationships with TPE.Methods: A scoping review of the literature was performed from November 2014 to January 2016 using the following search engines: MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, OpenGrey, SUDOC, thè and BDSP and the following search terms: "health literacy", "Littératie en santé", "literacy", "Littératie", "numeracy", "numératie", "compétence en santé" combined with the keywords: "programme", "program", "intervention", "méthode", "method", "technique", "outil", "tool".Results: After selecting forty out of 206 studies, interventions were classified into two main types of specific interventions to promote comprehension of resources intended for patients and generally complex interventions designed to support and improve HL skills.Discussion: While the level of health literacy has an impact on TPE programme accessibility, TPE programmes need to be made more accessible and TPE must constitute an opportunity to address health literacy needs via its own specific modalities. Creating partnerships between social/educational and health settings might be an effective strategy to strengthen the interrelationships between HL and TPE, as might training that prepares caregivers-educators to improve patient HL.Conclusion].
Aurore Margat, Rémi Gagnayre, Pierre Lombrail, Vincent de Andrade, Sylvie Azogui-Levy
INTRODUCTION: Low health literacy (HL) is an obstacle to therapeutic patient education (TPE), especially for people in a vulnerable situation, who are also at greater risk of chronic illnesses and their complications. It therefore seems essential to rethink TPE programmes in order to ensure greater equity based on analysis of the characteristics of HL interventions and their possible relationships with TPE. METHODS: A scoping review of the literature was performed from November 2014 to January 2016 using the following search engines: MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, OpenGrey, SUDOC, thèses...
January 30, 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
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