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Qinghua Liang, Zhi Li, Yu Bai, Zheng-Hong Huang, Feiyu Kang, Quan-Hong Yang
Introducing heterojunction is an effective way for improving the intrinsic photocatalytic activity of a graphitic carbon nitride (GCN) semiconductor. These heterostructures are mostly introduced by interfacing GCN with foreign materials that normally have entirely different physicochemical properties and show unfavorable compatibility, thus resulting in a limited improvement of the photocatalytic performance of the resultant materials. Herein, a composite polymeric carbon nitride (CPCN) that contains both melon-based GCN and triazine-based crystalline carbon nitride (CCN) is prepared by a simple thermal reaction between lithium chloride and GCN...
December 9, 2016: Small
Yuchao Deng, Xiao-Jing Wei, Hui Wang, Yuhan Sun, Timothy Noël, Xiao Wang
A photocatalytic method for the aerobic oxidative cleavage of C=C bonds has been developed. Electron-rich aromatic disulfides were employed as photocatalyst. Upon visible-light irradiation, typical mono- and multi-substituted aromatic olefins could be converted into ketones and aldehydes at ambient temperature. Experimental and computational studies suggest that a disulfide-olefin charge-transfer complex is possibly responsible for the unconventional dissociation of S-S bond under visible light.
December 9, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Rosaria Grasso, Tomoko Abe, Giuseppe A P Cirrone, Giacomo Cuttone, Marisa Gulino, Francesco Musumeci, Francesco Romano, Hiromichi Ryuto, Agata Scordino
The optical technique based on the measurement of delayed luminescence emitted from the biological samples has demonstrated its ability to provide valid and predictive information on the functional status of various biological systems. We want to extend this technique to study the effect of ionizing radiation on biological systems. In particular we are interested in the action of ion beams, used for therapeutic purposes or to increase the biological diversity. In general, the assessment of the damage that radiation produces both in the target objects and in the surrounding tissues, requires considerable time because is based on biochemical analysis or on the examination of the evolution of the irradiated systems...
2016: PloS One
Min-Xia Zhang, Chun-Ye Chen, Qing-Qing Fang, Ji-Hua Xu, Xiao-Feng Wang, Bang-Hui Shi, Li-Hong Wu, Wei-Qiang Tan
BACKGROUND: Reduction mammoplasty (RM) is a proven method of treating macromastia, but the risk factors for postoperative complications have not been clearly identified. Through this meta-analysis, the authors aimed to identify the risk factors of RM complications. METHODS: An extensive search of the literature describing complications after RM was performed using the PubMed Central, Embase, and Cochrane databases. The following risk factors were extracted: age, body mass index (BMI), tissue resection weight per breast (TRW), smoking and radiation therapy...
2016: PloS One
Peter M Govey, Yue Zhang, Henry J Donahue
Exposure of bone to ionizing radiation, as occurs during radiotherapy for some localized malignancies and blood or bone marrow cancers, as well as during space travel, incites dose-dependent bone morbidity and increased fracture risk. Rapid trabecular and endosteal bone loss reflects acutely increased osteoclastic resorption as well as decreased bone formation due to depletion of osteoprogenitors. Because of this dysregulation of bone turnover, bone's capacity to respond to a mechanical loading stimulus in the aftermath of irradiation is unknown...
2016: PloS One
Bo Li, Lina Zhao, Hongjian Chen, Dewei Sun, Boxin Deng, Jinwei Li, Yuanfa Liu, Fei Wang
Wheat germ (WG) is quite susceptible to deterioration due to the presence of lipase (LA) and lipoxygenase (LOX). Therefore it is indispensable to adopt a stabilization step to decrease the activity of LA and LOX while retaining a maximum level of nutrients. But over-drying can make foodstuffs more susceptible to autoxidation. So a stabilization protocol for inactivating LA and LOX of WG with a temperature- controlled short wave infrared (SIR) radiation system was adopted to retard its rancidity and retain a maximum level of fat-soluble nutrients...
2016: PloS One
Merle Arrowsmith, Holger Braunschweig, Krzysztof Radacki, Torsten Thiess, Arthur Turkin
2,3-bis(dimethylamino)-substituted B2N2C2 heterocycles underwent selective dimethylamino/hydride exchange with either one or two equivalents of BH3∙SMe2 to yield the corresponding cyclic monohydrido- or (cis)1,2-dihydridodiboranes(4), respectively. Upon either heating or irradiation in solution, the latter underwent ring-contraction to the corresponding five-membered BN2C2 heterocycles, while irradiation of the 1,2-dimethylamidoethene-supported 1,2-dihydridodiborane(4) in the presence of PEt3 yielded an unprecedented unsymmetrical 1,1-dihydrodiborane(5) phosphine adduct...
December 9, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Lin-Miao Ye, Lu Qian, Yan-Yan Chen, Xue-Jing Zhang, Ming Yan
Visible-light-promoted intermolecular radical cyclization of disulfides and alkynes has been developed. Benzothiophenes bearing ester, ketone, aldehyde and aryl substituents were synthesized in good yields. The reaction was carried out in the absence of transition-metal catalysts and extra additives. Oxygen was used as the sole oxidant. In addition, the irradiation of sunlight could also promote the reaction efficiently.
December 9, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Aya Shimomura, Susumu Arima, Makoto Hayashi, Maskit Maymon, Ann M Hirsch, Akihiro Suzuki
Earlier, we reported that root nodulation was inhibited by blue light irradiation of Lotus japonicus. Because some legumes do not establish nodules exclusively on underground roots, we investigated whether nodule formation in Sesbania rostrata, which forms both root and "stem" nodules following inoculation with Azorhizobium caulinodans, is inhibited by blue light as are L. japonicus nodules. We found that neither S. rostrata nodulation nor nitrogen fixation was inhibited by blue light exposure. Moreover, although A...
December 9, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Amol Raheja, Howard Colman, Cheryl A Palmer, William T Couldwell
Sunitinib is a multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic, cytostatic, and antimigratory activity for meningiomas. A recent clinical trial of sunitinib for treatment of recurrent Grade II and III meningiomas suggested potential efficacy in this population, but only 2 patients exhibited significant radiographic response with tumor volume reduction. The authors illustrate another such case and discuss a complication related to this dramatic tumor volume reduction in aggressive skull base meningiomas...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Gina Bouchard, Hélène Therriault, Rachel Bujold, Caroline Saucier, Benoit Paquette
PURPOSE: Radiotherapy increases the level of inflammatory cytokines, some of which are known to promote metastasis. In a mouse model of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), we determined whether irradiation of the mammary tumor increases the level of key cytokines and favors the development of lung metastases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: D2A1 TNBC cells were implanted in the mammary glands of a Balb/c mouse and then 7 days old tumors were irradiated (4x6 Gy). The cytokines IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17 and MIP-2 were quantified in plasma before, midway and after irradiation...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Tatsuro Shirota, Masashi Tsuge, Yasumasa Hikosaka, Kouichi Soejima, Kennosuke Hoshina
We investigated neutral species in the matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization (MALDI) plume using femtosecond laser ionization spectrometry with simultaneous measurement of the standard MALDI spectrum of the identical MALDI event induced by pulsed UV laser irradiation. The ratio of neutral species in the plume [A]p/[M]p (A = phenylalanine (Phe) or alanine (Ala), M = 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB)) was confirmed to be the same as that of the sample mixture in the range of [A]0/[M]0 = 4 × 10-4 to 100, indicating the validity of the widely adopted approximation [A]p/[M]p = [A]0/[M]0 in the reaction quotient of the proton transfer reaction MH(+) + A ⇄ M + AH(+)...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Zhijun Li, Yang Zhou, Bo Tu, Yu Bu, Aqiu Liu, Conghua Xie
OBJECTIVE: Long noncoding RNA MALAT1 has been well-studied in the progression of many malignancies. However, its association with the radioresistance of tumors has not been well-understood yet. This study tried to explore the role of MALAT1 in regulating the radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer (EC), especially esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), involving its regulation on Cks1 expression. METHODS: KYSE150 cells were subcutaneously inoculated into nude mice to establish ESCC xenografts...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
David Kessel
In prior studies, we have identified the ability of low-level lysosomal photodamage to potentiate the phototoxic effect of subsequent photodamage to mitochondria. The mechanism involves calpain-mediated cleavage of the autophagy-associated protein ATG5 to form a pro-apoptotic fragment (tATG5). In this report, we explore the permissible time lag between the two targeting procedures along with the effect of simultaneously targeting both lysosomes and mitochondria. This was found to be as effective as the sequential protocol with no gap between the irradiation steps...
December 9, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Sally M Yacout, Elizabeth R Gaillard
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a highly metabolic layer of post-mitotic cells lining the Bruch's membrane in the retina. While these cells contain endogenous photosensitizers that mediate blue light induced damage, it has also been shown that blue light exposure damages mitochondrial DNA in RPE cells resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and unregulated generation of reactive oxygen species. As RPE cells are post-mitotic, it is imperative to decrease oxidative stress to these cells and preserve function...
December 9, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Dan Xiao, Guangwei Geng, Penglei Chen, Tiesheng Li, Minghua Liu
Silver halide-based structures have been attracting great interest as efficient visible-light-driven photocatalysts towards the photodegradation of organic pollutants, and those studies focusing on their morphology-dependent catalytic performances have received particular attention. While great advancements in this regard have been witnessed in the past few years with respect to AgCl- and AgBr-based photocatalysts, relevant explorations concerning AgI-based species are relatively rare, even though the excellent durability of AgI-based structures renders them attractive candidates for potential photocatalytic uses...
December 9, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Devendra T Mourya, Hamish C Shahani, Pragya D Yadav, Pradip V Barde
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Various conventional methods such as gaseous, vapour and misting systems, fogging, manual spray and wipe techniques employing a number of chemical agents are used for decontamination of enclosed spaces. Among all these methods, use of aerosolized formaldehyde is the most preferred method due to cost-effectiveness and practical aspects. However, being extremely corrosive in nature generating very irritating fumes and difficulty in maintaining a high level of gas concentration, many laboratories prefer the vaporization of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as an alternative...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Balázs Farkas, Silvia Dante, Fernando Brandi
Photoinitiator-free fabrication of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) scaffolds is achieved using a novel three-dimensional (3D) printing method called mask projected excimer laser stereolithography (MPExSL). The spatial resolution of photoinitiator-free curing is suitable for 3D layer-by-layer fabrication with a single layer thickness well controllable at tens to hundreds of microns using 248 nm wavelength for the irradiation. The photoinitiator-free scaffolds are superior compared to their counterparts fabricated by using photoinitiator molecules, showing a higher level of biocompatibility...
December 9, 2016: Nanotechnology
Yuki Taya, Yasunori Ota, Adam C Wilkinson, Ayano Kanazawa, Hiroshi Watarai, Masataka Kasai, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Satoshi Yamazaki
A specialized bone marrow microenvironment (niche) regulates hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and commitment. For successful donor-HSC engraftment, the niche must be emptied via myeloablative irradiation or chemotherapy. However, myeloablation can cause severe complications and even mortality. Here we report that the essential amino acid valine is indispensable for the proliferation and maintenance of HSCs. Both mouse and human HSCs failed to proliferate when cultured in valine-depleted conditions...
December 2, 2016: Science
Naoya Ishibashi, Toshiya Maebayashi, Takuya Aizawa, Masakuni Sakaguchi, Osamu Abe, Kazuyoshi Sakanishi, Yuji Endoh, Tsutomu Saito, Jiro Kawamori, Yoshiaki Tanaka
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the safety of total body irradiation before bone marrow transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 110 patients (65 male, 45 female) who underwent total body irradiation for hematopoietic stem cell transplant between May 1998 and March 2013. Median age at total body irradiation was 17 years (range, 1-62 y). Median observation time was 777 days (range, 31-5494 d). Initial diagnoses were acute lymphoblastic leukemia (24 patients), acute myeloid leukemia (26 patients), chronic myeloid leukemia (7 patients), myelodysplastic syndrome (8 patients), malignant lymphoma (13 patients), mucopolysaccharidosis (12 patients), neuroblastoma (10 patients), and other diseases (10 patients)...
December 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
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