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Eloi Parladé, Andrea Hom-Diaz, Paqui Blánquez, Maira Martínez-Alonso, Teresa Vicent, Nuria Gaju
The use of microalgal consortia for urban wastewater treatment is an increasing trend, as it allows simultaneous nutrient removal and biomass production. Emerging contaminants proposed for the list of priority substances such as the hormone 17β-estradiol are commonly found in urban wastewater, and their removal using algal monocultures has been accomplished. Due to the inherent potential of algae-based systems, this study aimed to assess the capability of native photobioreactor biomass to remove 17β-estradiol under indoor and outdoor conditions...
March 3, 2018: Water Research
Chao Wang, Zhi-Yi Hu, Heng Zhao, Wenbei Yu, Sijia Wu, Jing Liu, Lihua Chen, Yu Li, Bao-Lian Su
We report three types of conducting polymers (CPs), polyaniline (PANI), polypyrrole (PPY) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to modify the surface of the CdS nanorods to probe their photocorrosion inhibition and photocatalytic hydrogen production. Various characterizations, such as high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and density function theory (DFT) calculations have been conducted to reveal the intrinsic structure of the as-constructed CPs@CdS (@ means CPs at the surface of CdS) core-shell nanorods...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Yan Qu, Ying Wang, Yan Zhang, Chunyu Han, Dong Gao, Waishu Jin, Jinning Liang, Xiujuan Xia
BACKGROUND: Because of long-term exposure of skin, skin aging is an unavoidable natural law with age. Traditional Vitamin A and novel ablative fractional laser technique both have the effects of skin rejuvenation, and studies have demonstrated both of them have apparent clinical efficacy and histology-improving effects on photo-aging skin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 45 female healthy Wistar rats were selected and the depilation areas of every rat were divided into four regions: control region(Region A), Vitamin A acid region(Region B), combination treatment region(Region C), and fractional laser region(Region D)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
Shou-Fei Gao, Ying-Ying Wang, Wei Ding, Pu Wang
UV guiding fibers are highly sought after in laser and spectroscopy applications. Recent advances in hollow-core fiber orient a practical approach for proper UV light delivery sustainable to high-power and long-term irradiation. In this Letter, we report two types of hollow-core negative-curvature fibers (NCFs) in a UV spectral range. Their structures consist of one ring of six small (7.9 μm in diameter) and four big (20.8 μm in diameter) tubes, enclosing a hollow core of similar size (∼15  μm in diameter)...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Jiangbin Su, Xianfang Zhu
The nanoinstability of single crystal Si nanowire under electron beam irradiation was in-situ investigated at room temperature by transmission electron microscopy technique. It was observed that the Si nanowire amorphized preferentially from the surface towards the center with the increasing of electron dose. In contrast, in the center of the Si nanowire the amorphization seemed much more difficult accompanying with rotation of crystal grains and compression of d-spacing. Such a preferential amorphization as athermally induced by the electron beam irradiation can be well accounted for by our proposed concepts of nanocurvature effect and energetic beam-induced athermal activation effect, while the classical knock-on mechanism and the electron beam heating effect seem inadequate to explain these processes...
March 15, 2018: Nanotechnology
Arezoo Mohammadi Gazestani, Samideh Khoei, Sepideh Khoee, Soraya Emamgholizadeh Minaei, Manijeh Motevalian
Magnetite nanographene oxide has exhibited great potential in drug delivery and photothermal therapy (PTT) for cancer treatment. Here we developed 5-fluorouracil-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-coated magnetite nanographene oxide (NGO-SPION-PLGA-5-Fu) to simplify combined PTT and chemotherapy in one complex. The nanocarrier was synthesized using a modified O1 /W1 /O2 /W2 multiple emulsion solvent evaporation method and was characterized for size, zeta potential, drug loading, in vitro and in vivo release...
March 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Jing Ruan, Ying Wang, Fang Li, Renbing Jia, Guangming Zhou, Chunlin Shao, Liqi Zhu, Malin Cui, Da-Peng Yang, Shengfang Ge
Combination of drug chemotherapy and ray radiation is the main solution for treating patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma, but the toxicity and adverse effects caused in the surrounding normal tissues and the radio resistance in tumor site will severely influence its therapeutic effect. Nano radiosensitizer is an ideal choice for improving the tumor radiotherapy effects thanks to its high degree of tumor tissue uptake and secondary electrons productivity. Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have good oxidative stress response and significantly high phototoxicity, and are regarded as a potential nano radiosensitizer...
March 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Nathan Cho, Panagiotis Tsiamas, Esteban Velarde, Erik Tryggestad, Robert Jacques, Ross Berbeco, Todd McNutt, Peter Kazanzides, John Wong
PURPOSE: The Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) has been developed for conformal micro irradiation with on-board cone-beam CT (CBCT) guidance. The graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated Superposition-Convolution (SC) method for dose computation has been integrated into the treatment planning system (TPS) for SARRP. This paper describes the validation of the SC method for the kilovoltage energy by comparing with EBT2 film measurements and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations...
March 15, 2018: Medical Physics
Xiaoye Yang, Xiaoqun Shi, Jianbo Ji, Guangxi Zhai
The development of imaging-guided smart drug delivery systems for combinational photodynamic/chemotherapy of the tumor has become highly demanded in oncology. Herein, redox-responsive theranostic polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated innovatively using low molecular weight heparin (LWMH) as the backbone. Chlorin e6 (Ce6) and alpha-tocopherol succinate (TOS) were conjugated to LMWH via cystamine as the redox-sensitive linker, forming amphiphilic Ce6-LMWH-TOS (CHT) polymer, which could self-assemble into NPs in water and encapsulate paclitaxel (PTX) inside the inner core (PTX/CHT NPs)...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Audrey Seigeot, Maxime Desmarets, Anne Rumpler, Franck Leroux, Eric Deconinck, Elisabeth Monnet, Laurent Bardiaux
BACKGROUND: A better knowledge of the connections between platelet concentrate (PC) characteristics and transfusion outcomes in day-to-day practice would help improve the selection process of the most appropriate PC. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In this study of prophylactic platelet transfusions in patients with hematologic malignancies between 2002 and 2012, outcome criteria were corrected count increments (CCIs) and platelet transfusion intervals (TIs, in days)...
March 14, 2018: Transfusion
Jun Ma, Bin Chen, Dong Li, Yue Zhang, Zhaoxia Ying
Port-wine stain (PWS) birthmark is a congenital microvascular malformation of the skin. A 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser can achieve a deeper treatment, but the weak absorption by blood limits its clinical application. Multiple laser pulses (MLPs) are a potential solution to enhance the curative effect of a Nd:YAG laser. To reduce the pulse number (pn ) required for the thermal destruction of the blood vessel, the effect of glucose in conjunction with MLP was investigated. In vivo experiments were performed on a dorsal skin chamber model...
March 14, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Kevin Rakszawski, Kosuke Miki, David Claxton, Henry Wagner, Hiroko Shike, Shin Mineishi, Seema Naik
Approximately 30-40% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) experience induction failures. In these patients who do not achieve remission with two cycles of standard induction therapies, the probability of achieving remission with subsequent inductions is very limited. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative option for these patients, but high relapse rate and transplant-related mortality often preclude them to proceed to transplant. Thus, AML not in remission at time of HSCT remains a huge unmet need in current HSCT practice, particularly if the patient does not have an HLA-matched donor identified by the time of two induction failures...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Hematology
Prabha R Nair, Revathy S Ajayakumar, Liji Mary David, Imran A Girach, Kavitha Mottungan
This paper presents the first observational results from an Indian station on the long-term changes in surface ozone (O3 )-a major environmental pollutant and green house gas-over a period of about 40 years. It is based on the in situ measurements carried out during 1973-1975, 1983-1985, 1997-1998 and 2004-2014 at the tropical coastal station, Thiruvananthapuram. From 1973 to 1997, surface O3 shows a slow increase of ~ 0.1 ppb year-1 and a faster increase of 0.4 ppb year-1 afterwards till 2009 after which it showed a levelling off till 2012 followed by a minor decrease...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Juliane Kupsch, Thomas Jackisch, Klaus E Matzel, Joerg Zimmer, Andreas Schreiber, Anja Sims, Helmut Witzigmann, Sigmar Stelzner
PURPOSE: Severity of anorectal dysfunction after low anterior resection is associated with various patient- and treatment-related factors. We aimed to quantify anorectal dysfunction after treatment for rectal cancer using the low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) score. METHODS: We retrieved from a prospective database 331 eligible patients on whom anterior resection for rectal cancer had been performed from 2000 to 2014. All patients were sent a LARS score accompanied by a supplementary questionnaire...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Anna Lynnyk, Mariia Lunova, Milan Jirsa, Daria Egorova, Andrei Kulikov, Šárka Kubinová, Oleg Lunov, Alexandr Dejneka
Low-power laser irradiation of red light has been recognized as a promising tool across a vast variety of biomedical applications. However, deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind laser-induced cellular effects remains a significant challenge. Here, we investigated mechanisms involved in the death process in human hepatic cell line Huh7 at a laser irradiation. We decoupled distinct cell death pathways targeted by laser irradiations of different powers. Our data demonstrate that high dose laser irradiation exhibited the highest levels of total reactive oxygen species production, leading to cyclophilin D-related necrosis via the mitochondrial permeability transition...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Shih-Jeng Huang, Fu-Kuei Huang, Yu-Shan Li, Shu-Yao Tsai
Cordyceps militaris , a medicinal and edible mushroom, was used to ferment buckwheat and embryo rice by solid-state fermentation (SSF). Our aim was to investigate the effect of ultraviolet B (UVB) light irradiation on the content of vitamin D2 and biologically effective components, and antioxidant properties of buckwheat and embryo rice in SSF with C. militaris . Irradiated samples of buckwheat and embryo rice fermented by C. militaris had significantly increased vitamin D2 content, from 0-0.3 to 1.18-16.79 μg/g, while the increase in fresh embryo rice fermented by C...
December 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Jutaek Nam, Sejin Son, Lukasz J Ochyl, Rui Kuai, Anna Schwendeman, James J Moon
Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a promising cancer treatment modality, but PTT generally requires direct access to the source of light irradiation, thus precluding its utility against disseminated, metastatic tumors. Here, we demonstrate that PTT combined with chemotherapy can trigger potent anti-tumor immunity against disseminated tumors. Specifically, we have developed polydopamine-coated spiky gold nanoparticles as a new photothermal agent with extensive photothermal stability and efficiency. Strikingly, a single round of PTT combined with a sub-therapeutic dose of doxorubicin can elicit robust anti-tumor immune responses and eliminate local as well as untreated, distant tumors in >85% of animals bearing CT26 colon carcinoma...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Alden Curtis, Chase Calvi, James Tinsley, Reed Hollinger, Vural Kaymak, Alexander Pukhov, Shoujun Wang, Alex Rockwood, Yong Wang, Vyacheslav N Shlyaptsev, Jorge J Rocca
Nuclear fusion is regularly created in spherical plasma compressions driven by multi-kilojoule pulses from the world's largest lasers. Here we demonstrate a dense fusion environment created by irradiating arrays of deuterated nanostructures with joule-level pulses from a compact ultrafast laser. The irradiation of ordered deuterated polyethylene nanowires arrays with femtosecond pulses of relativistic intensity creates ultra-high energy density plasmas in which deuterons (D) are accelerated up to MeV energies, efficiently driving D-D fusion reactions and ultrafast neutron bursts...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Vipan K Parihar, Mattia Maroso, Amber Syage, Barrett D Allen, Maria C Angulo, Ivan Soltesz, Charles L Limoli
Of the many perils associated with deep space travel to Mars, neurocognitive complications associated with cosmic radiation exposure are of particular concern. Despite these realizations, whether and how realistic doses of cosmic radiation cause cognitive deficits and neuronal circuitry alterations several months after exposure remains unclear. In addition, even less is known about the temporal progression of cosmic radiation-induced changes transpiring over the duration of a time period commensurate with a flight to Mars...
March 11, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Wijeong Jang, Minwoo Baek, Yeon Soo Han, Changsoo Kim
BACKGROUND: Nociceptive sensitization is an increase in pain perception in response to stimulus. Following brief irradiation of Drosophila larvae with UV, nociceptive sensitization occurs in class IV multiple dendritic (mdIV) neurons, which are polymodal sensory nociceptors. Diverse signaling pathways have been identified that mediate nociceptive sensitization in mdIV neurons, including TNF, Hedgehog, BMP, and Tachykinin, yet the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. RESULTS: Here we report that duox heterozygous mutant larvae, which have normal basal nociception, exhibit an attenuated hypersensitivity response to heat and mechanical force following UV irradiation...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Brain
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