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Visual hallucination AND memory

Reshanne R Reeder
Visually perceiving a stimulus activates a pictorial representation of that item in the brain, but how pictorial is the representation of a stimulus in the absence of visual stimulation? Here I address this question with a review of the literatures on visual imagery (VI), visual working memory (VWM), and visual preparatory templates, all of which require activating visual information in the absence of sensory stimulation. These processes have historically been studied separately, but I propose that they can provide complimentary evidence for the pictorial nature of their contents...
October 7, 2016: Vision Research
Sook Hui Chaw, Li Lian Foo, Lucy Chan, Kang Kwong Wong, Suhailah Abdullah, Boon Kiong Lim
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis is a recently described neurological disorder and an increasingly recognized cause of psychosis, movement disorders and autonomic dysfunction. We report 20-year-old Chinese female who presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, recent memory loss, visual hallucinations and abnormal behavior. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis was diagnosed and a computed tomography scan of abdomen reviewed a left adnexal tumor. We describe the first such case report of a patient with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis who was given a bilateral transversus abdominis plane block as the sole anesthetic for removal of ovarian tumor...
September 26, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Elissa M Aminoff, Yuanning Li, John A Pyles, Michael J Ward, R Mark Richardson, Avniel S Ghuman
Visual recognition requires connecting perceptual information with contextual information and existing knowledge. The ventromedial temporal cortex (VTC), including the medial fusiform, has been linked with object recognition, paired associate learning, contextual processing, and episodic memory, suggesting that this area may be critical in connecting visual processing, context, knowledge and experience. However, evidence for the link between associative processing, episodic memory, and visual recognition in VTC is currently lacking...
October 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Sara Garcia-Ptacek, Milica G Kramberger
Dementia is a frequent complication of Parkinson disease (PD) with a yearly incidence of around 10% of patients with PD. Lewy body pathology is the most important factor in the development of Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) and there is evidence for a synergistic effect with β-amyloid. The clinical phenotype in PDD extends beyond the dysexecutive syndrome that is often present in early PD and encompasses deficits in recognition memory, attention, and visual perception. Sleep disturbances, hallucinations, neuroleptic sensitivity, and fluctuations are often present...
September 2016: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Guerry M Peavy, Steven D Edland, Belinda M Toole, Lawrence A Hansen, Douglas R Galasko, Ann M Mayo
INTRODUCTION: The goal was to compare subgroups of dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) using neuropathological measures to differentiate 'pure' Lewy body (LB) dementia from 'mixed' DLB [co-occurring LB and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology] to facilitate diagnostic decision-making and future development of interventions based on predicted type(s) of neuropathology. Studies comparing these groups are rare relative to those differentiating 'pure' AD and all-cause DLB, and are limited by insufficient sample size, brief cognitive batteries, and/or absence of autopsy confirmation...
October 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Leor Zmigrod, Jane R Garrison, Joseph Carr, Jon S Simons
Activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging data was used to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying auditory-verbal and visual hallucinations (AVHs and VHs). Consistent activation across studies during AVHs, but not VHs, in Wernicke's and Broca's areas is consistent with involvement of speech and language processes in the experience of hearing voices when none are present. Similarly, greater activity in auditory cortex during AVHs and in visual cortex during VHs supports models proposing over-stimulation of sensory cortices in the generation of these perceptual anomalies...
October 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Jane R Garrison, Rebecca Bond, Emma Gibbard, Marcia K Johnson, Jon S Simons
Reality monitoring refers to processes involved in distinguishing internally generated information from information presented in the external world, an activity thought to be based, in part, on assessment of activated features such as the amount and type of cognitive operations and perceptual content. Impairment in reality monitoring has been implicated in symptoms of mental illness and associated more widely with the occurrence of anomalous perceptions as well as false memories and beliefs. In the present experiment, the cognitive mechanisms of reality monitoring were probed in healthy individuals using a task that investigated the effects of stimulus modality (auditory vs visual) and the type of action undertaken during encoding (thought vs speech) on subsequent source memory...
July 2, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Kolbørn Brønnick, Monica H Breitve, Arvid Rongve, Dag Aarsland
BACKGROUND: The cognitive profile of mild dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) versus mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not been extensively studied, and the relation of cognitive deficits to the core diagnostic criteria for DLB (fluctuations, visual hallucinations, and parkinsonism) remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cognitive profile in patients with mild DLB to patients with mild AD and investigate the relation between cognitive deficits distinguishing DLB from AD and the core diagnostic features in DLB...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Nandhakumar Balakrishnan, Marna Ericson, Ricardo Maggi, Edward B Breitschwerdt
BACKGROUND: The genus Bartonella is comprised of a rapidly increasing number of pathogenic species that induce a seemingly diverse spectrum of neurological symptoms. During the 12 year period that followed the initial onset of neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms, an 11 year-old girl experienced a spectrum of neurological complaints including frequent headaches, visual and auditory hallucinations, anxiety, vision loss involving the lower left quadrant of both eyes, episodic bouts of generalized paralysis, facial palsy, chronic insomnia, seizures, dizziness, cognitive dysfunction, and memory loss...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Tomomichi Iizuka, Masashi Kameyama
OBJECTIVE: The cingulate island sign (CIS), which refers to sparing of the posterior cingulate relative to the precuneus and cuneus, has been proposed as an FDG-PET imaging feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The sign is reportedly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) type neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology in autopsy cases. To confirm this relationship using neuroimaging modalities in vivo, we investigated associations between CIS and the medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy in DLB...
July 2016: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Satoshi Orimo
It is important to differentiate dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and other dementia, especially Alzheimer disease (AD), because the medical treatment, management, and the prognosis of these diseases are different. In regard to clinical features, DLB patients have relatively mild memory disturbance, fluctuating cognition, more severe disturbances of attention, executive function, visuospacial function, visual hallucination, depression, autonomic symptoms, REM sleep behavior disorder, and idiopathic parkinsonism compared to AD patients...
March 2016: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal, Murali Krishna Menon, K Arun Kumar, Ramesh Gomez
A 15-year-old boy presented with osmotic symptoms and photopsia. He had short-term memory impairment, visual hallucinations, and headache. His random blood sugar was 474 mg/dl, HbA1c -9.4%, and glutamic acid decarboxylase -65 >2000 IU/ml. Magnetic resonance imaging brain and cerebrospinal fluid study were normal. Digital electroencephalography was suggestive of bilateral hemispheric occipital lobe seizures. He responded well to insulin and antiepileptic medications.
October 2015: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Asit B Biswas, Frederick Furniss
The behavioural phenotype of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome syndrome (22q11DS), one of the most common human multiple anomaly syndromes, frequently includes intellectual disability (ID) together with high risk of diagnosis of psychotic disorders including schizophrenia. Candidate cognitive endophenotypes include problems with retrieval of contextual information from memory and in executive control and focussing of attention. 22q11DS may offer a model of the relationship between ID and risk of psychiatric disorder...
June 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Yasuhiro Nagahama
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) shows lesser memory impairment and more severe visuospatial disability than Alzheimer disease (AD). Although deficits in both consolidation and retrieval underlie the memory impairment, retrieval deficit is predominant in DLB. Visuospatial dysfunctions in DLB are related to the impairments in both ventral and dorsal streams of higher visual information processing, and lower visual processing in V1/V2 may also be impaired. Attention and executive functions are more widely disturbed in DLB than in AD...
February 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Georgiana Craciun, Liliana Cucoş, Elena Ungureanu, L Pendefunda, F D Petrariu, Petronela Nechita
Encephalitis is a brain inflammation, which could involve also the meninges. The etiology of encephalitis could be: viral, bacterial, fungal or autoimmune. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is an immune disorder, easy to diagnose and is a treatable condition. Most patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis develop a multistage illness that progresses from psychosis, memory deficits, seizures, to catatonic state and breathing instability. We present a case report of a 20-year old woman, who presented: amnesia, visual hallucination, illusions, seizures after that occurred following autoimmune encephalitis...
October 2015: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
Mariya Petrova, Radka Pavlova, Yavor Zhelev, Shima Mehrabian, Margarita Raycheva, Latchezar Traykov
INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to compare the profile of very mild and mild dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) patients with disease duration up to 5 years in order to find markers for faster progression in this early stage. METHOD: We investigated 45 DLB patients with disease duration up to 5 years and 22 normal controls. DLB patients were divided into two subgroups on the basis of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE): very mild and mild. RESULTS: Compared to normal controls, very mild DLB patients show significant deficits on tests for attention/executive functions, language, visuospatial/constructional abilities, and retrieval of the episodic memory...
2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Ia Elua, Keith R Laws, Lia Kvavilashvili
INTRODUCTION: Hallucinations constitute a prominent symptom of schizophrenia and may take a variety of forms (verbal, visual, musical, or environmental noises). Interesting similarities exist between hallucinations and so-called mind-pops which refer to isolated fragments of one's semantic knowledge (e.g., a word/sentence, visual image, or a song/melody) that come to mind unexpectedly, often without any obvious triggers, and are difficult to control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether mind-pops may constitute the raw cognitive material from which hallucinations are constructed by studying the nature and frequency of mind-pops in the everyday life of people with schizophrenia and non-clinical controls...
2015: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Craig Steel
The relationship between hallucinations and life events is a topic of significant clinical importance. This review discusses the extent to which auditory and visual hallucinations may be directly related to traumatic events. Evidence suggests that intrusive images occur frequently within individuals who also report hallucinatory experiences. However, there has been limited research specifically investigating the extent to which hallucinations are the re-experiencing of a traumatic event. Our current theoretical understanding of these relationships, along with methodological difficulties associated with research in this area, are considered...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Aida Suárez-González, Sebastian J Crutch, Emilio Franco-Macías, Eulogio Gil-Néciga
BACKGROUND: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by early progressive visual dysfunction in the context of relative preservation of memory and a pattern of atrophy mainly involving the posterior cortex. The aim of the present study is to characterize the neuropsychiatric profile of PCA. METHODS: The Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used to assess 12 neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in 28 patients with PCA and 34 patients with typical Alzheimer disease (AD) matched by age, disease duration, and illness severity...
March 2016: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Kaori Morimoto, Kei Nagaoka, Akira Nagai, Hirofumi Kashii, Masakiyo Hosokawa, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Takuo Ogihara, Masaya Kubota
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric side effects of oseltamivir occur occasionally, especially in infants and young patients, but nothing is known about possible contributory factors. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 15-year-old Japanese female with influenza infection who developed abnormal psychiatric symptoms after administration of standard doses of oseltamivir. She had no history of neurological illness, had never previously taken oseltamivir, and had not developed psychiatric reactions during previous influenza infection...
2015: BMC Neurology
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