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Visual hallucination AND memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314070/long-lasting-effects-of-chronic-heavy-cannabis-abuse
#1
Joannis N Nestoros, Elena Vakonaki, Manolis N Tzatzarakis, Athanasios Alegakis, Markos D Skondras, Aristidis M Tsatsakis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of short-term memory impairment and schizophrenia-like symptoms in heavy and systematic cannabis users and the association between the severity of abuse and the longevity of its persistent symptoms after refraining from such use. METHODS: A complete psychiatric examination and a psychometric evaluation were performed in 48 solely cannabis users. Additionally, head hair samples were analyzed and the detected cannabinoids levels were correlated with the psychometric findings...
March 17, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176400/effect-of-a-hallucinogenic-serotonin-5-ht2a-receptor-agonist-on-visually-guided-hippocampal-dependent-spatial-cognition-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#2
Gongliang Zhang, David Cinalli, Robert W Stackman
By acting on serotonin 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2A Rs), serotonergic psychedelic drugs induce perceptual and visual hallucinations by increasing neuronal excitability and altering visual-evoked neuronal responses. The present study was designed to examine whether the perceptual alterations induced by a serotonergic psychedelic drug would affect the integrity of hippocampal-dependent, visually guided spatial cognition. phenylalkylamine hallucinogen TCB-2 is a selective agonist of 5-HT2A Rs. Mice received TCB-2 (1...
February 8, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167329/the-role-of-set-shifting-in-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#3
Sara Siddi, Donatella Rita Petretto, Caterina Burrai, Rosanna Scanu, Antonella Baita, Pierfranco Trincas, Emanuela Trogu, Liliana Campus, Augusto Contu, Antonio Preti
BACKGROUND: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a cardinal characteristic of psychosis. Recent research on the neuropsychological mechanism of AVHs has focused on source monitoring failure, but a few studies have suggested the involvement of attention, working memory, processing speed, verbal learning, memory, and executive functions. In this study we examined the neuropsychological profile of patients with AVHs, assuming that the mechanism underlying this symptom could be a dysfunction of specific cognitive domains...
January 21, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131192/cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-associations-of-motor-fluctuations-and-non-motor-predominance-with-cerebrospinal-%C3%AF-and-a%C3%AE-as-well-as-dementia-risk-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Raluca Modreanu, Sonia Catalina Cerquera, María José Martí, José Ríos, Almudena Sánchez-Gómez, Ana Cámara, Manel Fernández, Yaroslau Compta
Experimental, neuropathological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies support τ and amyloid-β (Aβ) relevance in Parkinson's disease (PD) related dementia. Lesser motor fluctuations (MFs) and non-motor features have also been related to PD-dementia. Yet, little is known about the association of MFs and non-motor symptoms with CSF τ and Aβ in PD. We hypothesized that lesser MFs and non-motor predominance are related to these CSF markers and dementia-risk in PD. We studied 58 PD patients (dementia at baseline, n=21; dementia at 18-months, n=35) in whom CSF Aβ and τ had been determined with ELISA techniques...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106066/the-psychosis-spectrum-in-parkinson-disease
#5
REVIEW
Dominic H Ffytche, Byron Creese, Marios Politis, K Ray Chaudhuri, Daniel Weintraub, Clive Ballard, Dag Aarsland
In 2007, the clinical and research profile of illusions, hallucinations, delusions and related symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD) was raised with the publication of a consensus definition of PD psychosis. Symptoms that were previously deemed benign and clinically insignificant were incorporated into a continuum of severity, leading to the rapid expansion of literature focusing on clinical aspects, mechanisms and treatment. Here, we review this literature and the evolving view of PD psychosis. Key topics include the prospective risk of dementia in individuals with PD psychosis, and the causal and modifying effects of PD medication...
February 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088312/dementia-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Hasmet A Hanagasi, Zeynep Tufekcioglu, Murat Emre
Dementia can occur in a substantial number of patients with Parkinson's disease with a point prevalence close to 30%. The cognitive profile is characterized by predominant deficits in executive, visuospatial functions, attention and memory. Behavioral symptoms are frequent such as apathy, visual hallucinations and delusions. The most prominent associated pathology is Lewy body-type and biochemical deficit is cholinergic. Placebo-controlled randomized trials with cholinesterase inhibitors demonstrated modest but significant benefits in cognition, behavioral symptoms and global functions...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790244/detection-of-low-signal-pulvinar-areas-using-diffusion-weighted-imaging-in-patients-with-dementia-experiencing-visual-hallucinations
#7
Mayuko Sugiura, Masayuki Satoh, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Tomoki Saito, Mutsuki Mori, Makiko Abe, Hirotaka Kida, Masayuki Maeda, Hajime Sakuma, Hidekazu Tomimoto
BACKGROUND: Little research has been conducted regarding the role of pulvinar nuclei in the pathogenesis of visual hallucinations due to the difficulty of assessing abnormalities in this region using conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present study aimed to retrospectively investigate the relative abilities of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) to visualize the pulvinar and to ascertain the relationship between pulvinar visualization and visual hallucinations...
September 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720956/individual-differences-shape-the-content-of-visual-representations
#8
Reshanne R Reeder
Visually perceiving a stimulus activates a pictorial representation of that item in the brain, but how pictorial is the representation of a stimulus in the absence of visual stimulation? Here I address this question with a review of the literatures on visual imagery (VI), visual working memory (VWM), and visual preparatory templates, all of which require activating visual information in the absence of sensory stimulation. These processes have historically been studied separately, but I propose that they can provide complimentary evidence for the pictorial nature of their contents...
October 7, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687317/-anesthesia-in-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-is-general-anesthesia-a-requisite-a-case-report
#9
Sook Hui Chaw, Li Lian Foo, Lucy Chan, Kang Kwong Wong, Suhailah Abdullah, Boon Kiong Lim
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis is a recently described neurological disorder and an increasingly recognized cause of psychosis, movement disorders and autonomic dysfunction. We report 20-year-old Chinese female who presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, recent memory loss, visual hallucinations and abnormal behavior. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis was diagnosed and a computed tomography scan of abdomen reviewed a left adnexal tumor. We describe the first such case report of a patient with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis who was given a bilateral transversus abdominis plane block as the sole anesthetic for removal of ovarian tumor...
September 26, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533133/associative-hallucinations-result-from-stimulating-left-ventromedial-temporal-cortex
#10
Elissa M Aminoff, Yuanning Li, John A Pyles, Michael J Ward, R Mark Richardson, Avniel S Ghuman
Visual recognition requires connecting perceptual information with contextual information and existing knowledge. The ventromedial temporal cortex (VTC), including the medial fusiform, has been linked with object recognition, paired associate learning, contextual processing, and episodic memory, suggesting that this area may be critical in connecting visual processing, context, knowledge and experience. However, evidence for the link between associative processing, episodic memory, and visual recognition in VTC is currently lacking...
October 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502301/parkinson-disease-and-dementia
#11
Sara Garcia-Ptacek, Milica G Kramberger
Dementia is a frequent complication of Parkinson disease (PD) with a yearly incidence of around 10% of patients with PD. Lewy body pathology is the most important factor in the development of Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) and there is evidence for a synergistic effect with β-amyloid. The clinical phenotype in PDD extends beyond the dysexecutive syndrome that is often present in early PD and encompasses deficits in recognition memory, attention, and visual perception. Sleep disturbances, hallucinations, neuroleptic sensitivity, and fluctuations are often present...
September 2016: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475955/phenotypic-differences-based-on-staging-of-alzheimer-s-neuropathology-in-autopsy-confirmed-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#12
Guerry M Peavy, Steven D Edland, Belinda M Toole, Lawrence A Hansen, Douglas R Galasko, Ann M Mayo
INTRODUCTION: The goal was to compare subgroups of dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) using neuropathological measures to differentiate 'pure' Lewy body (LB) dementia from 'mixed' DLB [co-occurring LB and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology] to facilitate diagnostic decision-making and future development of interventions based on predicted type(s) of neuropathology. Studies comparing these groups are rare relative to those differentiating 'pure' AD and all-cause DLB, and are limited by insufficient sample size, brief cognitive batteries, and/or absence of autopsy confirmation...
October 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473935/the-neural-mechanisms-of-hallucinations-a-quantitative-meta-analysis-of-neuroimaging-studies
#13
REVIEW
Leor Zmigrod, Jane R Garrison, Joseph Carr, Jon S Simons
Activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging data was used to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying auditory-verbal and visual hallucinations (AVHs and VHs). Consistent activation across studies during AVHs, but not VHs, in Wernicke's and Broca's areas is consistent with involvement of speech and language processes in the experience of hearing voices when none are present. Similarly, greater activity in auditory cortex during AVHs and in visual cortex during VHs supports models proposing over-stimulation of sensory cortices in the generation of these perceptual anomalies...
October 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444616/monitoring-what-is-real-the-effects-of-modality-and-action-on-accuracy-and-type-of-reality-monitoring-error
#14
Jane R Garrison, Rebecca Bond, Emma Gibbard, Marcia K Johnson, Jon S Simons
Reality monitoring refers to processes involved in distinguishing internally generated information from information presented in the external world, an activity thought to be based, in part, on assessment of activated features such as the amount and type of cognitive operations and perceptual content. Impairment in reality monitoring has been implicated in symptoms of mental illness and associated more widely with the occurrence of anomalous perceptions as well as false memories and beliefs. In the present experiment, the cognitive mechanisms of reality monitoring were probed in healthy individuals using a task that investigated the effects of stimulus modality (auditory vs visual) and the type of action undertaken during encoding (thought vs speech) on subsequent source memory...
February 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27372647/neurocognitive-deficits-distinguishing-mild-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-from-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-are-associated-with-parkinsonism
#15
Kolbørn Brønnick, Monica H Breitve, Arvid Rongve, Dag Aarsland
BACKGROUND: The cognitive profile of mild dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) versus mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not been extensively studied, and the relation of cognitive deficits to the core diagnostic criteria for DLB (fluctuations, visual hallucinations, and parkinsonism) remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cognitive profile in patients with mild DLB to patients with mild AD and investigate the relation between cognitive deficits distinguishing DLB from AD and the core diagnostic features in DLB...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27161220/vasculitis-cerebral-infarction-and-persistent-bartonella-henselae-infection-in-a-child
#16
Nandhakumar Balakrishnan, Marna Ericson, Ricardo Maggi, Edward B Breitschwerdt
BACKGROUND: The genus Bartonella is comprised of a rapidly increasing number of pathogenic species that induce a seemingly diverse spectrum of neurological symptoms. During the 12 year period that followed the initial onset of neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms, an 11 year-old girl experienced a spectrum of neurological complaints including frequent headaches, visual and auditory hallucinations, anxiety, vision loss involving the lower left quadrant of both eyes, episodic bouts of generalized paralysis, facial palsy, chronic insomnia, seizures, dizziness, cognitive dysfunction, and memory loss...
May 10, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27098829/cingulate-island-sign-on-fdg-pet-is-associated-with-medial-temporal-lobe-atrophy-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#17
Tomomichi Iizuka, Masashi Kameyama
OBJECTIVE: The cingulate island sign (CIS), which refers to sparing of the posterior cingulate relative to the precuneus and cuneus, has been proposed as an FDG-PET imaging feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The sign is reportedly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) type neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology in autopsy cases. To confirm this relationship using neuroimaging modalities in vivo, we investigated associations between CIS and the medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy in DLB...
July 2016: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025091/-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#18
Satoshi Orimo
It is important to differentiate dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and other dementia, especially Alzheimer disease (AD), because the medical treatment, management, and the prognosis of these diseases are different. In regard to clinical features, DLB patients have relatively mild memory disturbance, fluctuating cognition, more severe disturbances of attention, executive function, visuospacial function, visual hallucination, depression, autonomic symptoms, REM sleep behavior disorder, and idiopathic parkinsonism compared to AD patients...
March 2016: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26962348/occipital-lobe-seizures-rare-hyperglycemic-sequelae-of-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal, Murali Krishna Menon, K Arun Kumar, Ramesh Gomez
A 15-year-old boy presented with osmotic symptoms and photopsia. He had short-term memory impairment, visual hallucinations, and headache. His random blood sugar was 474 mg/dl, HbA1c -9.4%, and glutamic acid decarboxylase -65 >2000 IU/ml. Magnetic resonance imaging brain and cerebrospinal fluid study were normal. Digital electroencephalography was suggestive of bilateral hemispheric occipital lobe seizures. He responded well to insulin and antiepileptic medications.
October 2015: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26942704/cognitive-phenotype-and-psychiatric-disorder-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Asit B Biswas, Frederick Furniss
The behavioural phenotype of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome syndrome (22q11DS), one of the most common human multiple anomaly syndromes, frequently includes intellectual disability (ID) together with high risk of diagnosis of psychotic disorders including schizophrenia. Candidate cognitive endophenotypes include problems with retrieval of contextual information from memory and in executive control and focussing of attention. 22q11DS may offer a model of the relationship between ID and risk of psychiatric disorder...
June 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
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