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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092372/direct-control-of-regulatory-t-cells-by-keratinocytes
#1
Mariko Kashiwagi, Junichi Hosoi, Jen-Feng Lai, Janice Brissette, Steven F Ziegler, Bruce A Morgan, Katia Georgopoulos
Environmental challenges to epithelial cells trigger gene expression changes that elicit context-appropriate immune responses. We found that the chromatin remodeler Mi-2β controls epidermal homeostasis by regulating the genes involved in keratinocyte and immune-cell activation to maintain an inactive state. Mi-2β depletion resulted in rapid deployment of both a pro-inflammatory and an immunosuppressive response in the skin. A key target of Mi-2β in keratinocytes is the pro-inflammatory cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)...
January 16, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091550/imbalance-of-th17-treg-cells-in-pathogenesis-of-patients-with-human-leukocyte-antigen-b27-associated-acute-anterior-uveitis
#2
Zhenchao Zhuang, Yuqin Wang, Gejing Zhu, Yunfeng Gu, Liping Mao, Meng Hong, Yali Li, Meiqin Zheng
Th17 and regulatory T cells, involved in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, are new lineages of CD4+ T helper cells. However, the role of their imbalance in human leukocyte antigen B27-associated acute anterior uveitis has not been elucidated. In our study, the percentages of Th17 and Treg cells, their molecular markers and related factors in peripheral blood of patients and healthy controls were measured by flow cytometry, real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. We observed a remarkable increase of CD4+ and CD4+IL-17+ T cells in peripheral blood of patients compared to controls...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088964/-the-influence-of-depression-degree-on-regulatory-t-cells-in-patients-with-non-m3-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#3
J Cao, B Yuan, P X Guo, H Q Zhu, Z Z Huang, Y He, Q Ding, Z Z Feng
Objective: To investigate the influence of depression levels on regulatory T cells (Tregs) in patients with non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Methods: A total of 63 patients with primarily diagnostic non-M3 AML and 25 healthy controls were enrolled, and the levels of depression by using HADM score and the percentages of Tregs by flow cytometry were evaluated in pre-treatment and post-treatment, respectively. Results: After every course of chemotherapy, the percentages of Tregs of PBMNC in AML showed the higher level of (6...
December 14, 2016: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088513/an-immunogram-for-the-cancer-immunity-cycle-towards-personalized-immunotherapy-of-lung-cancer
#4
Takahiro Karasaki, Kazuhiro Nagayama, Hideki Kuwano, Jun-Ichi Nitadori, Masaaki Sato, Masaki Anraku, Akihiro Hosoi, Hirokazu Matsushita, Yasuyuki Morishita, Kosuke Kashiwabara, Masaki Takazawa, Osamu Ohara, Kazuhiro Kakimi, Jun Nakajima
INTRODUCTION: The interaction of immune cells and cancer cells shapes the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. For successful cancer immunotherapy, comprehensive knowledge of anti-tumor immunity as a dynamic spacio-temporal process is required for each individual patient. To this end, we developed an immunogram for the cancer-immunity cycle using next-generation sequencing. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing and RNA-Seq was performed in 20 non-small cell lung cancer patients (12 adenocarcinoma, 7 squamous cell carcinoma, and 1 large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087948/regulation-of-immunity-to-tuberculosis
#5
Susanna Brighenti, Diane J Ordway
Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires a balance between adaptive immune responses to constrain bacterial replication and the prevention of potentially damaging immune activation. Regulatory T (Treg) cells express the transcription factor Foxp3+ and constitute an essential counterbalance of inflammatory Th1 responses and are required to maintain immune homeostasis. The first reports describing the presence of Foxp3-expressing CD4+ Treg cells in tuberculosis (TB) emerged in 2006. Different Treg cell subsets, most likely specialized for different tissues and microenvironments, have been shown to expand in both human TB and animal models of TB...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087520/atheroprotective-vaccination-with-mhc-ii-restricted-apob-peptides-induces-peritoneal-il-10-producing-cd4-t-cells
#6
Takayuki Kimura, Kevin Tse, Sara McArdle, Teresa Gerhardt, Jacqueline Miller, Zbigniew Mikulski, John Sidney, Alessandro Sette, Dennis Wolf, Klaus Ley
Although immunization with MHC class II-restricted ApoB peptides has been shown to be atheroprotective, the mechanism is unclear. Here, we investigated CD4(+) T cell populations in immunized atherosclerotic mice. Peptides (16-mers) from mouse ApoB, the core protein of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), were screened for binding to I-A(b) by computer prediction and confirmed by radiolabeled peptide competition. Three new peptides, P101 (FGKQGFFPDSVNKALY, 5.5 nM IC50), P102 (TLYALSHAVNSYFDVD, 6.8 nM), and P103 (LYYKEDKTSLSASAAS, 95 nM) were tested in an atherosclerosis model (Apoe(-/-) mice on western diet)...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087077/alteration-of-cd39-foxp3-cd4-t-cell-and-cytokine-levels-in-eae-ms-following-anti-cd52-treatment
#7
Anudeep B Pant, Yan Wang, Daniel W Mielcarz, Eli J Kasper, Kiel M Telesford, Megan Mishra, Azizul Haque, Jacqueline Smith, Lloyd H Kasper, Sakhina Begum-Haque
While examining the therapeutic value of anti-CD52 antibody against EAE/MS, we identified a unique subset of CD39+ Tregs in repopulating GALT tissues, a major lymphoid reservoir, which was accompanied by amelioration of disease. Furthermore, anti-CD52 treatment leads to increased expression of BDNF, IL-10, and SMAD3 in the brains of EAE mice. This condition is associated with suppression of IL-17, a critical inflammatory factor in EAE/MS progression. Additionally, we found elevated levels of CD4+CD39+ Tregs in PBMCs of RRMS patients treated with humanized anti-CD52 mAb...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086957/regulatory-t-cells-and-il10-suppress-pulmonary-host-defense-during-early-life-exposure-to-radical-containing-combustion-derived-ultrafine-particulate-matter
#8
Sridhar Jaligama, Jordy Saravia, Dahui You, Nikki Yadav, Greg I Lee, Bishwas Shrestha, Stephania A Cormier
BACKGROUND: Exposure to elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to respiratory tract viral infections in infants. Recent identification of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in the PM from a variety of combustion sources suggests its role in the enhancement of disease severity of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Our previous studies demonstrated that acute exposure to EPFRs induces pulmonary immunosuppression allowing for enhanced influenza disease severity...
January 13, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086772/scutellaria-barbata-d-don-extract-inhibits-the-tumor-growth-through-down-regulating-of-treg-cells-and-manipulating-th1-th17-immune-response-in-hepatoma-h22-bearing-mice
#9
Xuefeng Kan, Wanli Zhang, Ruxu You, Yanfeng Niu, Jianrong Guo, Jun Xue
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed Scutellaria barbata D. Don extract (SBE) is a potent inhibitor in hepatoma and could improve immune function of hepatoma H22-bearing mice. However, the immunomodulatory function of SBE on the tumor growth of hepatoma remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the anti-tumor effects of SBE on hepatoma H22-bearing mice and explore the underlying immunomodulatory function. METHODS: The hepatoma H22-bearing mice were treated by SBE for 30 days...
January 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086758/toxoplasmosis-associated-iris-involving-the-cns-a-case-report-with-longitudinal-analysis-of-t-cell-subsets
#10
Rita Rb-Silva, Claudia Nobrega, Eugénia Reiriz, Soraia Almeida, Rui Sarmento-Castro, Margarida Correia-Neves, Ana Horta
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients may present an unforeseen clinical worsening after initiating antiretroviral therapy known as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This syndrome is characterized by a heightened inflammatory response toward infectious or non-infectious triggers, and it may affect different organs. Diagnosis of IRIS involving the central nervous system (CNS-IRIS) is challenging due to heterogeneous manifestations, absence of biomarkers to identify this condition, risk of long-term sequelae and high mortality...
January 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081180/pi3k%C3%AE-deficient-nod-mice-are-protected-from-diabetes-by-restoring-the-balance-of-regulatory-to-effector-t-cells
#11
Jamil Azzi, Lindsay Thueson, Robert Moore, Rozita Abdoli, Helena Reijonen, Reza Abdi
With a steady increase in its incidence and lack of curative treatment, type 1 diabetes (T1D) has emerged as a major health problem worldwide. To design novel effective therapies, there is a pressing need to identify regulatory targets controlling the balance of autoreactive to regulatory-T-cells (Tregs). We previously showed that the inhibition of the γ-subunit of the Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), significantly suppress autoimmune-diabetes. To further delineate the mechanisms and the selectivity of specific immune modulation by PI3Kγ-inhibition, we developed a new NOD mouse model of T1D lacking the γ-subunit of PI3K...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080210/pathogen-control-at-the-intestinal-mucosa-h2o2-to-the-rescue
#12
Ulla G Knaus, Rosanne Hertzberger, Gratiela G Pircalabioru, S Parsa M Yousefi, Filipe Branco Dos Santos
Intestinal infections are a global challenge, connected to malnutrition and inadequate hygiene in developing countries, and to expanding antibiotic resistance in developed countries. In general, a healthy host is capable of fighting off gut pathogens or at least to recover from infections quickly. The underlying protective mechanism, termed colonization resistance, is provided by indigenous commensal communities (microbiota) that are shaped and aided by the host's epithelial and innate immune system. (1) Commensal-pathogen interactions are governed by competition for a suitable niche for replication and stable colonization, nutrient availability, species-specific alterations of the metabolic environment, changes in oxygen tension and release of chemicals and proteinaceous toxins (bacteriocins)...
January 12, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077684/targeting-aurora-kinase-a-and-jak2-prevents-gvhd-while-maintaining-treg-and-antitumor-ctl-function
#13
Brian C Betts, Anandharaman Veerapathran, Joseph Pidala, Hua Yang, Pedro Horna, Kelly Walton, Christopher L Cubitt, Steven Gunawan, Harshani R Lawrence, Nicholas J Lawrence, Said M Sebti, Claudio Anasetti
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a leading cause of nonrelapse mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. T cell costimulation by CD28 contributes to GVHD, but prevention is incomplete when targeting CD28, downstream mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), or Aurora A. Likewise, interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) signaling promotes alloreactivity, yet JAK2 inhibition does not eliminate GVHD. We provide evidence that blocking Aurora A and JAK2 in human T cells is synergistic in vitro, prevents xenogeneic GVHD, and maintains antitumor responses by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs)...
January 11, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077598/notch-ligand-delta-like-4-promotes-regulatory-t-cell-identity-in-pulmonary-viral-infection
#14
Hung-An Ting, Matthew A Schaller, Denise E de Almeida Nagata, Andrew J Rasky, Ivan P Maillard, Nicholas W Lukacs
Regulatory T (Treg) cells establish tolerance, prevent inflammation at mucosal surfaces, and regulate immunopathology during infectious responses. Recent studies have shown that Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) was upregulated on APC after respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, and its inhibition leads to exaggerated immunopathology. In the present study, we outline the role of Dll4 in Treg cell differentiation, stability, and function in RSV infection. We found that Dll4 was expressed on CD11b(+) pulmonary dendritic cells in the lung and draining lymph nodes in wild-type BALB/c mice after RSV infection...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077577/extracellular-microrna-signature-of-human-helper-t-cell-subsets-in-health-and-autoimmunity
#15
Anna Torri, Donatella Carpi, Elisabetta Bulgheroni, Maria-Cristina Crosti, Monica Moro, Paola Gruarin, Riccardo L Rossi, Grazisa Rossetti, Dolores Di Vizio, Mirjam Hoxha, Valentina Bollati, Cristina Gagliani, Carlo Tacchetti, Moira Paroni, Jens Geginat, Laura Corti, Luigia Venegoni, Emilio Berti, Massimiliano Pagani, Giuseppe Matarese, Sergio Abrignani, Paola de Candia
Upon TCR stimulation, CD4+ T lymphocytes release extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing microRNAs. However, no data are available on whether human CD4+ T cell subsets release EVs containing different pattern of microRNAs. The present work aimed at filling this gap by assessing the microRNA content in EVs released upon in vitro TCR stimulation of Th1, Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) cells. Our results indicate that EVs released by Treg cells are significantly different compared to those released by the other subsets...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077266/asp0028-in-combination-with-suboptimal-dose-of-tacrolimus-in-cynomolgus-monkey-renal-transplantation-model
#16
Hao Dun, Lijun Song, Anlun Ma, Yanxin Hu, Lin Zeng, Jieying Bai, Guangzhou Zhang, Liangyan Zhang, Kumi Koide, Yohei Okada, Kaori Hanaoka, Rie Yamamoto, Jun Hirose, Tatsuaki Morokata, Pierre Daloze, Huifang Chen
FTY720, a S1P-receptor modulator, has shown to be effective in several transplant and autoimmune disease models, via modulating lymphocyte homing into secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), and thereby reducing these cells in peripheral blood. ASP0028, a newly developed S1P1/S1P5-selective agonist, presented comparable efficacy to FTY720 and wider safety margins than FTY720. In this study, we assessed the efficacy and safety of ASP0028 co-administered with suboptimal-dose of tacrolimus in the Cynomolgus monkey renal transplantation model...
January 7, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074676/potential-route-of-th17-treg-cell-dynamics-in-targeting-type-1-diabetes-and-rheumatoid-arthritis-an-autoimmune-disorder-perspective
#17
Suresh Kumar Karri, A Sheela
Cytokines, small secreted proteins, have a specific effect on the interactions and communications between cells. They play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Factors in the breakdown of self-tolerance and the subsequent events leading to the induction of pathogenic responses remain unclear for most of the autoimmune diseases. Large numbers of studies have revealed a general scheme in which pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to the initiation and propagation of autoimmune inflammation, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines facilitate the regression of inflammation and thereby recovery from the disease...
January 11, 2017: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073411/-effect-of-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-on-immune-function-and-prognosis-of-patients-with-decompensated-hepatitis-b-cirrhosis
#18
X Q Fang, J F Zhang, H Y Song, Z L Chen, J Dong, X Chen, J J Pan, B Liu, C X Chen
Objective: To investigate the effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) on the immune function and prognosis of patients with decompensated hepatitis B cirrhosis. Methods: A total of 65 patients with decompensated hepatitis B cirrhosis were divided into observation group and control group. The patients in the observation group were given intervention (via the proper hepatic artery or the portal vein) and intravenous infusion of 4×10(8) hUCMSCs in two doses, as well as the same basic treatment as in the control group...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073043/periplocoside-a-ameliorated-type-ii-collagen-induced-arthritis-in-mice-via-regulation-of-the-balance-of-th17-treg-cells
#19
Yang Yang, Xudong Hu, Lei Cheng, Wei Tang, Weimin Zhao, Yifu Yang, Jianping Zuo
Periplocoside A (PSA) has been extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Periplocasepium Bge to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) via immune regulation. We previously found that PSA exhibits immunosuppressive activity both in vitro and in vivo. Balanced regulation of helper T 17 (Th17)/regulatory T (Treg) cells is the current therapeutic direction for the treatment of RA. The present study investigated the mechanism of PSA in treating collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). The therapeutic effects and potential pharmacological mechanisms of PSA were specifically clarified by examining its effects on CIA in DBA/1 mice...
January 7, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069109/immunomodulatory-effects-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-overexpressing-heme-oxygenase-1-protective-effects-on-acute-rejection-following-reduced-size-liver-transplantation-in-a-rat-model
#20
Zhong-Yang Shen, Bin Wu, Tao Liu, Yang Yang, Ming-Li Yin, Wei-Ping Zheng, Bo-Ya Zhang, Hong-Li Song
Here we explore the T-lymphocyte suppressive and immunomodulatory effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) overexpressing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on acute rejection following reduced-size liver transplantation (RLT) in a rat model. The proliferation activity, cell cycle progression, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, expression of CD25 and CD71 in lymphocytes, and activity of NK cells were found to be significantly lowered, and the proportion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) was found to be increased relative to BMMSCs when Adv-HO-1/BMMSCs were co-cultured with Con A ex vivo; secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines was significantly higher...
December 26, 2016: Cellular Immunology
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