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endocarditis in children

Florencia Escarrá, Ana G Fedullo, Natalia Veliz, Julián Rosa, Rodrigo Oribe, Marisa Di Santo, Bqca Vanesa Reijtman, Lic Alejandra Mastroianni, Guadalupe Pérez
INTRODUCTION: the incidence of invasive infections caused by pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae) has declined since generalized vaccination with pneumococcal conjugated vaccine, but it is still a prevalent pathogen in children. Amongst pneumococcal invasive infections, IE (infectious endocarditis) is rare, with an incidence between 1 and 7%. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a previously healthy 4 year old boy, who had received one dose of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine who presents with fever, a new heart murmur and heart failure...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Michael C Mongé, Osama M Eltayeb, John M Costello, Joyce T Johnson, Andrada R Popescu, Cynthia K Rigsby, Carl L Backer
BACKGROUND: Controversy remains regarding the optimal surgical approach for children with supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). METHODS: Since 1997 we have used Brom three-patch aortoplasty for patients with SVAS. We prefer computed tomography (CT) imaging for preoperative evaluation rather than cardiac catheterization as it avoids the well-known morbidity of general anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to present our intermediate-term results of this strategy...
March 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Jarle Jortveit, Jakob Klcovansky, Leif Eskedal, Sigurd Birkeland, Gaute Døhlen, Henrik Holmstrøm
OBJECTIVES: Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most common birth defects worldwide and are an important cause of morbidity and early death. A significant number of deaths occur among patients with infections. CHDs predispose to the development of infective endocarditis (IE) and represent a risk factor for increased mortality due to IE. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and outcomes of IE in children and adolescents with CHDs. METHODS: Data on all children with CHD and IE born in Norway between 1994 and 2016 were retrieved from the Oslo University Hospital's Clinical Registry for Congenital Heart Defects...
March 6, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Kelly J Oliver, Michael J Casas, Peter L Judd, Jennifer L Russell
Objective: Children with cardiac defects should have good oral health, particularly prior to cardiac surgery to minimize risks of infective endocarditis. The aim of the study was to examine the oral health assessment practices of North American cardiologists. Methods: Online surveys were e-mailed to 1409 cardiologists. Cardiologists without paediatric patients or practicing in centres without cardiac surgical care were excluded. Surveys addressed oral health assessment practices for paediatric cardiac patients, and perceptions of the impact of oral health on cardiac care...
September 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Sundos A Alhadhoud, Mariappa Thinakar Vel, Mustafa Al Qbandi
Q fever (QF) is rarely reported in children. Awareness of the disease and newer diagnostic modalities have resulted in increasing recognition of unusual manifestations. We present three cases of QF endocarditis after right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit insertion in children.
January 2018: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
Ryota Nomura, Kazuma Kokomoto, Takahiro Ohara, Satoshi Nakatani, Takashi Ooshima, Kazuhiko Nakano
Infective endocarditis (IE), a life-threatening condition predominantly occurring in patients with underlying heart disease, is mainly caused by bacteremia induced by invasive dental treatment. However, the amount of related information shared between cardiologists and dentists appears to be inadequate. In the present study, a survey regarding prevention of IE, composed of 13 major questions, 2 of which also allowed free comments, was sent to approximately 3000 dentists belonging to a prefectural dental association in Japan...
February 12, 2018: Odontology
Allison K Cabalka, Jeremy D Asnes, David T Balzer, John P Cheatham, Matthew J Gillespie, Thomas K Jones, Henri Justino, Dennis W Kim, Te-Hsin Lung, Daniel R Turner, Doff B McElhinney
BACKGROUND: Stented bioprosthetic valves (BPVs) are commonly used for surgical pulmonary valve (PV) replacement in postoperative congenital heart disease, but develop structural failure in a time-related fashion. The Melody transcatheter PV (TPV) (Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minn) has been used to treat BPV dysfunction, but there have been few studies in this population. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, multicenter study to evaluate Melody valve function in patients who underwent TPV replacement (TPVR) into a dysfunctional pulmonary BPV...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Ahmad S Azhar, Zaher F Zaher, Noran M Abu-Ouf, Jameel Al-Ata, Sara Taisir A Alsheblie
Objective: To assess the implementation and efficiency of medical education among the caregivers of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) and to investigate its success factors. Material and method: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2014 to March 2014 in a tertiary healthcare center. Study included 120 caregivers of children with CHD visiting the Paediatric Cardiology Clinic that included 93% mothers, aged 31.72 ± 6.67 years, 38.3% Saudi citizens and 45...
January 2018: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
Safaa H Ali, Amal El Sisi, Duaa M Raafat, Salah-Eldin Amry, Sharaf E D Mahamoud
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute and short-term outcomes of transcatheter closure of secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) in children and adolescents in the first 4-year experience in two institutional centers in Upper Egypt. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study including 135 children and adolescents who underwent ASD closure between April 2012 and May 2016. A review of the acute and short-term outcomes and adverse events was performed...
January 2018: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
Mary Hunt Martin, Shabana Shahanavaz, Lynn F Peng, Jeremy D Asnes, Michelle Riley, William E Hellenbrand, David T Balzer, Robert G Gray, Doff B McElhinney
BACKGROUND: Since FDA approval of the Melody valve, transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR) has been offered to an expanding population. Limited data exist regarding the safety and feasibility of TPVR in smaller patients. METHODS: All patients weighing <20 kg who underwent catheterization for percutaneous TPVR at four centers were reviewed. RESULTS: Of the 51 patients reviewed, 43 (84%) had successful valve implantation and 8 (16%) were found not to be candidates due to access veins too small (n = 3), coronary artery/aortic root compression (n = 3), and RVOT too large (n = 2)...
February 15, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Matteo Trezzi, Enrico Cetrano, Roberta Iacobelli, Adriano Carotti
We present the surgical implantation in mitral position of the Edwards Sapien 3 valve for prosthetic valve endocarditis in a severely ill child after multiple valve replacements. The procedure was safely performed and provided adequate hemodynamic results in the short term. This report highlights the excellent potential of Sapien 3 valve for the treatment of mitral valve disease in children with a mitral valve annulus of appropriate size. Of note, the use of the Sapien 3 valve should be considered when a bioprosthesis is required at the time of valve re-replacement...
December 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
K Thom, A Hanslik, J L Russell, S Williams, P Sivaprakasam, U Allen, C Male, L R Brandão
BACKGROUND: Pediatric infective endocarditis (IE) has been associated with high morbidity and mortality, mostly related to thromboembolic complications (TEC). The objective of our study was to describe the experience in children with IE and to review the changes over a thirty-year period, regarding origin of IE, incidence of vegetations, TEC and their respective morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of children aged 0-18years with IE defined by the Duke Criteria and admitted to The Hospital for Sick Children, was conducted...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
Hilmir Asgeirsson, Anders Thalme, Ola Weiland
PURPOSE: To review the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) and endocarditis (SAE), and discuss the short- and long-term outcome.  Materials and methods: A literature review of the epidemiology of SAB and SAE. RESULTS: The reported incidence of SAB in Western countries is 16-41/100,000 person-years. Increasing incidence has been observed in many regions, in Iceland by 27% during 1995-2008. The increase is believed to depend on changes in population risk factors and possibly better and more frequent utilization of diagnostic procedures...
November 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases
S Javed Zaidi, Rishi R Adhikari, Chawki El-Zein, Saad Siddiqui
Cor triatriatum sinister is a rare congenital lesion encountered in children. It consists of a fibromuscular membrane that separates the left atrium into two chambers resulting in a triatrial heart and often occurs with other structural cardiac anomalies. The acquired form is uncommon and has only been reported after orthotopic heart transplantation or as a complication of infective endocarditis in adults. These cases were mostly because of hypertrophied atrial tissue or suture lines and torsion of the atrium...
November 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Chad A Knoderer, Lauren C Karmire, Kristen R Nichols
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to describe the clinical outcomes of continuous nafcillin infusion in pediatric patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective case study performed at a freestanding, tertiary care children's hospital. Subjects were included if they were at least 30 days old and had received more than 1 dose of nafcillin by continuous infusion (CI) between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2012. Clinical and microbiological data were extracted from the medical record...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Kamuran Türker, Bekir Çelebi, Şeyda Andaç, Pınar Bulut, Şenay Yalçın, Saniye Dolhan
Bartonella henselae the causative agent of cat scratch disease (CSD), is a gram-negative, coccobacillus, facultative intracellular bacterium CSD usually presents as a clinical form of benign local lymphadenopathy (LAP) but sometimes it may progress to severe life threatening complications. Despite the fact that CSD is known to be a common disease, which is one of the important causes of local LAPs in the world, there are few publications in our country. For the diagnosis, the clinician should suspect for CSD and has to ask to the patient whether there is a story of cat scratch or not...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Hong-Bo Xu, Mei Tan, Jian Lu, Mao-Qiang Tian, Yan Chen
In this study, two school-aged children had an acute onset in spring and had the manifestations of fever, headache, vomiting, disturbance of consciousness, purpura and ecchymosis, and positive meningeal irritation sign. There were increases in peripheral white blood cells and neutrophils, but reductions in the hemoglobin level and platelet count in the two children. They had a significant increase in C-reactive protein. There were hundreds or thousands of white blood cells in the cerebrospinal fluid, mainly neutrophils...
September 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Ramnath Balasubramanian, Stephen D Marks
Post-infectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) is one of the most common causes of acute glomerulonephritis in children. Although post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is still common, there is a wide spectrum of causative agents of PIGN. Non-streptococcal organisms are emerging as the main aetiological agents in high-income countries. Nephritis-associated plasmin receptor (NAPlr) and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPeB) are the two common antigens implicated in the pathogenesis of PSGN. Both NAPlr and SPeB activate the alternative complement pathway, resulting in low serum complement levels, and have an affinity to plasmin and glomerular proteins...
November 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Vithiya Ganesan, Shunmuga Sundaram Ponnusamy, Raja Sundaramurthy
BACKGROUND: The aims of this article were to review the published literature on fungal endocarditis in children and to discuss the aetiology and diagnosis, with emphasis on non-invasive methods and various treatment regimes. METHODS: We systematically reviewed published cases and case series of fungal endocarditis in children. We searched the literature, including PubMed and individual references for publications of original articles, single cases, or case series of paediatric fungal endocarditis, with the following keywords: "fungal endocarditis", "neonates", "infants", "child", and "cardiac vegetation"...
October 2017: Cardiology in the Young
Li-Chuan Sun, Chih-Cheng Lai, Cheng-Yi Wang, Ya-Hui Wang, Jen-Yu Wang, Yo-Ling Hsu, Yin-Lan Hu, En-Ting Wu, Ming-Tai Lin, Leticia B Sy, Likwang Chen
BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon in childhood. Its associated epidemiological characteristics in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) remain unclear. METHODS: The study population included children born in Taiwan during the years 1997 to 2005 who were diagnosed as having CHD before 3years of age. All children were followed up until the end year of 2010, the diagnosis of infective endocarditis, or death. The demographic characteristics of patients with and without IE, the invasive procedures performed during 6months before the index date, the prophylactic antibiotics related to dental procedures, and in-hospital mortality were collected...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
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