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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671645/metacognitive-monitoring-and-the-hypercorrection-effect-in-autism-and-the-general-population-relation-to-autism-like-traits-and-mindreading
#1
David M Williams, Zara Bergström, Catherine Grainger
Among neurotypical adults, errors made with high confidence (i.e. errors a person strongly believed they would not make) are corrected more reliably than errors made with low confidence. This 'hypercorrection effect' is thought to result from enhanced attention to information that reflects a 'metacognitive mismatch' between one's beliefs and reality. In Experiment 1, we employed a standard measure of this effect. Participants answered general knowledge questions and provided confidence judgements about how likely each answer was to be correct, after which feedback was given...
April 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667272/different-brain-networks-underlying-intelligence-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#2
Emmanuel Peng Kiat Pua, Charles B Malpas, Stephen C Bowden, Marc L Seal
There has been sustained clinical and cognitive neuroscience research interest in how network correlates of brain-behavior relationships might be altered in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders. As previous work has mostly focused on adults, the nature of whole-brain connectivity networks underlying intelligence in pediatric cohorts with abnormal neurodevelopment requires further investigation. We used network-based statistics (NBS) to examine the association between resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) connectivity and fluid intelligence ability in male children (n = 50) with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD; M = 10...
April 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663191/older-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-sweden-a-register-study-of-diagnoses-psychiatric-care-utilization-and-psychotropic-medication-of-601-individuals
#3
Lena Nylander, Anna Axmon, Petra Björne, Gerd Ahlström, Christopher Gillberg
In a Swedish sample of persons eligible for disability services and aged 55 years or older in 2012, persons (n = 601) with autism spectrum disorder diagnoses registered in specialist care were identified. Register data concerning diagnoses of other psychiatric disorders, psychiatric care, and psychiatric medication were reviewed. More than 60% had been in contact with psychiatric care. The majority had no intellectual disability (ID) diagnosis recorded during the study period. Apart from ID, affective disorders, anxiety and psychotic disorders were most commonly registered; alcohol/substance abuse disorders were uncommon...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662527/stimulant-withdrawal-in-a-child-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-adhd-a-case-report
#4
Aneta Krakowski, Abel Ickowicz
Objective: To consider whether the concepts of tolerance and withdrawal to stimulant medications apply to a preadolescent female, affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and treated for associated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: We describe the case history and review scientific English language literature pertaining to acute withdrawal effects associated with methylphenidate and amphetamine derivatives in children. Results: An 11-year-old female with ASD and ADHD referred to our clinic experienced vomiting, headaches, and light sensitivity following abrupt discontinuation of methylphenidate; she subsequently presented with migraines and marked malaise immediately after a dose reduction in lisdexamfetamine...
April 2018: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660967/a-call-for-implementing-preferred-practices-for-brain-injury-screening-in-youth-to-improve-transition
#5
Drew A Nagele, Melissa McCart, Stephen R Hooper
BACKGROUND: It is vital to engage in systematic screening to identify and serve children who may have sustained an acquired brain injury (ABI) - either traumatic or non-traumatic, so they can be successfully transitioned between environments and life stages. This is particularly important for children and adolescents given the impact an ABI can have on learning and social functioning over the course of the neurodevelopmental process. A pattern of repeated, undiagnosed mild brain injuries may lead to mood or behavior disorders, learning problems...
April 7, 2018: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644587/the-feeling-of-me-feeling-for-you-interoception-alexithymia-and-empathy-in-autism
#6
Cari-Lène Mul, Steven D Stagg, Bruno Herbelin, Jane E Aspell
Following recent evidence for a link between interoception, emotion and empathy, we investigated relationships between these factors in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 26 adults with ASD and 26 healthy participants completed tasks measuring interoception, alexithymia and empathy. ASD participants with alexithymia demonstrated lower cognitive and affective empathy than ASD participants without alexithymia. ASD participants showed reduced interoceptive sensitivity (IS), and also reduced interoceptive awareness (IA)...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644474/risk-factors-for-parental-psychopathology-a-study-in-families-with-children-or-adolescents-with-psychopathology
#7
L W Wesseldijk, G C Dieleman, F J A van Steensel, M Bartels, J J Hudziak, R J L Lindauer, S M Bögels, C M Middeldorp
The parents of children with psychopathology are at increased risk for psychiatric symptoms. To investigate which parents are mostly at risk, we assessed in a clinical sample of families with children with psychopathology, whether parental symptom scores can be predicted by offspring psychiatric diagnoses and other child, parent and family characteristics. Parental depressive, anxiety, avoidant personality, attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD), and antisocial personality symptoms were measured with the Adult Self Report in 1805 mothers and 1361 fathers of 1866 children with a psychiatric diagnosis as assessed in a child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinic...
April 11, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628433/sensory-prediction-errors-are-less-modulated-by-global-context-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Judith Goris, Senne Braem, Annabel D Nijhof, Davide Rigoni, Eliane Deschrijver, Sander Van de Cruys, Jan R Wiersema, Marcel Brass
BACKGROUND: Recent predictive coding accounts of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggest that a key deficit in ASD concerns the inflexibility in modulating local prediction errors as a function of global top-down expectations. As a direct test of this central hypothesis, we used electroencephalography to investigate whether local prediction error processing was less modulated by global context (i.e., global stimulus frequency) in ASD. METHODS: A group of 18 adults with ASD was compared with a group of 24 typically developed adults on a well-validated hierarchical auditory oddball task in which participants listened to short sequences of either five identical sounds (local standard) or four identical sounds and a fifth deviant sound (local deviant)...
March 6, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628394/interleukin-6-regulates-adult-neural-stem-cell-numbers-during-normal-and-abnormal-post-natal-development
#9
Mekayla A Storer, Denis Gallagher, Michael P Fatt, Jaclin V Simonetta, David R Kaplan, Freda D Miller
Circulating systemic factors can regulate adult neural stem cell (NSC) biology, but the identity of these circulating cues is still being defined. Here, we have focused on the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), since increased circulating levels of IL-6 are associated with neural pathologies such as autism and bipolar disorder. We show that IL-6 promotes proliferation of post-natal murine forebrain NSCs and that, when the IL-6 receptor is inducibly knocked out in post-natal or adult neural precursors, this causes a long-term decrease in forebrain NSCs...
April 3, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623564/brief-report-memory-for-self-performed-actions-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-why-does-memory-of-self-decline-in-asd
#10
Kenta Yamamoto, Kouhei Masumoto
The decline in self-related memory in ASD was investigated by using encoding, forgetting, and source monitoring. Participants memorized action sentences verbally, observationally, or by enacted encoding. Then, they underwent recall, recognition, and source monitoring memory tests immediately and 1 week later. If the information were properly encoded, memory performance in the enacted encoding would be the highest (enactment effect). The result of memory tests in ASD and TD people showed that enacted encoding was superior...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619645/parent-expectations-and-preparatory-activities-as-adolescents-with-asd-transition-to-adulthood
#11
Laura G Holmes, Anne V Kirby, Donald S Strassberg, Michael B Himle
Community stakeholders, researchers, and providers are increasingly focused on individual, family, and systemic factors that contribute to positive outcomes for adults on the autism spectrum. Parent expectations for their youth's future are associated with adult outcomes (e.g., employment, school success, independence), yet the mechanism for this effect remains unclear. This study investigated how expectations were related to parent transition-related activities in a sample of 298 parents of adolescents on the autism spectrum (48% female adolescents), stratified by parent-reported IQ (average or above, borderline, or below 70)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619162/crispr-cas9-induced-shank3b-mutant-zebrafish-display-autism-like-behaviors
#12
Chun-Xue Liu, Chun-Yang Li, Chun-Chun Hu, Yi Wang, Jia Lin, Yong-Hui Jiang, Qiang Li, Xiu Xu
Background: Human genetic and genomic studies have supported a strong causal role of SHANK3 deficiency in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the molecular mechanism underlying SHANK3 deficiency resulting in ASD is not fully understood. Recently, the zebrafish has become an attractive organism to model ASD because of its high efficiency of genetic manipulation and robust behavioral phenotypes. The orthologous gene to human SHANK3 is duplicated in the zebrafish genome and has two homologs, shank3a and shank3b ...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615849/targeting-mglu5-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-the-treatment-of-cognitive-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-phenylketonuria
#13
Francesca Nardecchia, Rosamaria Orlando, Luisa Iacovelli, Marco Colamartino, Elena Fiori, Vincenzo Leuzzi, Sonia Piccinin, Robert Nistico, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Luisa Di Menna, Giuseppe Battaglia, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Tiziana Pascucci
We studied group-I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors in Pahenu2 (ENU2) mice, which mimic the genetics and neurobiology of human phenylketonuria (PKU), a metabolic disorder characterized, if untreated, by autism, and intellectual disability (ID). Male ENU2 mice showed increased mGlu5 receptor protein levels in the hippocampus and corpus striatum (but not in the prefrontal cortex) whereas the transcript of the mGlu5 receptor was unchanged. No changes in mGlu1 receptor mRNA and protein levels were found in any of the three brain regions of ENU2 mice...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610898/-to-be-quite-honest-if-it-wasn-t-for-videogames-i-wouldn-t-have-a-social-life-at-all-motivations-of-young-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-for-playing-videogames-as-leisure
#14
Erinn H Finke, Benjamin D Hickerson, Jennifer M D Kremkow
Purpose: Leisure activities are underutilized as a context for intervention in the field of speech-language pathology despite the fact that leisure can be an important context for skill development. The current study investigated the perceptions of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who play videogames as their primary leisure activity regarding the role of videogames in their lives and their motivations for playing videogames. Method: Qualitative interview methodology was used to investigate the experiences of 10 18-24-year-olds with ASD...
April 2, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610457/cntnap2-stabilizes-interneuron-dendritic-arbors-through-cask
#15
Ruoqi Gao, Nicolas H Piguel, Alexandria E Melendez-Zaidi, Maria Dolores Martin-de-Saavedra, Sehyoun Yoon, Marc P Forrest, Kristoffer Myczek, Gefei Zhang, Theron A Russell, John G Csernansky, D James Surmeier, Peter Penzes
Contactin associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) has emerged as a prominent susceptibility gene implicated in multiple complex neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), and schizophrenia (SCZ). The presence of seizure comorbidity in many of these cases, as well as inhibitory neuron dysfunction in Cntnap2 knockout (KO) mice, suggests CNTNAP2 may be crucial for proper inhibitory network function. However, underlying cellular mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that cultured Cntnap2 KO mouse neurons exhibit an inhibitory neuron-specific simplification of the dendritic tree...
April 2, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610415/psychiatric-and-medical-conditions-in-transition-aged-individuals-with-asd
#16
Meghan N Davignon, Yinge Qian, Maria Massolo, Lisa A Croen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a variety of medical and psychiatric conditions and an increased use of health care services. There is limited information about the prevalence of psychiatric and medical conditions in adolescents and young adults with ASD. Our objective was to describe the frequency of medical and psychiatric conditions in a large population of diverse, insured transition-aged individuals with ASD. METHODS: Participants included Kaiser Permanente Northern California members who were enrolled from 2013 to 2015 and who were 14 to 25 years old...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610413/transition-of-individuals-with-autism-to-adulthood-a-review-of-qualitative-studies
#17
Kristy A Anderson, Collette Sosnowy, Alice A Kuo, Paul T Shattuck
Many young adults with autism spectrum disorder experience poor transition outcomes in key areas, including postsecondary employment, higher education, health care, social connectedness, and independent living, yet we lack a clear understanding of the specific factors that impact these outcomes. We reviewed qualitative research in which the perspectives of youth and young adults with autism spectrum disorder, parents, services providers, and other stakeholders were gathered to identify barriers and facilitators to optimal outcomes...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610412/social-ecological-correlates-in-adult-autism-outcome-studies-a-scoping-review
#18
Kristy A Anderson, Anne M Roux, Alice Kuo, Paul T Shattuck
The transition into adulthood is a critical period in the life course that shapes later outcomes. Many adults on the autism spectrum fare poorly across a wide range of quality of life indicators. Understanding the multilevel factors that influence transition outcomes is necessary to develop strategies that promote better outcomes. In this scoping review, we characterize the use of social-ecological factors in adult autism outcome studies, identify understudied areas of research, and provide recommendations for future research...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610411/barriers-to-receipt-of-services-for-young-adults-with-autism
#19
Connie Anderson, Alexis Lupfer, Paul T Shattuck
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examine experiences of families of young adults (YAs) on the autism spectrum to better understand dynamics leading to poor YA outcomes. METHODS: Twenty parents of YAs with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who had completed high school in the past 15 years took part in a 90-minute interview. They described their YA's experiences at the transition from high school and current status with regards to services or postsecondary education. Qualitative interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by using the constant comparative method associated with a grounded theory approach...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610409/network-measures-of-collaborative-support-for-young-adults-with-autism
#20
Elizabeth McGhee Hassrick, Paul Shattuck, Kathleen Carley
OBJECTIVES: The treatment of autism requires complex, multimodal interventions, provided by parents and providers across settings. As young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) transition into adulthood, new stakeholders are added to support planning for postsecondary employment. In this article, we investigate the use of dynamic social network measures that describe the resources of young adults throughout transition. METHODS: A longitudinal, dynamic social network survey (Social Dynamics of Intervention [SoDI]) was conceptualized, designed, and conducted as a feasibility test, measuring changes in collaboration among parents and school staff members who provided interventions for children with ASD in 2 urban public schools...
April 2018: Pediatrics
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