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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907643/integrin-activity-in-neuronal-connectivity
#1
REVIEW
Johanna Lilja, Johanna Ivaska
The formation of correct synaptic structures and neuronal connections is paramount for normal brain development and a functioning adult brain. The integrin family of cell adhesion receptors and their ligands play essential roles in the control of several processes regulating neuronal connectivity - including neurite outgrowth, the formation and maintenance of synapses, and synaptic plasticity - that are affected in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia. Many ASD- and schizophrenia-associated genes are linked to alterations in the genetic code of integrins and associated signalling pathways...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899716/learning-an-embodied-visual-language-four-imitation-strategies-available-to-sign-learners
#2
Aaron Shield, Richard P Meier
The parts of the body that are used to produce and perceive signed languages (the hands, face, and visual system) differ from those used to produce and perceive spoken languages (the vocal tract and auditory system). In this paper we address two factors that have important consequences for sign language acquisition. First, there are three types of lexical signs: one-handed, two-handed symmetrical, and two-handed asymmetrical. Natural variation in hand dominance in the population leads to varied input to children learning sign...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896995/disrupted-cerebro-cerebellar-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-in-young-adults-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-data-driven-whole-brain-high-temporal-resolution-fmri-study
#3
Sheeba Arnold Anteraper, Xavier Guell, Anila D'Mello, Neha Joshi, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Gagan Joshi
OBJECTIVES: To examine the resting-state functional-connectivity (RsFc) in young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD) using state-of-the-art fMRI data acquisition and analysis techniques. METHODS: Simultaneous multi-slice, high temporal resolution fMRI acquisition; unbiased whole-brain connectome-wide multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) techniques for assessing RsFc; and post-hoc whole-brain seed-to-voxel analyses using MVPA results as seeds...
June 13, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893787/clinician-vs-machine-estimating-vocalizations-rates-in-young-children-with-developmental-disorders
#4
Shelley L Bredin-Oja, Heather Fielding, Kandace K Fleming, Steven F Warren
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of an automated language analysis system, the Language Environment Analysis (LENA), compared with a human transcriber to determine the rate of child vocalizations during recording sessions that were significantly shorter than recommended for the automated device. Method: Participants were 6 nonverbal male children between the ages of 28 and 46 months. Two children had autism diagnoses, 2 had Down syndrome, 1 had a chromosomal deletion, and 1 had developmental delay...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887806/victimization-and-perpetration-experiences-of-adults-with-autism
#5
Jonathan A Weiss, Michelle A Fardella
This study aimed to describe the self-reported experiences of childhood and adult victimization and perpetration in adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) compared to a matched sample, and how victimization and perpetration are associated with autism-related difficulties. Forty-five adults with ASC and 42 adults without ASC completed questionnaires regarding violence victimization and perpetration, emotion regulation, and sociocommunicative competence. Participants with ASC reported experiencing, as children, more overall victimization; specifically, more property crime, maltreatment, teasing/emotional bullying, and sexual assault by peers, compared to participants without ASC...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886439/shared-decision-making-for-people-living-with-dementia-in-extended-care-settings-a-systematic-review
#6
Rachel Louise Daly, Frances Bunn, Claire Goodman
BACKGROUND: Shared decision-making is recognised as an important element of person-centred dementia care. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to explore how people living with dementia and cognitive impairment can be included in day-to-day decisions about their health and care in extended care settings. DESIGN: A systematic review including primary research relating to shared decision-making, with cognitively impaired adults in (or transferrable to) extended care settings...
June 9, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882108/effect-of-visual-information-on-postural-control-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Yi Huey Lim, Hoe C Lee, Torbjörn Falkmer, Garry T Allison, Tele Tan, Wee Lih Lee, Susan L Morris
Sensory processing difficulties affect the development of sensorimotor skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the effect of sensory information on postural control is unclear in the ASD adult population. The present study examined the effect of visual information on postural control as well as the attentional demands associated with postural control in fourteen adults with ASD and seventeen typically developed adults. The results showed that postural sway and attention demands of postural control were larger in adults with ASD than in typically developed adults...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882107/adults-with-autism-and-adults-with-depression-show-similar-attentional-biases-to-social-affective-images
#8
Kathryn E Unruh, James W Bodfish, Katherine O Gotham
Individuals with ASD have increased rates of depression compared to the general population. Repetitive cognition is a core feature of ASD; in typically developing adults, repetitive cognition has been associated with attentional biases to negative emotional material and increased prospective depression risk. We compared adults with ASD to typically developing adults with depression and never-depressed controls, using a paired preference paradigm sensitive to affective biases in the context of repetitive cognition...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879612/a-systematic-review-of-screening-tools-in-non-young-children-and-adults-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Tomoya Hirota, Ryuhei So, Young Shin Kim, Bennett Leventhal, Richard A Epstein
BACKGROUND: Existing reviews of screening tools for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) focus on young children, and not all screening tools have been examined against validated diagnostic procedures. AIMS: To examine the validity of screening tools for ASD in non-young children and adults to provide clinical recommendations about the use of these tools in a variety of clinical settings. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Electronic databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Cochrane Library and CINAHL, were searched through March 2017...
June 4, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878067/de-novo-mutation-screening-in-childhood-onset-cerebellar-atrophy-identifies-gain-of-function-mutations-in-the-cacna1g-calcium-channel-gene
#10
Jean Chemin, Karine Siquier-Pernet, Michaël Nicouleau, Giulia Barcia, Ali Ahmad, Daniel Medina-Cano, Sylvain Hanein, Nami Altin, Laurence Hubert, Christine Bole-Feysot, Cécile Fourage, Patrick Nitschké, Julien Thevenon, Marlène Rio, Pierre Blanc, Céline Vidal, Nadia Bahi-Buisson, Isabelle Desguerre, Arnold Munnich, Stanislas Lyonnet, Nathalie Boddaert, Emily Fassi, Marwan Shinawi, Holly Zimmerman, Jeanne Amiel, Laurence Faivre, Laurence Colleaux, Philippe Lory, Vincent Cantagrel
Cerebellar atrophy is a key neuroradiological finding usually associated with cerebellar ataxia and cognitive development defect in children. Unlike the adult forms, early onset cerebellar atrophies are classically described as mostly autosomal recessive conditions and the exact contribution of de novo mutations to this phenotype has not been assessed. In contrast, recent studies pinpoint the high prevalence of pathogenic de novo mutations in other developmental disorders such as intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy...
June 5, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876630/neuromotor-and-cognitive-responses-of-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-compared-to-neurotypical-adults
#11
Steven Morrison, Cortney N Armitano, C Teal Raffaele, Stephen I Deutsch, Serina A Neumann, Hope Caracci, Maria R Urbano
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder, whose core symptom domains include impaired social communication and narrowed interests and/or repetitive behaviors; in addition, deficits of general cognition, neuromotor function, and movement ability can be observed. This study was designed to examine differences in neuromotor and cognitive functions for a group of young adults with ASD and age-matched controls. It was also of interest to assess whether changes in the intra-individual variability (IIV) of these selected neuromotor and cognitive tasks also occurred...
June 6, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876255/brain-activity-for-spontaneous-and-explicit-mentalizing-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-fmri-study
#12
Annabel D Nijhof, Lara Bardi, Marcel Brass, Jan R Wiersema
The socio-communicative difficulties of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are hypothesized to be caused by a specific deficit in the ability to represent one's own and others' mental states, referred to as Theory of Mind or mentalizing. However, many individuals with ASD show successful performance on explicit measures of mentalizing, and for this reason, the deficit is thought to be better captured by measures of spontaneous mentalizing. While there is initial behavioral support for this hypothesis, spontaneous mentalizing in ASD has not yet been studied at the neural level...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876249/early-prediction-of-cognitive-deficits-in-very-preterm-infants-using-functional-connectome-data-in-an-artificial-neural-network-framework
#13
Lili He, Hailong Li, Scott K Holland, Weihong Yuan, Mekibib Altaye, Nehal A Parikh
Investigation of the brain's functional connectome can improve our understanding of how an individual brain's organizational changes influence cognitive function and could result in improved individual risk stratification. Brain connectome studies in adults and older children have shown that abnormal network properties may be useful as discriminative features and have exploited machine learning models for early diagnosis in a variety of neurological conditions. However, analogous studies in neonates are rare and with limited significant findings...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873809/a-progressive-model-for-teaching-children-with-autism-to-follow-gaze-shift
#14
Kristin V Gunby, John T Rapp, Melissa M Bottoni
Gunby, Rapp, Bottoni, Marchese and Wu () taught three children with autism spectrum disorder to follow an instructor's gaze shift to select a specific item; however, Gunby et al. used different types of prompts with each participant. To address this limitation, we used a progressive training model for increasing gaze shift for three children with autism spectrum disorder. Results show that each participant learned to follow an adult's shift in gaze to make a correct selection. In addition, two participants displayed the skill in response to a parent's gaze shift and with only social consequences; however, the third participant required verbal instruction and tangible reinforcement to demonstrate the skill outside of training sessions...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869578/increased-cntf-levels-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
Natascia Brondino, Matteo Rocchetti, Laura Fusar-Poli, Stefano Damiani, Arianna Goggi, Giuseppe Chiodelli, Serafino Corti, Livia Visai, Pierluigi Politi
OBJECTIVES: Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a neurotrophin which could signal neuronal suffering and at the same time acts as a neuroprotective agent. In the present study we aimed to evaluate CNTF serum levels in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). In fact, considering the role of CNTF as a neuronal damage signal and the role of neuroinflammation, excito-inhibitory imbalance and excitotoxicity in the pathogenesis of ASD, a possible alteration of CNTF in ASD could be hypothesised. METHODS: We recruited 23 individuals with ASD and intellectual disability (ID), 20 ID subjects and 26 typical adults...
June 5, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867339/autistic-traits-are-not-a-strong-predictor-of-binocular-rivalry-dynamics
#16
Katie M Wykes, Laila Hugrass, David P Crewther
It has been suggested that differences in binocular rivalry switching rates and mixed percept durations in ASD could serve as a biomarker of excitation/inhibition imbalances in the autistic brain. If so, one would expect these differences to extend to neurotypical groups with high vs. low levels of autistic tendency. Previous studies did not detect any correlations between binocular rivalry dynamics and Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scores in neurotypical control groups; however it is unclear whether this was due to the characteristics of the rivalry stimuli that were used...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859004/paraquat-and-maneb-exposure-alters-rat-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-by-inducing-oxidative-stress-new-insights-on-pesticide-induced-neurodevelopmental-toxicity
#17
Dirleise Colle, Marcelo Farina, Sandra Ceccatelli, Marilena Raciti
Pesticide exposure has been linked to the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders including autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity, and Parkinson's disease (PD). Developmental exposure to pesticides, even at low concentrations not harmful for the adult brain, can lead to neuronal loss and functional deficits. It has been shown that prenatal or early postnatal exposure to the herbicide paraquat (PQ) and the fungicide maneb (MB), alone or in combination, causes permanent toxicity in the nigrostriatal dopamine system, supporting the idea that early exposure to these pesticides may contribute to the pathophysiology of PD...
June 1, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858515/comorbid-epilepsy-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-implications-of-postnatal-inflammation-for-brain-excitability
#18
Megan Leigh Lewis, Mitchell Kesler, Sydney A Candy, Jong M Rho, Quentin J Pittman
OBJECTIVE: In different cohorts, 5%-30% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) also have epilepsy. The high co-occurrence of these disorders suggests that a common mechanistic link may exist. The underlying pathophysiology of this comorbidity remains unknown. To investigate the mechanism(s) involved in the pathogenesis of ASD and epilepsy, we developed and validated a novel mouse model that concurrently exhibits hallmark features of both disorders. METHODS: We utilized inbred BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice that exhibit the core behavioral characteristics of ASD (ie, impaired sociability, altered vocalizations, and restricted interests)...
June 2, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848001/autistic-people-s-perspectives-on-stereotypes-an-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis
#19
Caroline Treweek, Chantelle Wood, Jilly Martin, Megan Freeth
Autism stereotypes can often portray autistic people in a negative way. However, few studies have looked at how autistic people think they are perceived by others, and none have specifically asked autistic people what they think the autistic stereotypes are. Semi-structured interviews with 12 autistic adults (aged between 20 and 63 years) were conducted. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, three main themes emerged from the data. These were as follows: (1) the primary stereotype is that autistic people are 'weird'; (2) autistic stereotypes have negative effects and consequences; and (3) autistic people are heterogeneous...
May 1, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846850/brief-report-risk-aversion-and-rationality-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#20
Corentin J Gosling, Sylvain Moutier
Risk-aversion and rationality have both been highlighted as core features of decision making in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study tested whether risk-aversion is related to rational decision-making in ASD individuals. ASD and matched control adults completed a decision-making task that discriminated between the use of risk-averse and rational strategies. Results showed that overall, ASD participants were more risk-averse than control participants. Specifically, both groups made similar choices when risk-aversion was the less rational strategy but ASD participants chose more rational options than control participants when risk-aversion was the most rational strategy...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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