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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527098/mediating-effects-of-social-support-on-quality-of-life-for-parents-of-adults-with-autism
#1
Christina N Marsack, Preethy S Samuel
The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of formal and informal social support on the relationship of caregiver burden and quality of life (QOL), using a sample of 320 parents (aged 50 or older) of adult children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Multiple linear regression and mediation analyses indicated that caregiver burden had a negative impact on QOL and that informal social support partially mediated the relationship between caregiver burden and parents' QOL. Formal social support did not mediate the relationship between caregiver burden and QOL...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527097/the-flexibility-scale-development-and-preliminary-validation-of-a-cognitive-flexibility-measure-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#2
John F Strang, Laura G Anthony, Benjamin E Yerys, Kristina K Hardy, Gregory L Wallace, Anna C Armour, Katerina Dudley, Lauren Kenworthy
Flexibility is a key component of executive function, and is related to everyday functioning and adult outcomes. However, existing informant reports do not densely sample cognitive aspects of flexibility; the Flexibility Scale (FS) was developed to address this gap. This study investigates the validity of the FS in 221 youth with ASD and 57 typically developing children. Exploratory factor analysis indicates a five-factor scale: Routines/rituals, transitions/change, special interests, social flexibility, and generativity...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527095/-putting-on-my-best-normal-social-camouflaging-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-conditions
#3
Laura Hull, K V Petrides, Carrie Allison, Paula Smith, Simon Baron-Cohen, Meng-Chuan Lai, William Mandy
Camouflaging of autistic characteristics in social situations is hypothesised as a common social coping strategy for adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Camouflaging may impact diagnosis, quality of life, and long-term outcomes, but little is known about it. This qualitative study examined camouflaging experiences in 92 adults with ASC, with questions focusing on the nature, motivations, and consequences of camouflaging. Thematic analysis was used to identify key elements of camouflaging, which informed development of a three-stage model of the camouflaging process...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524378/psychometric-characteristics-of-the-mental-health-crisis-assessment-scale-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Luther G Kalb, Louis P Hagopian, Alden L Gross, Roma A Vasa
BACKGROUND: Youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit high rates of psychopathology. These symptoms can pose a risk of injury to self or others when the child is in crisis. Despite this danger, there are no instruments available to identify those with ASD who are at risk or actively in crisis. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Mental Health Crisis Assessment Scale (MCAS), a 28 item parent report measure. METHODS: The MCAS was administered to the parents of 606 children and young adults (aged 3-25 years, M age = 13 years, SD = 5 years) enrolled in the Interactive Autism Network, an online registry of families raising a child with ASD...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524075/examining-the-overlap-between-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#5
Opal Ousley, A Nichole Evans, Samuel Fernandez-Carriba, Erica L Smearman, Kimberly Rockers, Michael J Morrier, David W Evans, Karlene Coleman, Joseph Cubells
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a genomic disorder reported to associate with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in 15-50% of cases; however, others suggest that individuals with 22q11.2DS present psychiatric or behavioral features associated with ASDs, but do not meet full criteria for ASD diagnoses. Such wide variability in findings may arise in part due to methodological differences across studies. Our study sought to determine whether individuals with 22q11.2DS meet strict ASD diagnostic criteria using research-based guidelines from the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism (CPEA), which required a gathering of information from three sources: the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), the Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule (ADOS), and a clinician's best-estimate diagnosis...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523392/brief-report-autism-in-the-courtroom-experiences-of-legal-professionals-and-the-autism-community
#6
Katie L Maras, Laura Crane, Sue Mulcahy, Tamsyn Hawken, Penny Cooper, David Wurtzel, Amina Memon
Online surveys were used to sample the views of judges, barristers and solicitors (n = 33) about their engagement with autistic individuals in criminal courts in England and Wales. Despite an understanding of some of the difficulties experienced by individuals with autism, and the adjustments suitable for supporting them, legal professionals reported constraints arising from a lack of understanding by others within the criminal justice system. These results are considered alongside the views and perspectives of autistic adults (n = 9) and parents of children on the autism spectrum (n = 19), who had encountered the criminal courts as witnesses or defendants and were largely dissatisfied with their experiences...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521245/the-light-from-above-prior-is-intact-in-autistic-children
#7
Abigail Croydon, Themelis Karaminis, Louise Neil, David Burr, Elizabeth Pellicano
Sensory information is inherently ambiguous. The brain disambiguates this information by anticipating or predicting the sensory environment based on prior knowledge. Pellicano and Burr (2012) proposed that this process may be atypical in autism and that internal assumptions, or "priors," may be underweighted or less used than in typical individuals. A robust internal assumption used by adults is the "light-from-above" prior, a bias to interpret ambiguous shading patterns as if formed by a light source located above (and slightly to the left) of the scene...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516423/exploring-the-components-of-advanced-theory-of-mind-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
C Pedreño, E Pousa, J B Navarro, M Pàmias, J E Obiols
Performance of a group of 35 youth and adults with High-Functioning Autism (HFA) was compared with a typical developing (TD) group on three Advanced Theory of Mind tests. The distinction between the social-cognitive and social-perceptual components of Theory of Mind was also explored. The HFA group had more difficulties in all tasks. Performance on the two social-cognitive tests was highly correlated in the HFA group, but these were not related with the social-perceptual component. These results suggest that the youth with HFA have difficulties on all the components of social knowledge but may be using different underlying cognitive abilities depending on the nature of the task...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516422/a-mixed-methods-study-of-barriers-to-formal-diagnosis-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-adults
#9
Laura Foran Lewis
Delayed diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) into adulthood is common, and self-diagnosis is a growing phenomenon. This mixed methods study aimed to explore barriers to formal diagnosis of ASD in adults. In a qualitative strand, secondary analysis of data on the experiences of 114 individuals who were self-diagnosed or formally diagnosed with ASD in adulthood was used to identify barriers. In a quantitative strand, 665 individuals who were self-diagnosed or formally diagnosed in adulthood were surveyed online to examine incidence and severity of barriers...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513186/initially-intact-neural-responses-to-pain-in-autism-are-diminished-during-sustained-pain
#10
Michelle D Failla, Estephan J Moana-Filho, Greg K Essick, Grace T Baranek, Baxter P Rogers, Carissa J Cascio
Pain assessments typically depend on self-report of the pain experience. Yet, in individuals with autism spectrum disorders, this can be an unreliable due to communication difficulties. Importantly, observations of behavioral hypo- and hyperresponsivity to pain suggest altered pain sensitivity in autism spectrum disorder. Neuroimaging may provide insight into mechanisms underlying pain behaviors. The neural pain signature reliably responds to painful stimulation and is modulated by other outside regions, affecting the pain experience...
May 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509404/family-therapy-for-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Debbie Spain, Jacqueline Sin, Eleni Paliokosta, Marie Furuta, Jonathan E Prunty, Trudie Chalder, Declan G Murphy, Francesca G Happé
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterised by impairments in communication and reciprocal social interaction. These impairments can impact on relationships with family members, augment stress and frustration, and contribute to behaviours that can be described as challenging. Family members of individuals with ASD can experience high rates of carer stress and burden, and poor parental efficacy. While there is evidence to suggest that individuals with ASD and family members derive benefit from psychological interventions designed to reduce stress and mental health morbidity, and enhance coping, most studies to date have targeted the needs of either individuals with ASD, or family members...
May 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507316/autism-spectrum-disorders-and-autistic-traits-share-genetics-and-biology
#12
J Bralten, K J van Hulzen, M B Martens, T E Galesloot, A Arias Vasquez, L A Kiemeney, J K Buitelaar, J W Muntjewerff, B Franke, G Poelmans
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and autistic traits in the general population may share genetic susceptibility factors. In this study, we investigated such potential overlap based on common genetic variants. We developed and validated a self-report questionnaire of autistic traits in adults. We then conducted genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of six trait scores derived from the questionnaire through exploratory factor analysis in 1981 adults from the general population. Using the results from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium GWAS of ASDs, we observed genetic sharing between ASDs and the autistic traits 'childhood behavior', 'rigidity' and 'attention to detail'...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506122/examining-transitions-from-youth-to-adult-services-for-young-persons-with-autism
#13
Mathew T Milen, David B Nicholas
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) presents pervasive challenges for individuals throughout their lifetime. Although some financial, community, and individual supports are available for children, there are fewer resources available for adults with ASD, their families, and/or caregivers. It is important to understand the multidimensional shifts associated with the transition from adolescence to adulthood for individuals with ASD. METHODS: To better understand the transitional process, a qualitative study comprised 11 semi-structured interviews with individuals with ASD and their families...
May 16, 2017: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500642/toward-meaningful-outcomes-in-teaching-conversation-and-greeting-skills-with-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Stephanie A Hood, Kevin C Luczynski, Daniel R Mitteer
We identified greeting and conversation deficits based on a parent interview and semistructured direct assessment for one child and two adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. We taught the greeting and conversation skills using behavioral skills training and within-session corrective feedback. A multiple baseline across conversation and greeting skills demonstrated experimental control over the effects of the teaching on acquisition and generalization to novel adults. We also conducted embedded reversals to assess maintenance of the acquired skills...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488077/the-physiological-and-psychological-effects-of-ostracism-in-adults-with-asd
#15
Emily Trimmer, Skye McDonald, Michelle Kelly, Jacqueline Ann Rushby
Whilst some form of ostracism is experienced by most people at some point in their lives, it is experienced far more often in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Little is known about how this social exclusion is interpreted, experienced or managed. This study aimed to explore the psychological (mood and social needs) as well as the physiological (arousal) effects of ostracism using a well-established paradigm, Cyberball. Results demonstrated no differences between groups on social needs, however, mood was rated as more negatively by ASDs overall...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488076/erratum-to-measuring-theory-of-mind-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Neil Brewer, Robyn L Young, Emily Barnett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483821/gps-confidence-in-caring-for-their-patients-on-the-autism-spectrum-an-online-self-report-study
#17
Silvana Unigwe, Carole Buckley, Laura Crane, Lorcan Kenny, Anna Remington, Elizabeth Pellicano
BACKGROUND: In the UK, GPs play a key role in the identification and management of children, young people, and adults on the autism spectrum, but there is a paucity of research on GPs' perceptions of working with these patients. AIM: To understand GPs' perceived self-efficacy in identifying and managing their patients on the autism spectrum, and the factors affecting this. DESIGN AND SETTING: An online self-report survey was developed for completion by GPs across the UK...
May 8, 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482683/problem-solving-styles-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-the-development-of-higher-cognitive-functions
#18
Paul A Constable, Melanie Ring, Sebastian B Gaigg, Dermot M Bowler
The Vygotsky Blocks Test assesses problem-solving styles within a theoretical framework for the development of higher mental processes devised by Vygotsky. Because both the theory and the associated test situate cognitive development within the child's social and linguistic context, they address conceptual issues around the developmental relation between language and thought that are pertinent to development in autism. Our aim was to document the performance of adults with autism spectrum disorder on the Vygotsky Blocks Test, and our results showed that they made more errors than the typically developing participants and that these errors correlated with performance IQ...
May 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479476/high-resolution-magnetic-resonance-imaging-reveals-nuclei-of-the-human-amygdala-manual-segmentation-to-automatic-atlas
#19
Z M Saygin, D Kliemann, J E Iglesias, A J W van der Kouwe, E Boyd, M Reuter, A Stevens, K Van Leemput, A McKee, M P Frosch, B Fischl, J C Augustinack
The amygdala is composed of multiple nuclei with unique functions and connections in the limbic system and to the rest of the brain. However, standard in vivo neuroimaging tools to automatically delineate the amygdala into its multiple nuclei are still rare. By scanning postmortem specimens at high resolution (100-150µm) at 7T field strength (n = 10), we were able to visualize and label nine amygdala nuclei (anterior amygdaloid, cortico-amygdaloid transition area; basal, lateral, accessory basal, central, cortical medial, paralaminar nuclei)...
May 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476357/a-sound-advantage-increased-auditory-capacity-in-autism
#20
Anna Remington, Jake Fairnie
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has an intriguing auditory processing profile. Individuals show enhanced pitch discrimination, yet often find seemingly innocuous sounds distressing. This study used two behavioural experiments to examine whether an increased capacity for processing sounds in ASD could underlie both the difficulties and enhanced abilities found in the auditory domain. Autistic and non-autistic young adults performed a set of auditory detection and identification tasks designed to tax processing capacity and establish the extent of perceptual capacity in each population...
April 27, 2017: Cognition
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