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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444476/assessing-the-dim-light-melatonin-onset-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-no-comorbid-intellectual-disability
#1
Emma K Baker, Amanda L Richdale, Agnes Hazi, Luke A Prendergast
This study assessed melatonin levels and the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and also investigated the relationships between melatonin and objectively measured sleep parameters. Sixteen adults with ASD (ASD-Only), 12 adults with ASD medicated for comorbid diagnoses of anxiety and/or depression (ASD-Med) and 32 controls participated in the study. Although, the timing of the DLMO did not differ between the two groups, advances and delays of the melatonin rhythm were observed in individual profiles...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441171/prevalence-of-psychopathology-in-children-of-parents-with-mental-illness-and-or-addiction-an-up-to-date-narrative-review
#2
Sophie Leijdesdorff, Karin van Doesum, Arne Popma, Rianne Klaassen, Therese van Amelsvoort
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Children of parents with a mental illness and/or addiction are at high risk for developing a mental illness themselves. Parental mental illness is highly prevalent leading to a serious number of children at high risk. The aim of this review is to give an up-to-date overview of psychopathology in children of parents with various mental illnesses and/or addiction, based on recent literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Worldwide, 15-23% of children live with a parent with a mental illness...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437148/autism-and-mind-body-therapies-a-systematic-review
#3
Sarah Hourston, Rachel Atchley
BACKGROUND: Mind-body therapies are often used by people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, there has been little examination into which types of mind-body therapies have been investigated for people with ASD and for what purposes. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the existing evidence for mind-body therapies for people with ASD, particularly to determine the types of mind-body therapies used and the outcomes that are targeted. METHODS: PubMed, PsychInfo, and Scopus were searched using terms for ASD and mind-body therapies...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434615/searching-for-cross-diagnostic-convergence-neural-mechanisms-governing-excitation-and-inhibition-balance-in-schizophrenia-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Jennifer H Foss-Feig, Brendan D Adkinson, Jie Lisa Ji, Genevieve Yang, Vinod H Srihari, James C McPartland, John H Krystal, John D Murray, Alan Anticevic
Recent theoretical accounts have proposed excitation and inhibition (E/I) imbalance as a possible mechanistic, network-level hypothesis underlying neural and behavioral dysfunction across neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). These two disorders share some overlap in their clinical presentation as well as convergence in their underlying genes and neurobiology. However, there are also clear points of dissociation in terms of phenotypes and putatively affected neural circuitry...
May 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434395/would-adults-with-autism-be-less-likely-to-bury-the-survivors-an-eye-movement-study-of-anomalous-text-reading
#5
Sheena K Au-Yeung, Johanna K Kaakinen, Simon P Liversedge, Valerie Benson
In a single eye movement experiment we investigated the effects of context on the time course of local and global anomaly processing during reading in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In one condition short paragraph texts contained anomalous target words. Detection of the anomaly was only possible through evaluation of word meaning in relation to the global context of the whole paragraph (Passage Level Anomalies). In another condition the anomaly could be detected via computation of a local thematic violation within a single sentence embedded in the paragraph (Sentence Level Anomalies)...
April 24, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433791/employment-and-choice-making-for-adults-with-intellectual-disability-autism-and-down-syndrome
#6
Kelsey L Bush, Marc J Tassé
BACKGROUND: Adults with disabilities are employed at a significantly lower rate than adults without disabilities. Of adults with disabilities in the workforce, more individuals work in a facility setting rather than a community setting, despite efforts to improve community inclusion. Choice-making has been proposed as a predictive factor for employment for individuals with disabilities. AIMS: The purpose of this research was to examine the current state of employment for three groups of adults with intellectual disability (ID): individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), individuals with Down syndrome (DS), and individuals with idiopathic ID...
April 20, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432451/investigating-the-use-of-world-knowledge-during-on-line-comprehension-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Philippa L Howard, Simon P Liversedge, Valerie Benson
The on-line use of world knowledge during reading was examined in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both ASD and typically developed adults read sentences that included plausible, implausible and anomalous thematic relations, as their eye movements were monitored. No group differences in the speed of detection of the anomalous violations were found, but the ASD group showed a delay in detection of implausible thematic relations. These findings suggest that there are subtle differences in the speed of world knowledge processing during reading in ASD...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429189/using-time-perception-to-explore-implicit-sensitivity-to-emotional-stimuli-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Catherine R G Jones, Anna Lambrechts, Sebastian B Gaigg
Establishing whether implicit responses to emotional cues are intact in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is fundamental to ascertaining why their emotional understanding is compromised. We used a temporal bisection task to assess for responsiveness to face and wildlife images that varied in emotional salience. There were no significant differences between an adult ASD and comparison group, with both showing implicit overestimation of emotional stimuli. Further, there was no correlation between overestimation of emotional stimuli and autistic traits in undergraduate students...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427035/associations-between-executive-functions-and-mental-health-outcomes-for-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
David Zimmerman, Tamara Ownsworth, Analise O'Donovan, Jacqueline Roberts, Matthew J Gullo
Associations between executive functions (EF) and mental-health in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were examined. Forty-two adults with ASD completed measures of EF, mood and self-concept. Better concept formation and social inference skills were significantly associated with fewer anxiety symptoms. Conversely, participants with better non-verbal reasoning, cognitive flexibility and social cognition reported more negative self-concept and lower self-esteem. Overall, individuals with impaired EF are more prone to anxiety, whereas those with stronger EF are more likely to experience negative self-concept...
April 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425298/understanding-self-reported-difficulties-in-decision-making-by-people-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#10
Lydia Vella, Howard A Ring, Mike Rf Aitken, Peter C Watson, Alexander Presland, Isabel Ch Clare
Autobiographical accounts and a limited research literature suggest that adults with autism spectrum disorders can experience difficulties with decision-making. We examined whether some of the difficulties they describe correspond to quantifiable differences in decision-making when compared to adults in the general population. The participants (38 intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorders and 40 neurotypical adults) were assessed on three tasks of decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task, Cambridge Gamble Task and Information Sampling Task), which quantified, respectively, decision-making performance and relative attention to negative and positive outcomes, speed and flexibility, and information sampling...
April 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425021/is-the-autism-spectrum-quotient-a-valid-measure-of-traits-associated-with-the-autism-spectrum-a-rasch-validation-in-adults-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
Lars-Olov Lundqvist, Helen Lindner
The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is among the most widely used scales assessing autistic traits in the general population. However, some aspects of the AQ are questionable. To test its scale properties, the AQ was translated into Swedish, and data were collected from 349 adults, 130 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 219 without ASD, and analysed with Rasch. Several scale properties of the AQ were satisfactory but it did not meet the criterion of a unidimensional measure of autistic traits. The Rasch analysis showed that the 50-item AQ could be reduced to a 12-item subset with little loss of explanatory power, with the potential to efficiently measure the degree to which adults with and without ASD show autistic traits...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423919/joint-attention-difficulties-in-autistic-adults-an-interactive-eye-tracking-study
#12
Nathan Caruana, Heidi Stieglitz Ham, Jon Brock, Alexandra Woolgar, Nadine Kloth, Romina Palermo, Genevieve McArthur
Joint attention - the ability to coordinate attention with a social partner - is critical for social communication, learning and the regulation of interpersonal relationships. Infants and young children with autism demonstrate impairments in both initiating and responding to joint attention bids in naturalistic settings. However, little is known about joint attention abilities in adults with autism. Here, we tested 17 autistic adults and 17 age- and nonverbal intelligence quotient-matched controls using an interactive eye-tracking paradigm in which participants initiated and responded to joint attention bids with an on-screen avatar...
April 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417950/differential-gender-effects-in-the-relationship-between-perceived-immune-functioning-and-autistic-traits
#13
Marlou Mackus, Deborah de Kruijff, Leila S Otten, Aletta D Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Joris C Verster
Altered immune functioning has been demonstrated in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study explores the relationship between perceived immune functioning and experiencing ASD traits in healthy young adults. N = 410 students from Utrecht University completed a survey on immune functioning and autistic traits. In addition to a 1-item perceived immune functioning rating, the Immune Function Questionnaire (IFQ) was completed to assess perceived immune functioning. The Dutch translation of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was completed to examine variation in autistic traits, including the domains "social insights and behavior", "difficulties with change", "communication", "phantasy and imagination", and "detail orientation"...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416631/mutation-of-neuron-specific-chromatin-remodeling-subunit-baf53b-rescue-of-plasticity-and-memory-by-manipulating-actin-remodeling
#14
Annie Vogel Ciernia, Enikö A Kramár, Dina P Matheos, Robbert Havekes, Thekla J Hemstedt, Christophe N Magnan, Keith Sakata, Ashley Tran, Soraya Azzawi, Alberto Lopez, Richard Dang, Weisheng Wang, Brian Trieu, Joyce Tong, Ruth M Barrett, Rebecca J Post, Pierre Baldi, Ted Abel, Gary Lynch, Marcelo A Wood
Recent human exome-sequencing studies have implicated polymorphic Brg1-associated factor (BAF) complexes (mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes) in several intellectual disabilities and cognitive disorders, including autism. However, it remains unclear how mutations in BAF complexes result in impaired cognitive function. Post-mitotic neurons express a neuron-specific assembly, nBAF, characterized by the neuron-specific subunit BAF53b. Subdomain 2 of BAF53b is essential for the differentiation of neuronal precursor cells into neurons...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413601/a-few-of-my-favorite-things-circumscribed-interests-in-autism-are-not-accompanied-by-increased-attentional-salience-on-a-personalized-selective-attention-task
#15
Owen E Parsons, Andrew P Bayliss, Anna Remington
BACKGROUND: Autistic individuals commonly show circumscribed or "special" interests: areas of obsessive interest in a specific category. The present study investigated what impact these interests have on attention, an aspect of autistic cognition often reported as altered. In neurotypical individuals, interest and expertise have been shown to result in an automatic attentional priority for related items. Here, we examine whether this change in salience is also seen in autism. METHODS: Adolescents and young adults with and without autism performed a personalized selective attention task assessing the level of attentional priority afforded to images related to the participant's specific interests...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412577/describing-heterogeneity-of-unmet-needs-among-adults-with-a-developmental-disability-an-examination-of-the-2012-canadian-survey-on-disability
#16
Jennifer Zwicker, Arezou Zaresani, J C Herb Emery
BACKGROUND: As a signatory to the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Canada has committed to protect the rights and dignity of persons with developmental disabilities (DD), which means that labour markets, education, and training opportunities should be inclusive and accessible. PURPOSE: Describe the unmet employment, education and daily needs of adults with DD, with a sub analysis of persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and cerebral palsy (CP) in Canada, to inform efficient and equitable policy development...
April 13, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410037/meeting-the-healthcare-needs-of-adults-on-the-autism-spectrum
#17
Christopher Barber
People with Asperger's syndrome/high functioning autism (AS/HFA) are just as likely to experience the full range of health conditions and needs as 'neurotypicals', people who do not have AS/HFA. However, many people with AS/HFA fall between the cracks of health service design and provision as they do not receive support from learning disabilities or mental health services. This article highlights the need for a comprehensive review of healthcare provision, led by people on the autism spectrum.
April 13, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407444/familial-18q12-2-deletion-supports-the-role-of-rna-binding-protein-celf4-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
Rita Barone, Marco Fichera, Mariaclara De Grandi, Marta Battaglia, Valeria Lo Faro, Teresa Mattina, Renata Rizzo
Deletion of 18q12.2 is an increasingly recognized condition with a distinct neuropsychiatric phenotype. Twenty-two patients have been described with overlapping neurobehavioral disturbances including developmental delay, intellectual disability of variable degree, seizures, motor coordination disorder, behavioral/emotional disturbances, and autism spectrum disorders. The CUGBP Elav-like family member 4 (CELF4) gene at 18q12.2 encodes a RNA-binding protein that links to RNA subsets involved in pre- and postsynaptic neurotransmission including almost 30% of potential autism-related genes...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407202/altered-white-matter-integrity-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-an-iq-100-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#19
K Nickel, L Tebartz van Elst, E Perlov, D Endres, G T Müller, A Riedel, T Fangmeier, S Maier
OBJECTIVE: White matter (WM) alterations have been reported in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, impaired connectivity of limbic structures may be related to social deficits. Heterogeneous findings could be explained in terms of differences in sample characteristics and methodology. In this context, non-syndromic forms might differ substantially in WM structure from secondary ASD forms. METHOD: In an attempt to recruit a homogeneous study sample, we included adults with high-functioning ASD and an IQ > 100 to decrease the influence of syndromic forms being often associated with cognitive deficits...
April 13, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402856/chd8-mutation-leads-to-autistic-like-behaviors-and-impaired-striatal-circuits
#20
Randall J Platt, Yang Zhou, Ian M Slaymaker, Ashwin S Shetty, Niels R Weisbach, Jin-Ah Kim, Jitendra Sharma, Mitul Desai, Sabina Sood, Hannah R Kempton, Gerald R Crabtree, Guoping Feng, Feng Zhang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous disease, but genetically defined models can provide an entry point to studying the molecular underpinnings of this disorder. We generated germline mutant mice with loss-of-function mutations in Chd8, a de novo mutation strongly associated with ASD, and demonstrate that these mice display hallmark ASD behaviors, macrocephaly, and craniofacial abnormalities similar to patient phenotypes. Chd8(+/-) mice display a broad, brain-region-specific dysregulation of major regulatory and cellular processes, most notably histone and chromatin modification, mRNA and protein processing, Wnt signaling, and cell-cycle regulation...
April 11, 2017: Cell Reports
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