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Diabetic biomarkers

Kai G Kahl, Michael Deuschle, Brendon Stubbs, Ulrich Schweiger
Background Severe mental illnesses (SMIs), i.e. major depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are associated with an elevated risk for the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders. Several factors have been associated with increased cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality in SMI, including lifestyle factors (smoking, inactivity, unhealthy diet), endocrine and immunologic alterations; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully uncovered. It is now well accepted that visceral adipose tissue (VAT) promotes the development of cardiometabolic disorders, at least in part by inflammatory and metabolic functions...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Lisa Menegazzo, Valentina Scattolini, Roberta Cappellari, Benedetta Maria Bonora, Mattia Albiero, Mario Bortolozzi, Filippo Romanato, Giulio Ceolotto, Saula Vigili de Kreutzeberg, Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo Fadini
AIMS: Diabetes is associated with an excess release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and an enhanced NETosis, a neutrophil cell death programme instrumental to anti-microbial defences, but also involved in tissue damage. We herein investigated whether the antidiabetic drug metformin protects against NETosis. METHODS: We measured NET components in the plasma of patients with pre-diabetes who were randomized to receive metformin or placebo for 2 months. To control for the effect on glucose, we also measured NET components in the plasma of patients with type 2 diabetes before and after treatment with insulin or dapagliflozin...
March 15, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Mika Hilvo, Tuire Salonurmi, Aki S Havulinna, Dimple Kauhanen, Eva Ringdal Pedersen, Grethe S Tell, Klaus Meyer, Anna-Maria Teeriniemi, Tiina Laatikainen, Pekka Jousilahti, Markku J Savolainen, Ottar Nygård, Veikko Salomaa, Reijo Laaksonen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Ceramide lipids have a role in the development of insulin resistance, diabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease. Here we investigated four ceramides and their ratios to find the best predictors of incident diabetes. METHODS: A validated mass-spectrometric method was applied to measure Cer(d18:1/16:0), Cer(d18:1/18:0), Cer(d18:1/24:0) and Cer(d18:1/24:1) from serum or plasma samples. These ceramides were analysed in a population-based risk factor study (FINRISK 2002, n = 8045), in a cohort of participants undergoing elective coronary angiography for suspected stable angina pectoris (Western Norway Coronary Angiography Cohort [WECAC], n = 3344) and in an intervention trial investigating improved methods of lifestyle modification for individuals at high risk of the metabolic syndrome (Prevent Metabolic Syndrome [PrevMetSyn], n = 371)...
March 15, 2018: Diabetologia
Fabiola Trejo-Vazquez, Idalia Garza-Veloz, Gabriela Alejandra Villela-Ramirez, Yolanda Ortiz-Castro, Panfilo Mauricio-Saucedo, Edith Cardenas-Vargas, Mariana Diaz-Baez, Miguel A Cid-Baez, Rodrigo Castañeda-Miranda, Jose Manuel Ortiz-Rodriguez, Luis Octavio Solis-Sanchez, Margarita L Martinez-Fierro
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD) and indeterminate colitis. As these subtypes of IBD display important differences in the behavior of the natural course of the disease, the identification of non-invasive markers for IBD is important. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the serum levels of 10 adipokines and their association with endoscopic activity in IBD. The 10-protein profile (C-peptide, ghrelin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, glucagon, insulin, leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, resistin and visfatin) was evaluated using serum from 53 participants (23 UC and 11 CD patients, as well as 19 controls) from Zacatecas (Mexico) by using the Bio-Plex Pro Human Diabetes 10-Plex Panel (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Holger Lörchner, Christian Widera, Yunlong Hou, Albrecht Elsässer, Henning Warnecke, Evangelos Giannitsis, Jean-Sebastien Hulot, Thomas Braun, Kai C Wollert, Jochen Pöling
BACKGROUND: Regenerating islet-derived protein 3 beta (Reg3β) is a cardiomyocyte-derived chemokine for macrophages that is upregulated after myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. Here, we hypothesized that monitoring Reg3β expression might provide specific information on the degree of cardiac inflammation, which is a key determinant in disease progression and prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression of Reg3β and other inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein (CRP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured by immunoblotting at serial time points in the hearts and serum of mice with acute MI...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Tinashe Mutize, Zibusiso Mkandla, Bongani B Nkambule
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (global and gene-specific) has been reported as an epigenetic mechanism that could be involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, epigenetic therapy has been suggested as a future possibility for T2DM treatment. Epigenetic changes illustrate the environmental link of the disease. Since some of the epigenetic modifications can be reversed, they could be used as potential therapeutic targets. The aim of the systematic review will be to synthesise the available evidence pertaining to the link between DNA methylation and T2DM...
March 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Nan Shwe Nwe Htun, Peter Odermatt, Ivan Müller, Peiling Yap, Peter Steinmann, Christian Schindler, Markus Gerber, Rosa Du Randt, Cheryl Walter, Uwe Pühse, Jürg Utzinger, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries are facing a dual disease burden with infectious diseases (e.g., gastrointestinal tract infections) and non-communicable diseases (e.g., diabetes) being common. For instance, chronic parasite infections lead to altered immune regulatory networks, anemia, malnutrition, and diarrhea with an associated shift in the gut microbiome. These can all be pathways of potential relevance for insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between common gastrointestinal tract infections and glycemia in children from non-fee paying schools in South Africa...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Hayley A Young, David Benton
As the influence of diet on health may take place over a period of decades, there is a need for biomarkers that help to identify those aspects of nutrition that have either a positive or a negative influence. The evidence is considered that heart-rate variability (HRV) (the time differences between one beat and the next) can be used to indicate the potential health benefits of food items. Reduced HRV is associated with the development of numerous conditions for example, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, obesity and psychiatric disorders...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Fadzilah Adibah Abd Majid, Nur Syukriah Ab Rahman, Effendy Abd Wahid, Ain Nabihah Zainudin, Siti Nurazwa Zainol, Hassan Fahmi Ismail, Tet Soon Wong, K Vijaya Bhargava, Nirbhay Kumar Tiwari, Sanjeev Giri
Drug interaction of SynacinnTM polyherbal with known diabetic drugs is unknown. SynacinnTM contains standardized extracts of five herbal against gallic acid, curcumin, rosmarinic acid, catechin and andrographolide. SynacinnTM and its five standard markers were analysed for its possible interaction with CYP450 enzymes assay. This study was conducted using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) using probe substrates using human liver microsomes against CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4(Midazolam) and CYP3A4 (Testosteron)...
March 13, 2018: Drug Metabolism Letters
Emilio Russo, Salvatore D'Angelo, Giorgio Ammerata, Ludovico Abenavoli, Daniele Mauro, Caterina Bruno, Saverio Naty, Ignazio Olivieri, Giovambattista De Sarro, Francesco Ursini
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence demonstrated a potential role of complement C3 as a candidate biomarker of cardiometabolic risk in the general population. OBJECTIVE: Aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between complement C3 levels and comorbid type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: For the present study, 40 consecutive diabetic RA patients (RA/T2DM+ group) and 80 consecutive RA patients without diabetes (RA/T2DM- group) were recruited...
March 13, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Francesco Caso, Marco Tasso, Pasquale Ambrosino, Matteo Nicola, Dario Di Minno, Roberta Lupoli, Livio Criscuolo, Paolo Caso, Francesco Ursini, Antonio Del Puente, Raffaele Scarpa, Luisa Costa, Rosario Peluso
BACKGROUND: Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic inflammatory arthropathy that affects 14%-30% of patients with skin and/or nail psoriasis and leading to severe physical limitations and disability. It has been included in the group of spondyloarthropathy with which it shares clinical, radiologic, and serologic features in addition to familial and genetic relationship. Beyond skin and joint involvement, psoriatic arthritis is characterized by a high prevalence of extra-articular manifestation and comorbidities, such as autoimmune, infectious and neoplastic diseases...
March 13, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Daniel J Perry, Clive H Wasserfall, Richard A Oram, MacKenzie D Williams, Amanda Posgai, Andrew B Muir, Michael J Haller, Desmond A Schatz, Mark A Wallet, Clayton E Mathews, Mark A Atkinson, Todd M Brusko
Prior studies identified HLA class-II and 57 additional loci as contributors to genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes (T1D). We hypothesized that race and/or ethnicity would be contextually important for evaluating genetic risk markers previously identified from Caucasian/European cohorts. We determined the capacity for a combined genetic risk score (GRS) to discriminate disease-risk subgroups in a racially and ethnically diverse cohort from the southeastern U.S. including 637 T1D patients, 46 at-risk relatives having two or more T1D-related autoantibodies (≥2AAb+ ), 790 first-degree relatives (≤1AAb+ ), 68 second-degree relatives (≤1 AAb+ ), and 405 controls...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yanting Yu, Feng Bai, Nan Qin, Wenjin Liu, Qi Sun, Yang Zhou, Junwei Yang
BACKGROUND: Renal fibrosis is a common outcome of nearly all kinds of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and eventually progresses to end-stage renal disease. The identification of an optimal biomarker of renal fibrosis to replace the invasive renal biopsy will have important clinical implications. METHODS: We isolated urinary exosomes from 50 participants and examined the exosomal protein content and particle number in 38 CKD patients with different degrees of renal fibrosis and in 12 normal individuals...
March 14, 2018: Nephron
Steven Morrison, Karl M Newell
This study was designed to examine the effect of increasing age and type 2 diabetes on the average responses and inter- and intraindividual variability of falls risk, reaction time, strength, and walking speed for healthy older adults and older persons with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Seventy-five older individuals (controls) and 75 persons with T2DM aged between 50 and 79 years participated in the study. Assessments of falls risk, reaction time (RT), knee extension strength, and walking speed were conducted. The results revealed that advancing age for both control and T2DM groups was reflected by a progressive increase in falls risk, decreased leg strength and a decline (i...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Zhiyi Liu, Dimitra Pouli, Carlo A Alonzo, Antonio Varone, Sevasti Karaliota, Kyle P Quinn, Karl Münger, Katia P Karalis, Irene Georgakoudi
Monitoring subcellular functional and structural changes associated with metabolism is essential for understanding healthy tissue development and the progression of numerous diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Unfortunately, established methods for this purpose either are destructive or require the use of exogenous agents. Recent work has highlighted the potential of endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) as a method to monitor subtle metabolic changes; however, mechanistic understanding of the connections between the detected optical signal and the underlying metabolic pathways has been lacking...
March 2018: Science Advances
H R Prasanna Kumar, H Basavana Gowdappa, Tejashwi Hosmani, Tejashri Urs
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic abnormal metabolic condition, which manifests elevated blood sugar level over a prolonged period. The pancreatic endocrine system generally gets affected during diabetes, but often abnormal exocrine functions are also manifested due to its proximity to the endocrine system. Fecal elastase-1 (FE-1) is found to be an ideal biomarker to reflect the exocrine insufficiency of the pancreas. Aim: The aim of this study was conducted to assess exocrine dysfunction of the pancreas in patients with type-2 DM (T2DM) by measuring FE levels and to associate the level of hyperglycemia with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Cheng Sun, Lining Huang, Zhenglong Li, Kaiming Leng, Yi Xu, Xingming Jiang, Yunfu Cui
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are a portion of non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), have manifested a paramount role in the pathophysiology of human diseases, particularly in pathogenesis and progression of disease. Myocardial infarction associated transcript (MIAT), which was recently found to demonstrate aberrant expression in various diseases, such as myocardial infarction, schizophrenia, ischemic stroke, diabetic complications, age-related cataract and cancers, is a novel disease-related lncRNA...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Tae-Keun Ahn, Jung Oh Kim, Hyun Woo Kim, Han Sung Park, Jeong Hyun Shim, Alexander E Ropper, In Bo Han, Nam Keun Kim
Postmenopausal osteoporosis is one of the most prominent diseases in postmenopausal women and it is increasing in prevalence with the aging population. Furthermore, osteoporosis and osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) are related to mortality and decreased quality of life. Therefore, searching for biomarkers that are able to identify postmenopausal women who are at high risk of developing OVCFs is an effective strategy for improving the quality of life of patients and alleviating social and economic burdens...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Diane L McKay, Misha Eliasziw, C Y Oliver Chen, Jeffrey B Blumberg
Evidence from observational and intervention studies has shown a high intake of tree nuts is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), mortality from type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and all-cause mortality. However, there is limited data regarding their effects on indicators of cardiometabolic risk other than hypercholesterolemia, and little is known about the demonstrable health benefits of pecans ( Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K.Koch). We conducted a randomized, controlled feeding trial to compare the effects of a pecan-rich diet with an isocaloric control diet similar in total fat and fiber content, but absent nuts, on biomarkers related to CVD and T2DM risk in healthy middle-aged and older adults who are overweight or obese with central adiposity...
March 11, 2018: Nutrients
Chunwei Ye, Yi Cai, Qian Cai, Shunhui Yuan, Fan Huang, Xiaofang Yang, Shuchen He, Zhuoheng Li, Yanwen Wang, Delin Yang, Zhipeng Li
The aim of the present study was to investigate the candidate genes and pathways associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and diabetes. In vitro experiments were performed using normal prostatic epithelial RWPE‑1 and HPr‑1 cells. The cell lines were treated with a high‑glucose solution and MTS and bromodeoxyuridine assays were used to assess cell viability. Transcriptome sequencing was used to screen the candidate genes. The expression of candidate genes was further verified by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and western blotting...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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