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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141233/mirnome-profiling-of-purified-endoderm-and-mesoderm-differentiated-from-hescs-reveals-functions-of-mir-483-3p-and-mir-1263-for-cell-fate-decisions
#1
Daichi Ishikawa, Ulf Diekmann, Jan Fiedler, Annette Just, Thomas Thum, Sigurd Lenzen, Ortwin Naujok
Pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine since they can differentiate into all somatic cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) could be important for the regulation of these cell-fate decisions. Profiling of miRNAs revealed 19 differentially expressed miRNAs in the endoderm and 29 in the mesoderm when analyzing FACS-purified cells derived from human embryonic stem cells. The mesodermal-enriched miR-483-3p was identified as an important regulator for the generation of mesodermal PDGFRA(+) paraxial cells...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140566/mesenchymal-stem-cell-preparation-and-transfection-free-ferumoxytol-labeling-for-mri-cell-tracking
#2
Li Liu, Chien Ho
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells and are the most widely studied cell type for stem cell therapies. In vivo cell tracking of MSCs labeled with an FDA-approved superparamagnetic iron-oxide (SPIO) particle by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides essential information, e.g., MSC engraftment, survival, and fate, thus improving cell therapy accuracy. However, current methodology for labeling MSCs with Ferumoxytol (Feraheme(®) ), the only FDA-approved SPIO particle, needs transfection agents...
November 15, 2017: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140246/an-eya1-notch-axis-specifies-bipotential-epibranchial-differentiation-in-mammalian-craniofacial-morphogenesis
#3
Haoran Zhang, Li Wang, Elaine Yee Man Wong, Sze Lan Tsang, Pin-Xian Xu, Urban Lendahl, Mai Har Sham
Craniofacial morphogenesis requires proper development of pharyngeal arches and epibranchial placodes. We show that the epibranchial placodes, in addition to giving rise to cranial sensory neurons, generate a novel lineage-related non-neuronal cell population for mouse pharyngeal arch development. Eya1 is essential for the development of epibranchial placodes and proximal pharyngeal arches. We identify an Eya1-Notch regulatory axis that specifies both the neuronal and non-neuronal commitment of the epibranchial placode, where Notch acts downstream of Eya1 and promotes the non-neuronal cell fate...
November 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139536/planar-polarity-of-the-extraembryonic-epithelia-in-the-preimplantation-porcine-conceptus
#4
Jacques-Edmond Flechon
The present review deals with the trophoblast structure during the free intrauterine life of the pig blastocyst. The term trophoblast is used here to describe the association of the first extraembryonic cell layers, the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm that are polarized epithelia, a fact established by ultrastructural and immunocytochemical data. The aim of this synthesis is to gather the relative works dispersed in the litterature and to explain the implication of the planar polarity of these cell layers on their developmental fate and roles...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139178/notch1-and-notch2-coordinately-regulate-stem-cell-function-in-the-quiescent-and-activated-states-of-muscle-satellite-cells
#5
Shin Fujimaki, Daiki Seko, Yasuo Kitajima, Kiyoshi Yoshioka, Yoshifumi Tsuchiya, Shinya Masuda, Yusuke Ono
Satellite cells, the muscle tissue stem cells, express three Notch receptors (Notch1-3). The function of Notch1 and Notch2 in satellite cells has to date not been fully evaluated. We investigated the role of Notch1 and Notch2 in myogenic progression in adult skeletal muscle using tamoxifen-inducible satellite cell-specific conditional knockout mice for Notch1 (N1-scKO), Notch2 (N2-scKO), and Notch1/Notch2 (scDKO). In the quiescent state, the number of satellite cells was slightly reduced in N2-scKO, but not significantly in N1-scKO, and almost completely depleted in scDKO mice...
November 15, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138493/suppression-of-srcap-chromatin-remodelling-complex-and-restriction-of-lymphoid-lineage-commitment-by-pcid2
#6
Buqing Ye, Benyu Liu, Liuliu Yang, Guanling Huang, Lu Hao, Pengyan Xia, Shuo Wang, Ying Du, Xiwen Qin, Pingping Zhu, Jiayi Wu, Nobuo Sakaguchi, Junyan Zhang, Zusen Fan
Lymphoid lineage commitment is an important process in haematopoiesis, which forms the immune system to protect the host from pathogen invasion. However, how multipotent progenitors (MPP) switch into common lymphoid progenitors (CLP) or common myeloid progenitors (CMP) during this process remains elusive. Here we show that PCI domain-containing protein 2 (Pcid2) is highly expressed in MPPs. Pcid2 deletion in the haematopoietic system causes skewed lymphoid lineage specification. In MPPs, Pcid2 interacts with the Zinc finger HIT-type containing 1 (ZNHIT1) to block Snf2-related CREBBP activator protein (SRCAP) activity and prevents the deposition of histone variant H2A...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138408/both-nodal-signalling-and-stochasticity-select-for-prospective-distal-visceral-endoderm-in-mouse-embryos
#7
Katsuyoshi Takaoka, Hiromi Nishimura, Hiroshi Hamada
Anterior-posterior (A-P) polarity of mouse embryos is established by distal visceral endoderm (DVE) at embryonic day (E) 5.5. Lefty1 is expressed first at E3.5 in a subset of epiblast progenitor cells (L1(epi) cells) and then in a subset of primitive endoderm cells (L1(dve) cells) fated to become DVE. Here we studied how prospective DVE cells are selected. Lefty1 expression in L1(epi) and L1(dve) cells depends on Nodal signaling. A cell that experiences the highest level of Nodal signaling begins to express Lefty1 and becomes an L1(epi) cell...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138300/high-zika-virus-seroprevalence-in-salvador-northeastern-brazil-limits-the-potential-for-further-outbreaks
#8
Eduardo Martins Netto, Andres Moreira-Soto, Celia Pedroso, Christoph Höser, Sebastian Funk, Adam J Kucharski, Alexandra Rockstroh, Beate M Kümmerer, Gilmara Souza Sampaio, Estela Luz, Sara Nunes Vaz, Juarez Pereira Dias, Fernanda Anjos Bastos, Renata Cabral, Thomas Kistemann, Sebastian Ulbert, Xavier de Lamballerie, Thomas Jaenisch, Oliver J Brady, Christian Drosten, Manoel Sarno, Carlos Brites, Jan Felix Drexler
During 2015 to 2016, Brazil reported more Zika virus (ZIKV) cases than any other country, yet population exposure remains unknown. Serological studies of ZIKV are hampered by cross-reactive immune responses against heterologous viruses. We conducted serosurveys for ZIKV, dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 633 individuals prospectively sampled during 2015 to 2016, including microcephaly and non-microcephaly pregnancies, HIV-infected patients, tuberculosis patients, and university staff in Salvador in northeastern Brazil using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and plaque reduction neutralization tests...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138277/coupling-shrna-screens-with-single-cell-rna-seq-identifies-a-dual-role-for-mtor-in-reprogramming-induced-senescence
#9
Marieke Aarts, Athena Georgilis, Meryam Beniazza, Patrizia Beolchi, Ana Banito, Thomas Carroll, Marizela Kulisic, Daniel F Kaemena, Gopuraja Dharmalingam, Nadine Martin, Wolf Reik, Johannes Zuber, Keisuke Kaji, Tamir Chandra, Jesús Gil
Expression of the transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC (OSKM) reprograms somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Reprogramming is a slow and inefficient process, suggesting the presence of safeguarding mechanisms that counteract cell fate conversion. One such mechanism is senescence. To identify modulators of reprogramming-induced senescence, we performed a genome-wide shRNA screen in primary human fibroblasts expressing OSKM. In the screen, we identified novel mediators of OSKM-induced senescence and validated previously implicated genes such as CDKN1A We developed an innovative approach that integrates single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) with the shRNA screen to investigate the mechanism of action of the identified candidates...
November 14, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137887/effects-of-chlortetracycline-on-the-fate-of-multi-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-the-microbial-community-during-swine-manure-composting
#10
Zhiqiang Chen, Yao Wang, Qinxue Wen
Excessive use of antibiotics in breeding industry leads to accumulation of antibiotic residuals and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in environment from improperly treated livestock excrements. Four commonly used veterinary antibiotics including chlortetracycline (CTC), sulfamerazine (SMZ), enrofloxacin (ENR) and erythromycin (ERY) were monitored in the swine manure composting. Co-resistance and cross-resistance effects among relative ARGs, correlations between ARGs and bacterial community under multiple antibiotics residual during the composting were investigated in this research...
November 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137495/development-of-chondrocyte-seeded-electrosprayed-nanoparticles-for-repair-of-articular-cartilage-defects-in-rabbits
#11
Shan-Wei Yang, Kai-Chi Ku, Shu-Ying Chen, Shyh-Ming Kuo, I-Fen Chen, Ting-Yi Wang, Shwu-Jen Chang
Due to limited self-healing capacity in cartilages, there is a rising demand for an innovative therapy that promotes chondrocyte proliferation while maintaining its biofunctionality for transplantation. Chondrocyte transplantation has received notable attention; however, the tendencies of cell de-differentiation and de-activation of biofunctionality have been major hurdles in its development, delaying this therapy from reaching the clinic. We believe it is due to the non-stimulative environment in the injured cartilage, which is unable to provide sustainable physical and biological supports to the newly grafted chondrocytes...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137176/ebv-and-apoptosis-the-viral-master-regulator-of-cell-fate
#12
REVIEW
Leah Fitzsimmons, Gemma L Kelly
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was first discovered in cells from a patient with Burkitt lymphoma (BL), and is now known to be a contributory factor in 1-2% of all cancers, for which there are as yet, no EBV-targeted therapies available. Like other herpesviruses, EBV adopts a persistent latent infection in vivo and only rarely reactivates into replicative lytic cycle. Although latency is associated with restricted patterns of gene expression, genes are never expressed in isolation; always in groups. Here, we discuss (1) the ways in which the latent genes of EBV are known to modulate cell death, (2) how these mechanisms relate to growth transformation and lymphomagenesis, and (3) how EBV genes cooperate to coordinately regulate key cell death pathways in BL and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs)...
November 13, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137121/human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-growth-and-osteogenic-differentiation-on-piezoelectric-poly-vinylidene-fluoride-microsphere-substrates
#13
R Sobreiro-Almeida, M N Tamaño-Machiavello, E O Carvalho, L Cordón, S Doria, L Senent, D M Correia, C Ribeiro, S Lanceros-Méndez, R Sabater I Serra, J L Gomez Ribelles, A Sempere
The aim of this work was to determine the influence of the biomaterial environment on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) fate when cultured in supports with varying topography. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) culture supports were prepared with structures ranging between 2D and 3D, based on PVDF films on which PVDF microspheres were deposited with varying surface density. Maintenance of multipotentiality when cultured in expansion medium was studied by flow cytometry monitoring the expression of characteristic hMSCs markers, and revealed that cells were losing their characteristic surface markers on these supports...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136879/development-and-evaluation-of-a-new-diffusive-gradients-in-thin-films-technique-for-measuring-organotin-compounds-in-coastal-sediment-pore-water
#14
Russell F Cole, Graham A Mills, Michelle S Hale, Ruth Parker, Thi Bolam, Peter R Teasdale, William W Bennett, Gary R Fones
Organotins present a toxicological risk to biota in the aquatic environment. Understanding the behaviour of these compounds in sediment is challenging, with sophisticated analytical techniques required for their measurement. We investigated the use of silica-bound sorbents for diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) adsorption gels to pre-concentrate five organotins (monobutlytin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), diphenyltin (DPhT), triphenyltin (TPhT)) found frequently in coastal sediment. C8 sorbent showed optimum performance in uptake and recovery of organotins for pH and ionic strength ranges typical of coastal waters...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136594/quantitative-assessment-of-human-health-risks-induced-by-vehicle-exhaust-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-at-zhengzhou-via-multimedia-fugacity-models-with-cancer-risk-assessment
#15
Qian Li, Minjeong Kim, Ying Liu, ChangKyoo Yoo
Traffic-related pollution released a large amount of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which have severely influenced environmental safety and human health until now. However, the important issue of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from vehicle exhaust in urban populated areas has not been sufficiently investigated yet. This study focused on environmental behavior of vehicle exhaust PAHs (VEPAHs) and resultant health risk on local residents in urban populated areas. This study combined the multimedia fugacity models (Level III and Level IV) and the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) model, for analyzing the VEPAHs' environmental fate and related health risk on local residents in Zhengzhou of the central China...
November 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136372/photochemical-alteration-of-dissolved-organic-sulfur-from-sulfidic-porewater
#16
Gonzalo V Gomez-Saez, Anika M Pohlabeln, Aron Stubbins, Chris M Marsay, Thorsten Dittmar
Sulfidic sediments are a source of dissolved organic sulfur (DOS) to the ocean but the fate of sedimentary DOS in the oxic, sunlit water column is unknown. We hypothesized that photodegradation after discharge from the dark sedimentary environment results in DOS molecular transformation and decomposition. To test this hypothesis, sulfidic porewater from a saltmarsh was exposed to potential abiotic transformations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the water column. We quantitatively investigated DOM transformations via elemental analysis and molecularly via ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136202/a-conceptual-framework-for-cell-identity-transitions-in-plants
#17
Idan Efroni
Multicellular organisms develop from a single cell that proliferates to form different cell types with specialized functions. Sixty years ago, Waddington's suggested the "epigenetic landscape" as a useful metaphor for the process. According to this view, cells move through a rugged identity space along genetically-encoded trajectories, until arriving at one of possible final fates. In plants in particular, these trajectories also have strong spatial correlates, as cell identity is intimately linked to its relative position within the plant...
November 9, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136113/the-laminar-organization-of-piriform-cortex-follows-a-selective-developmental-and-migratory-program-established-by-cell-lineage
#18
Eduardo Martin-Lopez, Kimiko Ishiguro, Charles A Greer
Piriform cortex (PC) is a 3-layer paleocortex receiving primary afferent input from the olfactory bulb. The past decade has seen significant progress in understanding the synaptic, cellular and functional organization of PC, but PC embryogenesis continues to be enigmatic. Here, using birthdating strategies and clonal analyses, we probed the early development and laminar specificity of neurogenesis/gliogenesis as it relates to the organization of the PC. Our data demonstrate a temporal sequence of laminar-specific neurogenesis following the canonical "inside-out" pattern, with the notable exception of PC Layer II which exhibited an inverse "outside-in" temporal neurogenic pattern...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135983/arginase-expression-modulates-nitric-oxide-production-in-leishmania-leishmania-amazonensis
#19
Stephanie Maia Acuña, Juliana Ide Aoki, Maria Fernanda Laranjeira-Silva, Ricardo Andrade Zampieri, Juliane Cristina Ribeiro Fernandes, Sandra Marcia Muxel, Lucile Maria Floeter-Winter
BACKGROUND: Arginase is an enzyme that converts L-arginine to urea and L-ornithine, an essential substrate for the polyamine pathway supporting Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis replication and its survival in the mammalian host. L-arginine is also the substrate of macrophage nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) to produce nitric oxide (NO) that kills the parasite. This competition can define the fate of Leishmania infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The transcriptomic profiling identified a family of oxidoreductases in L...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135921/nox-reactive-oxygen-species-and-regulation-of-vascular-cell-fate
#20
REVIEW
Denise Burtenshaw, Roya Hakimjavadi, Eileen M Redmond, Paul A Cahill
The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an imbalance of antioxidant defence mechanisms can result in oxidative stress. Several pro-atherogenic stimuli that promote intimal-medial thickening (IMT) and early arteriosclerotic disease progression share oxidative stress as a common regulatory pathway dictating vascular cell fate. The major source of ROS generated within the vascular system is the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase family of enzymes (Nox), of which seven members have been characterized...
November 14, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
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