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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350987/the-super-elongation-complex-drives-neural-stem-cell-fate-commitment
#1
Kun Liu, Dan Shen, Jingwen Shen, Shihong M Gao, Bo Li, Chouin Wong, Weidong Feng, Yan Song
Asymmetric stem cell division establishes an initial difference between a stem cell and its differentiating sibling, critical for maintaining homeostasis and preventing carcinogenesis. Yet the mechanisms that consolidate and lock in such initial fate bias remain obscure. Here, we use Drosophila neuroblasts to demonstrate that the super elongation complex (SEC) acts as an intrinsic amplifier to drive cell fate commitment. SEC is highly expressed in neuroblasts, where it promotes self-renewal by physically associating with Notch transcription activation complex and enhancing HES (hairy and E(spl)) transcription...
March 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350803/pharmacogenomic-identification-of-small-molecules-for-lineage-specific-manipulation-of-subventricular-zone-germinal-activity
#2
Kasum Azim, Diane Angonin, Guillaume Marcy, Francesca Pieropan, Andrea Rivera, Vanessa Donega, Claudio Cantù, Gareth Williams, Benedikt Berninger, Arthur M Butt, Olivier Raineteau
Strategies for promoting neural regeneration are hindered by the difficulty of manipulating desired neural fates in the brain without complex genetic methods. The subventricular zone (SVZ) is the largest germinal zone of the forebrain and is responsible for the lifelong generation of interneuron subtypes and oligodendrocytes. Here, we have performed a bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome of dorsal and lateral SVZ in early postnatal mice, including neural stem cells (NSCs) and their immediate progenies, which generate distinct neural lineages...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350482/analysis-of-the-revision-process-by-american-journal-of-roentgenology-reviewers-and-section-editors-metrics-of-rejected-manuscripts-and-their-final-disposition
#3
Claudia Cejas
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate metrics related to manuscripts rejected by AJR with and without review during 2014 and to determine their final disposition: no record of eventual publication, eventually published, published with modified authors and title, published with the same title but modified authors, and published with modified title but the same authors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1245 unsolicited manuscripts submitted from January to December 2014 were included in this retrospective analysis...
March 28, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346931/compositional-analysis-and-metabolism-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-in-infants
#4
Clemens Kunz, Silvia Rudloff
It is a great success that biotechnological means are available today to produce amounts of single human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in a purity which allows performing metabolic and functional studies even in humans. As recent data indicate that there is a link between the Lewis blood group and the secretor status of an individual and certain inflammatory diseases, this review will also focus on the metabolic fate of secretor- and Lewis blood group-specific components. We conclude that there is no simple urinary or fecal excretion pattern of HMOs, although the pattern in urine often reflects the mother's secretor/nonsecretor status...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346802/metabolome-profiling-of-partial-and-fully-reprogrammed-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#5
Soon-Jung Park, Sang A Lee, Nutan Prasain, Daekyeong Bae, Hyunsu Kang, Taewon Ha, Jong Soo Kim, Ki-Sung Hong, Charlie Mantel, Sung-Hwan Moon, Hal E Broxmeyer, Man Ryul Lee
Acquisition of proper metabolomic fate is required to convert somatic cells toward fully reprogrammed pluripotent stem cells. The majority of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are partially reprogrammed and have a transcriptome different from that of the pluripotent stem cells. The metabolomic profile and mitochondrial metabolic functions required to achieve full reprogramming of somatic cells to iPSC status have not yet been elucidated. Clarification of the metabolites underlying reprogramming mechanisms should enable further optimization to enhance the efficiency of obtaining fully reprogrammed iPSCs...
March 27, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346357/comparison-of-the-in-vivo-biotransformation-of-two-emerging-estrogenic-contaminants-bp2-and-bps-in-zebrafish-embryos-and-adults
#6
Vincent Le Fol, François Brion, Anne Hillenweck, Elisabeth Perdu, Sandrine Bruel, Selim Aït-Aïssa, Jean-Pierre Cravedi, Daniel Zalko
Zebrafish embryo assays are increasingly used in the toxicological assessment of endocrine disruptors. Among other advantages, these models are 3R-compliant and are fit for screening purposes. Biotransformation processes are well-recognized as a critical factor influencing toxic response, but major gaps of knowledge exist regarding the characterization of functional metabolic capacities expressed in zebrafish. Comparative metabolic studies between embryos and adults are even scarcer. Using ³H-labeled chemicals, we examined the fate of two estrogenic emerging contaminants, benzophenone-2 (BP2) and bisphenol S (BPS), in 4-day embryos and adult zebrafish...
March 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346226/a-tlr9-dependent-checkpoint-governs-b-cell-responses-to-dna-containing-antigens
#7
Vishal J Sindhava, Michael A Oropallo, Krishna Moody, Martin Naradikian, Lauren E Higdon, Lin Zhou, Arpita Myles, Nathaniel Green, Kerstin Nündel, William Stohl, Amanda M Schmidt, Wei Cao, Stephanie Dorta-Estremera, Taku Kambayashi, Ann Marshak-Rothstein, Michael P Cancro
Mature B cell pools retain a substantial proportion of polyreactive and self-reactive clonotypes, suggesting that activation checkpoints exist to reduce the initiation of autoreactive B cell responses. Here, we have described a relationship among the B cell receptor (BCR), TLR9, and cytokine signals that regulate B cell responses to DNA-containing antigens. In both mouse and human B cells, BCR ligands that deliver a TLR9 agonist induce an initial proliferative burst that is followed by apoptotic death. The latter mechanism involves p38-dependent G1 cell-cycle arrest and subsequent intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis and is shared by all preimmune murine B cell subsets and CD27- human B cells...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346138/dilation-of-fusion-pores-by-crowding-of-snare-proteins
#8
Zhenyong Wu, Oscar D Bello, Sathish Thiyagarajan, Sarah Marie Auclair, Wensi Vennekate, Shyam S Krishnakumar, Ben O'Shaughnessy, Erdem Karatekin
Hormones and neurotransmitters are released through fluctuating exocytotic fusion pores that can flicker open and shut multiple times. Cargo release and vesicle recycling depend on the fate of the pore, which may reseal or dilate irreversibly. Pore nucleation requires zippering between vesicle-associated v- and target membrane t-SNAREs, but the mechanisms governing the subsequent pore dilation are not understood. Here, we probed dilation of single fusion pores using v-SNARE-reconstituted ~23 nm diameter discoidal nanolipoprotein particles (vNLPs) as fusion partners with cells ectopically expressing cognate, 'flipped' t-SNAREs...
March 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345074/single-cell-rna-seq-and-computational-analysis-using-temporal-mixture-modelling-resolves-th1-tfh-fate-bifurcation-in-malaria
#9
Tapio Lönnberg, Valentine Svensson, Kylie R James, Daniel Fernandez-Ruiz, Ismail Sebina, Ruddy Montandon, Megan S F Soon, Lily G Fogg, Arya Sheela Nair, Urijah Liligeto, Michael J T Stubbington, Lam-Ha Ly, Frederik Otzen Bagger, Max Zwiessele, Neil D Lawrence, Fernando Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Patrick T Bunn, Christian R Engwerda, William R Heath, Oliver Billker, Oliver Stegle, Ashraful Haque, Sarah A Teichmann
Differentiation of naïve CD4(+) T cells into functionally distinct T helper subsets is crucial for the orchestration of immune responses. Due to extensive heterogeneity and multiple overlapping transcriptional programs in differentiating T cell populations, this process has remained a challenge for systematic dissection in vivo. By using single-cell transcriptomics and computational analysis using a temporal mixtures of Gaussian processes model, termed GPfates, we reconstructed the developmental trajectories of Th1 and Tfh cells during blood-stage Plasmodium infection in mice...
March 3, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344658/flightless-i-governs-cell-fate-by-recruiting-the-sumo-isopeptidase-senp3-to-distinct-hox-genes
#10
Arnab Nayak, Anja Reck, Christian Morsczeck, Stefan Müller
BACKGROUND: Despite recent studies on the role of ubiquitin-related SUMO modifier in cell fate decisions, our understanding on precise molecular mechanisms of these processes is limited. Previously, we established that the SUMO isopeptidase SENP3 regulates chromatin assembly of the MLL1/2 histone methyltransferase complex at distinct HOX genes, including the osteogenic master regulator DLX3. A comprehensive mechanism that regulates SENP3 transcriptional function was not understood. RESULTS: Here, we identified flightless-I homolog (FLII), a member of the gelsolin family of actin-remodeling proteins, as a novel regulator of SENP3...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344332/molecular-and-functional-heterogeneity-of-early-postnatal-porcine-satellite-cell-populations-is-associated-with-bioenergetic-profile
#11
Claudia Miersch, Katja Stange, Silvio Hering, Martin Kolisek, Torsten Viergutz, Monika Röntgen
During postnatal development, hyperplastic and hypertrophic processes of skeletal muscle growth depend on the activation, proliferation, differentiation, and fusion of satellite cells (SC). Therefore, molecular and functional SC heterogeneity is an important component of muscle plasticity and will greatly affect long-term growth performance and muscle health. However, its regulation by cell intrinsic and extrinsic factors is far from clear. In particular, there is only minor information on the early postnatal period which is critical for muscle maturation and the establishment of adult SC pools...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344040/m-6-a-demethylase-alkbh5-maintains-tumorigenicity-of-glioblastoma-stem-like-cells-by-sustaining-foxm1-expression-and-cell-proliferation-program
#12
Sicong Zhang, Boxuan Simen Zhao, Aidong Zhou, Kangyu Lin, Shaoping Zheng, Zhike Lu, Yaohui Chen, Erik P Sulman, Keping Xie, Oliver Bögler, Sadhan Majumder, Chuan He, Suyun Huang
The dynamic and reversible N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) RNA modification installed and erased by N(6)-methyltransferases and demethylases regulates gene expression and cell fate. We show that the m(6)A demethylase ALKBH5 is highly expressed in glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs). Silencing ALKBH5 suppresses the proliferation of patient-derived GSCs. Integrated transcriptome and m(6)A-seq analyses revealed altered expression of certain ALKBH5 target genes, including the transcription factor FOXM1. ALKBH5 demethylates FOXM1 nascent transcripts, leading to enhanced FOXM1 expression...
March 13, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344004/identification-of-three-early-phases-of-cell-fate-determination-during-osteogenic-and-adipogenic-differentiation-by-transcription-factor-dynamics
#13
Jeroen van de Peppel, Tanja Strini, Julia Tilburg, Hans Westerhoff, Andre J van Wijnen, Johannes P van Leeuwen
Age-related skeletal degeneration in patients with osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mass and occurs concomitant with an increase in bone marrow adipocytes. Using microarray expression profiling with high temporal resolution, we identified gene regulatory events in early stages of osteogenic and adipogenic lineage commitment of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). Data analysis revealed three distinct phases when cells adopt a committed expression phenotype: initiation of differentiation (0-3 hr, phase I), lineage acquisition (6-24 hr, phase II), and early lineage progression (48-96 hr, phase III)...
March 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343627/invited-review-milk-phospholipid-vesicles-their-colloidal-properties-and-potential-as-delivery-vehicles-for-bioactive-molecules
#14
E Arranz, M Corredig
The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is a unique colloidal assembly of phospholipids and proteins, with numerous potential applications as functional ingredient. The phospholipid components of the MFGM are gaining interest as they are a useful matrix for use as a constituent of delivery systems such as liposomes. Liposomes formulated with milk phospholipids are becoming an alternative to other sources of phospholipids such as soybean or egg yolk. However, incorporation of phospholipids fractionated from the milk fat globule membrane in dairy products requires an in-depth understanding of the functional properties of phospholipids...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342991/transformation-of-17%C3%AE-ethinylestradiol-by-simultaneous-photo-enzymatic-process-in-humic-water
#15
Yun Yang, Jianhua Li, Kun Lu, Huanhuan Shi, Shixiang Gao
The fate of estrogens in surface water is mainly dependent on two processes, i.e. photodegradation and biotransformation. Each of the separate process is invariably of interest, but research on the combination of the two processes has rarely been explored. In the present work, the transformation of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) by simultaneous photochemical and enzymatic process in water was systematically investigated. The combined transformation rate of EE2 (0.057 h(-1)) in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) under simulated sunlight irradiation was markedly faster than that in the presence of NOM only (0...
March 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342879/stable-subcutaneous-cartilage-regeneration-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-directed-by-chondrocyte-sheet
#16
Dan Li, Lian Zhu, Yu Liu, Zongqi Yin, Yi Liu, Fangjun Liu, Aijuan He, Shaoqing Feng, Yixin Zhang, Zhiyong Zhang, Wenjie Zhang, Wei Liu, Yilin Cao, Guangdong Zhou
In vivo niche plays an important role in regulating differentiation fate of stem cells. Due to lack of proper chondrogenic niche, stable cartilage regeneration of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in subcutaneous environments is always a great challenge. This study explored the feasibility that chondrocyte sheet created chondrogenic niche retained chondrogenic phenotype of BMSC engineered cartilage (BEC) in subcutaneous environments. Porcine BMSCs were seeded into biodegradable scaffolds followed by 4 weeks of chondrogenic induction in vitro to form BEC, which were wrapped with chondrocyte sheets (Sheet group), acellular small intestinal submucosa (SIS, SIS group), or nothing (Blank group) respectively and then implanted subcutaneously into nude mice to trace the maintenance of chondrogenic phenotype...
March 22, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342454/fate-of-micronuclei-and-micronucleated-cells
#17
REVIEW
Henning Hintzsche, Ulrike Hemmann, Albrecht Poth, Dietmar Utesch, Jasmin Lott, Helga Stopper
The present review describes available evidence about the fate of micronuclei and micronucleated cells. Micronuclei are small, extranuclear chromatin bodies surrounded by a nuclear envelope. The mechanisms underlying the formation of micronuclei are well understood but not much is known about the potential fate of micronuclei and micronucleated cells. Many studies with different experimental approaches addressed the various aspects of the post-mitotic fate of micronuclei and micronucleated cells. These studies are reviewed here considering four basic possibilities for potential fates of micronuclei: degradation of the micronucleus or the micronucleated cell, reincorporation into the main nucleus, extrusion from the cell, and persistence in the cytoplasm...
January 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342374/accumulation-of-%C3%AE-hexabromocyclododecane-%C3%AE-hbcdd-in-tissues-of-fast-and-slow-growing-broilers-gallus-domesticus
#18
Catherine Jondreville, Ronan Cariou, Bertrand Méda, Elena Dominguez-Romero, Elsa Omer, Gaud Dervilly-Pinel, Bruno Le Bizec, Angélique Travel, Elisabeth Baéza
The aim of the current study was to describe the fate of ingested α-hexabromocyclododecane (α-HBCDD) in fast-growing (FG) and slow-growing (SG) broilers, through an exposure to a dietary concentration of 50 ng α-HBCDD g(-1) feed during 42 and 84 days, respectively. Depuration parameters were assessed in SG broilers successively exposed during 42 days and depurated during 42 days. At market age, SG broilers had ingested 42% more feed than FG broilers, while their body weight gain per g of feed ingested was 34% lower...
March 22, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342046/sources-mechanisms-and-fate-of-steroid-estrogens-in-wastewater-treatment-plants-a-mini-review
#19
Yien Fang Ting, Sarva Mangala Praveena
Steroid estrogens, such as estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), are natural and synthetic hormones released into the environment through incomplete sewage discharge. This review focuses on the sources of steroid estrogens in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The mechanisms and fate of steroid estrogens throughout the entire wastewater treatment system are also discussed, and relevant information on regulatory aspects is given. Municipal, pharmaceutical industry, and hospitals are the main sources of steroid estrogens that enter WWTPs...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341993/a-method-for-preparing-silver-nanoparticle-suspensions-in-bulk-for-ecotoxicity-testing-and-ecological-risk-assessment
#20
Jonathan D Martin, Lena Telgmann, Chris D Metcalfe
Methods are needed to prepare stable suspensions of engineered nanoparticles in aqueous matrixes for ecotoxicity testing and ecological risk assessments. We developed a novel method of preparing large volumes of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in suspension using a commercially available rotor-stator dispersion mill. AgNP in powder form (PVP capped, 30-50 nm) was suspended in deionized water and natural lake water at 1 g/L and the addition of 0.025% (w/v) gum arabic (GA) increased stability over 2 weeks after preparation...
March 24, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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