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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647433/targeted-release-of-transcription-factors-for-human-cell-reprogramming-by-zebra-cell-penetrating-peptide
#1
Benjamin Caulier, Lionel Berthoin, Helène Coradin, Frédéric Garban, Marie Claire Dagher, Benoît Polack, Bertrand Toussaint, Jean Luc Lenormand, David Laurin
Transcription factors (TFs) are key actors of the control of gene expression and consequently of every major process within cells, ranging from cell fate determination, cell cycle control and response to environment. Their ectopic expression has proven high potential in reprogramming cells for regenerative medicine; ontogenesis studies and cell based modelling. Direct delivery of proteins could represent an alternative to current reprogramming methods using gene transfer but still needs technological improvements...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647367/mitochondrial-quality-control-pathways-pink1-acts-as-a-gatekeeper
#2
Elvira P Leites, Vanessa A Morais
Mitochondria have a pivotal role in the maintenance of cell homeostasis and survival. Mitochondria are involved in processes such as ATP production, reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis induction, calcium homeostasis and protein degradation. Thus, mechanisms that regulate the intrinsic quality of mitochondria have a crucial role in dictating overall cell fate. The importance of these well-regulated mechanisms is highlighted in disease scenarios such as neurodegeneration, cancer and neuromuscular atrophy...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647358/mitochondria-associated-membranes-mams-an-emerging-platform-connecting-energy-and-immune-sensing-to-metabolic-flexibility
#3
Jennifer Rieusset
Living organisms have the capacity to sense both nutrients and immune signals in order to adapt their metabolism to the needs, and both metabolic inflexibility and exacerbated immune responses are associated with metabolic diseases. Over the past decade, mitochondria emerged as key nutrient and immune sensors regulating numerous signalling pathways, and mitochondria dysfunction has been extensively implicated in metabolic diseases. Interestingly, mitochondria interact physically and functionally with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, in contact sites named mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), in order to exchange metabolites and calcium and regulate cellular homeostasis...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647235/selective-elimination-of-chromophoric-and-fluorescent-dissolved-organic-matter-in-a-full-scale-municipal-wastewater-treatment-plant
#4
Xiaofang Yang, Zhongbo Zhou, Maddela Naga Raju, Xiaoxuan Cai, Fangang Meng
Effluent organic matter (EfOM) from municipal wastewater treatment plants potentially has a detrimental effect on both aquatic organisms and humans. This study evaluated the removal and transformation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant under different seasons. The results showed that bio-treatment was found to be more efficient in removing bulk DOM (in term of dissolved organic carbon, DOC) than CDOM and FDOM, which was contrary to the disinfection process...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647231/simultaneous-elimination-of-cyanotoxins-and-pcbs-via-mechanical-collection-of-cyanobacterial-blooms-an-application-of-green-bioadsorption-concept
#5
Wei Chen, Yunlu Jia, Anyue Liu, Qichao Zhou, Lirong Song
In this study, the distribution, transfer and fate of both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and cyanotoxins via phytoplankton routes were systematically investigated in two Chinese lakes. Results indicated that PCB adsorption/bioaccumulation dynamics has significantly positive correlations with the biomass of green alga and diatoms. Total lipid content of phytoplankton is the major factor that influences PCB adsorption/bioaccumulation. Cyanobacterial blooms with relatively lower lipid content could also absorb high amount of PCBs due to their high cell density in the water columns, and this process was proposed as major route for the transfer of PCBs in Chinese eutrophic freshwater...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646766/gaps-in-aquatic-toxicological-studies-of-microplastics
#6
REVIEW
Ali Karami
The contamination of aquatic environments with microplastics (MPs) has spurred an unprecedented interest among scientific communities to investigate their impacts on biota. Despite the rapid growth in the number of studies on the aquatic toxicology of MPs, controversy over the fate and biological impacts of MPs is increasingly growing mainly due to the absence of standardized laboratory bioassays. Given the complex features of MPs, such as the diversity of constituent polymers, additives, shapes and sizes, as well as continuous changes in the particle buoyancy as a result of fouling and defouling processes, it is necessary to modify conventional bioassay protocols before employing them for MP toxicity testings...
June 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646765/historical-record-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs-and-special-occurrence-of-pcb-209-in-a-shallow-fresh-water-lake-from-eastern-china
#7
Shouliang Huo, Chaocan Li, Beidou Xi, Zhiqiang Yu, Kevin M Yeager, Fengchang Wu
Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in dated sediment cores collected from the fifth largest freshwater lake in China, Lake Chaohu, to investigate PCB temporal trends, accumulation, and environmental fate. Total PCB concentrations in Lake Choahu sediments ranged from 0.03 to 24.11 ng g(-1) (d.w.). PCB 209 was the dominant congener, accounting for 45.5%-83.9% of total PCBs detected after the mid-20th century. All PCB congeners were positively correlated with total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations...
June 18, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646660/towards-understanding-transcriptional-networks-in-cellular-reprogramming
#8
REVIEW
Jaber Firas, Jose M Polo
Most of the knowledge we have on the molecular mechanisms of transcription factor mediated reprogramming comes from studies conducted in induced pluripotency. Recently however, a few studies investigated the mechanisms of cellular reprogramming in direct and indirect transdifferentiation, which allows us to explore whether shared parallel mechanisms can be drawn. Moreover, there are currently several computational tools that have been developed to predict and enhance the reprogramming process by reconstructing the transcriptional networks of reprogramming cells...
June 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646572/general-fate-model-for-microconstituents-in-an-activated-sludge-system
#9
Bahman Banihashemi
Nine lab-scale continuous flow porous-pot bioreactors operating at various solids retention times and hydraulic retention times were conducted to simulate activated sludge (AS) systems and to evaluate the biodegradation kinetic models for the fate of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), bisphenol-A (BPA), and triclosan (TCS) at the µg/L range. Mathematical models were applied to describe the degradation mechanism of selected microconstituents (MCs) and pseudo second-order model were found to best fit the results when active MCs degraders (XC) were used (r2= 0...
June 16, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646471/decoding-early-myelopoiesis-from-dynamics-of-core-endogenous-network
#10
Hang Su, Gaowei Wang, Ruoshi Yuan, Junqiang Wang, Ying Tang, Ping Ao, Xiaomei Zhu
A decade ago mainstream molecular biologists regarded it impossible or biologically ill-motivated to understand the dynamics of complex biological phenomena, such as cancer genesis and progression, from a network perspective. Indeed, there are numerical difficulties even for those who were determined to explore along this direction. Undeterred, seven years ago a group of Chinese scientists started a program aiming to obtain quantitative connections between tumors and network dynamics. Many interesting results have been obtained...
May 29, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646271/characterization-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-following-burn-injury
#11
Anesh Prasai, Amina El Ayadi, Randy C Mifflin, Michael D Wetzel, Clark R Andersen, Heinz Redl, David N Herndon, Celeste C Finnerty
Severe burns induce a prolonged inflammatory response in subcutaneous adipose tissue that modulates signaling in adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), which hold potential for healing burn wounds or generating skin substitutes. Using a 60% rat scald burn model, we conducted a series of experiments to determine which cells isolated from the adipose tissue produced inflammatory mediators and how these changes affect ASC fate and function. The stromal vascular fraction (SVF), adipocytes, and ASCs were isolated from adipose tissue at varying times up to 4 weeks postburn and from non-injured controls...
June 23, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646114/staphylococcus-aureus-strain-newman-photoinactivation-and-cellular-response-to-sunlight-exposure
#12
Jill S McClary, Lauren M Sassoubre, Alexandria B Boehm
Sunlight influences microbial water quality of surface waters. Previous studies have investigated photoinactivation mechanisms and cellular photostress responses of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli and enterococci, but further work is needed to characterize photostress responses of bacterial pathogens. Here we investigate the photoinactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (strain Newman), a pigmented, waterborne pathogen of emerging concern. We measured photodecay using standard culture-based assays and cellular membrane integrity; and investigated photostress response by measuring the relative number of mRNA transcripts of select oxidative stress, DNA repair, and metabolism genes...
June 23, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645762/calculating-in-situ-degradation-rates-of-hydrocarbon-compounds-in-deep-waters-of-the-gulf-of-mexico
#13
Anne E Thessen, Elizabeth W North
Biodegradation is an important process for hydrocarbon weathering that influences its fate and transport, yet little is known about in situ biodegradation rates of specific hydrocarbon compounds in the deep ocean. Using data collected in the Gulf of Mexico below 700m during and after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, we calculated first-order degradation rate constants for 49 hydrocarbons and inferred degradation rate constants for an additional 5 data-deficient hydrocarbons. Resulting calculated (not inferred) half-lives of the hydrocarbons ranged from 0...
June 20, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645749/a-population-of-g2-arrested-cells-are-selected-as-sensory-organ-precursors-for-the-interommatidial-bristles-of-the-drosophila-eye
#14
Joy H Meserve, Robert J Duronio
Cell cycle progression and differentiation are highly coordinated during the development of multicellular organisms. The mechanisms by which these processes are coordinated and how their coordination contributes to normal development are not fully understood. Here, we determine the developmental fate of a population of precursor cells in the developing Drosophila melanogaster retina that arrest in G2 phase of the cell cycle and investigate whether cell cycle phase-specific arrest influences the fate of these cells...
June 20, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645090/the-impact-of-tidal-and-mesoscale-eddy-advection-on-the-long-term-dispersion-of-99-tc-from-sellafield
#15
Magne Simonsen, Øyvind Saetra, Pål Erik Isachsen, Ole Christian Lind, Hilde Kristin Skjerdal, Brit Salbu, Hilde Elise Heldal, Justin P Gwynn
In the present work, numerical models are used to study the fate of the (99)Tc discharges from Sellafield with a specific focus on the role of mesoscale eddy and tidal advection on the transport and dispersion of this radionuclide. Transport estimates are made with an ocean model that resolves a large part of the ocean mesoscale eddy field and also includes tides. Equivalent estimates are also computed with another model in which these processes are either absent or parametrized. Comparison with field observations shows that the coarse-resolution model can reproduce the general features of the observed time-space (99)Tc distribution if the diffusivity in its eddy parametrization scheme is suitably chosen...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644954/bacteria-and-the-fate-of-estrogen-in-the-environment
#16
William B Whitman
In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Chen et al. (2017) report that 4-hydroxyestrone and pyridinestrone acid are intermediates in the 4,5-seco pathway of aerobic estrogen degradation by the bacterium Sphingomonas. The authors identify a gene for 4-hydroxyestrone 4,5-dioxygenase and find it to be widely distributed in diverse proteobacteria, suggesting that this pathway is environmentally significant.
June 22, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644902/sirt6-alters-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#17
Eitan Okun, Daniel Marton, Daniel Cohen, Kathleen Griffioen, Yariv Kanfi, Tomer Illouz, Ravit Madar, Haim Y Cohen
Sirtuins are pleiotropic NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases involved in metabolism, DNA damage repair, inflammation and stress resistance. SIRT6, a member of the sirtuin family, regulates the process of normal aging and increases the lifespan of male mice over-expressing Sirt6 by 15%. Neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons within the hippocampus of adult mammals, involves several complex stages including stem cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and network integration. During aging, the number of newly generated neurons continuously declines, and this is correlated with a decline in neuronal plasticity and cognitive behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644754/expression-of-enzymes-related-to-glucose-metabolism-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-prognosis
#18
Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Efthimios Sivridis, Stella Arelaki, Michael I Koukourakis
Purpose/Aim: Cancer cells are addicted to glycolytic anaerobic pathways, in presence or in absence of a functional Krebs' cycle (phenomenon Warburg). This metabolic predilection relies on both extracellular (impaired vascularization and oxygenation) and intracellular (oncogenic activation of genes) causes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the expression and prognostic relevance of enzymes involved in the glucose absorption and metabolism, monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) expression, MCT1 and MCT2, pentose pathway (Glucose-6-phospahte dehydrogenase G6PD), glycogene synthesis (glycogene synthase GYS1), glycolysis (Hexokinase HXKII, phosphofructokinase PFK1, fructose biphosphate aldolase), fate of pyruvate (pyruvate dehydrogenase PDH, phosphorylated pPDH, PDH kinase PDK1, lactate dehydrogenase LDH5 and LDH1) and key Kreb's cycle enzymes (citrate synthase CSynth and isocitrate dehydrogenase IDH)...
June 23, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644712/comparative-analysis-of-behavioral-and-transcriptional-variation-underlying-co2-sensory-neuron-function-and-development-in-drosophila
#19
Jia Wern Pan, Joi McLaughlin, Haining Yang, Charles Leo, Paula Rambarat, Sumie Okuwa, Anaïs Monroy-Eklund, Sabrina Clark, Corbin D Jones, Pelin Cayirlioglu Volkan
Carbon dioxide is an important environmental cue for many insects, regulating many behaviors including some that have direct human impacts. To further improve our understanding of how this system varies among closely related insect species, we examined both the behavioral response to CO2 as well as the transcriptional profile of key developmental regulators of CO2 sensory neurons in the olfactory system across the Drosophila genus. We found that CO2 generally evokes repulsive behavior across most of the Drosophilids we examined, but this behavior has been lost or reduced in several lineages...
June 23, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644436/the-lats1-and-lats2-tumor-suppressors-beyond-the-hippo-pathway
#20
REVIEW
Noa Furth, Yael Aylon
Proper cellular functionality and homeostasis are maintained by the convergent integration of various signaling cascades, which enable cells to respond to internal and external changes. The Dbf2-related kinases LATS1 and LATS2 (LATS) have emerged as central regulators of cell fate, by modulating the functions of numerous oncogenic or tumor suppressive effectors, including the canonical Hippo effectors YAP/TAZ, the Aurora mitotic kinase family, estrogen signaling and the tumor suppressive transcription factor p53...
June 23, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
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