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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346521/the-intracellular-and-intercellular-cross-talk-during-subsidiary-cell-formation-in-zea-mays-existing-and-novel-components-orchestrating-cell-polarization-and-asymmetric-division
#1
P Apostolakos, P Livanos, E Giannoutsou, E Panteris, B Galatis
Background: Formation of stomatal complexes in Poaceae is the outcome of three asymmetric and one symmetric cell division occurring in particular leaf protodermal cells. In this definite sequence of cell division events, the generation of subsidiary cells is of particular importance and constitutes an attractive model for studying local intercellular stimulation. In brief, an induction stimulus emitted by the guard cell mother cells (GMCs) triggers a series of polarization events in their laterally adjacent protodermal cells...
January 15, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346405/oxytocin-alters-cell-fate-selection-of-rat-neural-progenitor-cells-in-vitro
#2
Arvind Palanisamy, Ramaswamy Kannappan, Zhiqiang Xu, Audrey Martino, Matthew B Friese, Justin D Boyd, Gregory Crosby, Deborah J Culley
Synthetic oxytocin (sOT) is widely used during labor, yet little is known about its effects on fetal brain development despite evidence that it reaches the fetal circulation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that sOT would affect early neurodevelopment by investigating its effects on neural progenitor cells (NPC) from embryonic day 14 rat pups. NPCs expressed the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), which was downregulated by 45% upon prolonged treatment with sOT. Next, we examined the effects of sOT on NPC death, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation using antibodies to NeuN (neurons), Olig2 (oligodendrocytes), and GFAP (astrocytes)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346066/expression-of-autophagy-related-genes-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-is-associated-with-disease-course
#3
Yi-Lin Kong, Ying Huang, Jia-Zhu Wu, Xin Cao, Jin-Hua Liang, Yi Xia, Wei Wu, Lei Cao, Hua-Yuan Zhu, Li Wang, Lei Fan, Jian-Yong Li, Wei Xu
Autophagy leads cells to different fates in various cell types and under diverse contexts. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), an incurable hematologic neoplasm, has highly variable course and its heterogeneity prompts interest in exploring autophagic trajectories in CLL. We detected the mRNA levels of two autophagy-related genes, BECN1 and ATG5, assessed the association between expression levels and clinical characteristics, and did survival analysis. One hundred and six patients with CLL and fifty healthy controls were enrolled in the present study...
January 3, 2018: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345919/using-isomeric-and-metabolic-ratios-of-ddt-to-identify-the-sources-and-fate-of-ddt-in-chinese-agricultural-topsoil
#4
Chong Zhang, Li Liu, Yan Ma, Fasheng Li
The metabolic ratio of (p,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDD)/p,p'-DDT or p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT has been used previously to estimate the approximate half-life of p,p'-DDT, with a relatively unclear concept of "old" and "new" sources of p,p'-DDT and without paying attention to the influence by dicofol-type DDT contributed from the more recent usage of dicofol. Based on the isomeric ratio of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT to distinguish the sources of DDT, this study used the corrected metabolic ratio of (p,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDD)/p,p'-DDT to estimate a more accurate half-life of p,p'-DDT using a model-based approach...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345538/real-time-monitoring-of-nanoscale-tio2-concentration-by-spectrophotometry-implications-of-agglomeration-due-to-natural-organic-matter-and-multivalent-ions
#5
Andrew B Holmes, Frank X Gu
The study of the environmental fate of nanoscale TiO2 (n-TiO2) is a major recent research focus which requires a rapid and accurate on-site concentration determination method. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) has been the most widely used method for determining the concentration of n-TiO2 in environmental samples; however, poses many challenges, such as hazardous hydrofluoric acid pre-treatment and clear limitations in mobile on-site measurement and monitoring. This study demonstrates that industrial wastewater containing natural organic matter (NOM) can present a major challenge to the analysis of n-TiO2 by ICP-MS, and introduces a spectrophotometry technique that can be used as an alternative...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345468/photochemistry-of-solid-films-of-the-neonicotinoid-nitenpyram
#6
Kifle Z Aregahegn, Michael J Ezell, Barbara J Finlayson-Pitts
The environmental fates of nitenpyram (NPM), a widely used neonicotinoid insecticide, are not well known. A thin solid film of NPM deposited on a germanium attenuated total reflectance (ATR) crystal was exposed to radiation from a low-pressure mercury lamp at 254 nm, or from broadband low pressure mercury photolysis lamps centered at 350 or 313 nm. The loss during photolysis was followed in time using FTIR. The photolysis quantum yields (), defined as the number of NPM molecules lost per photon absorbed, were determined to be (9...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345465/microplastic-abundance-and-composition-in-western-lake-superior-as-determined-via-microscopy-pyr-gc-ms-and-ftir
#7
Erik Hendrickson, Elizabeth C Minor, Kathryn Schreiner
While plastic pollution in marine and freshwater systems is an active area of research, there is not yet an in-depth understanding of the distributions, chemical compositions, and fates of plastics in aquatic environments. In this study, the magnitude, distribution, and common polymers of microplastic pollution in surface waters in western Lake Superior are determined. Analytical methodology, including estimates of ambient contamination during sample collection and processing, are described and employed. Microscopy, Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass spectrometry (Pyr-GC/MS), and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to quantify and identify microplastic particles...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345101/a-pdgf-ccreert2-knock-in-mouse-model-for-tracing-pdgf-c-cell-lineages-during-development
#8
Xiaoli Wu, Wenjun Liu, Hao Ding
PDGF-C, a member of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family, plays important roles in the development of craniofacial structures, the neural system, the vascular system and tumors. PDGF-C could also be required for the regulation of certain types of stem or progenitor cells as suggested by its expression in the regions where these cells are located. To further characterize the role of PDGF-C in development, we generated a Pdgf-cCreERT2 mouse strain, in which a tamoxifen-inducible Cre (CreERT2) cDNA was specifically targeted into the Pdgf-c genomic locus and controlled by the endogenous Pdgf-c regulatory elements...
January 18, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345024/being-pluripotent-bone-marrow-vsels-rather-than-hscs-have-the-potential-to-regenerate-other-adult-organs
#9
REVIEW
Deepa Bhartiya
Recent study by Deanne's group provides evidence that transplanted GFP positive bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) expressing CD45 do not regenerate the endometrium of irradiated mice. The results do not surprise us since global efforts to regenerate various organs by transplanting bone marrow (BM) mononuclear cells (presumably enriched for HSCs) have failed. HSCs can only regenerate/reconstitute BM as they are 'committed progenitors' that are specified from more primitive, CD45 negative stem cells...
January 18, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344701/the-fate-of-immunocompromised-patients-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-periprosthetic-joint-infection-a-single-centre-experience
#10
Baochao Ji, Xiaogang Zhang, Boyong Xu, Jiangdong Ren, Wentao Guo, Wenbo Mu, Li Cao
PURPOSE: Immunocompromised patients with periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) are rare and currently there are no reliable guidelines according to which these infections can be successfully managed. The purpose of this study was to report the clinical course of different strategies for treatment of PJI in frail patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis between 2004 and 2015 included 29 immunocompromised patients (13 hips and 16 knees) with chronic PJI who underwent one-stage revision or debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR)...
January 17, 2018: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344587/an-exploratory-study-of-red-raspberry-rubus-idaeus-l-poly-phenols-metabolites-in-human-biological-samples
#11
Xuhuiqun Zhang, Amandeep Sandhu, Indika Edirisinghe, Britt Burton-Freeman
Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) contains a variety of polyphenols including anthocyanins and ellagitannins. Red raspberry polyphenols absorbed in different forms (parent compounds, degradants or microbial metabolites) are subject to xenobiotic metabolism in the intestine, liver, and/or kidney, forming methylate, glucuronide, and sulfate conjugated metabolites. Upon acute exposure, (poly)phenol/metabolite presence in the blood depends mainly on intestinal absorption, enterohepatic circulation, and metabolism by resident microbiota...
January 18, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344311/gilz-activin-a-as-a-novel-signaling-axis-orchestrating-mesenchymal-stem-cell-and-th17-cell-interplay
#12
Patricia Luz-Crawford, Gabriel Espinosa-Carrasco, Natacha Ipseiz, Rafael Contreras, Gautier Tejedor, Daniel A Medina, Ana-Maria Vega-Letter, Devi Ngo, Eric F Morand, Jérôme Pène, Javier Hernandez, Christian Jorgensen, Farida Djouad
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are highly immunosuppressive cells able to reduce chronic inflammation through the active release of mediators. Recently, we showed that glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (Gilz) expression by MSC is involved in their therapeutic effect by promoting the generation of regulatory T cells. However, the mechanisms underlying this pivotal role of Gilz remain elusive. Methods and Results In this study, we have uncovered evidence that Gilz modulates the phenotype and function of Th1 and Th17 cells likely by upregulating the level of Activin A and NO2 secreted by MSC...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343687/mechanically-sensitive-mirnas-bias-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-fate-via-mtor-signalling
#13
Jessica E Frith, Gina D Kusuma, James Carthew, Fanyi Li, Nicole Cloonan, Guillermo A Gomez, Justin J Cooper-White
Mechanotransduction is a strong driver of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) fate. In vitro, variations in matrix mechanics invoke changes in MSC proliferation, migration and differentiation. However, when incorporating MSCs within injectable, inherently soft hydrogels, this dominance over MSC response substantially limits our ability to couple the ease of application of hydrogels with efficiently directed MSC differentiation, especially in the case of bone generation. Here, we identify differential miRNA expression in response to varying hydrogel stiffness and RhoA activity...
January 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343647/on-the-folding-of-a-structurally-complex-protein-to-its-metastable-active-state
#14
V V Hemanth Giri Rao, Shachi Gosavi
For successful protease inhibition, the reactive center loop (RCL) of the two-domain serine protease inhibitor, α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT), needs to remain exposed in a metastable active conformation. The α1-AT RCL is sequestered in a β-sheet in the stable latent conformation. Thus, to be functional, α1-AT must always fold to a metastable conformation while avoiding folding to a stable conformation. We explore the structural basis of this choice using folding simulations of coarse-grained structure-based models of the two α1-AT conformations...
January 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343637/tyrosine-phosphorylation-and-proteolytic-cleavage-of-notch-are-required-for-non-canonical-notch-abl-signaling-in-drosophila-axon-guidance
#15
Ramakrishnan Kannan, Eric Cox, Lei Wang, Irina Kuzina, Qun Gu, Edward Giniger
Notch signaling is required for the development and physiology of nearly every tissue in metazoans. Much of Notch signaling is mediated by transcriptional regulation of downstream target genes, but Notch controls axon patterning in Drosophila by local modulation of Abl tyrosine kinase signaling, via direct interactions with the Abl co-factors Disabled and Trio. Here, we show that Notch-Abl axonal signaling requires both of the proteolytic cleavage events that initiate canonical Notch signaling. We further show that some Notch protein is tyrosine phosphorylated in Drosophila, that this form of the protein is selectively associated with Disabled and Trio, and that relevant tyrosines are essential for Notch-dependent axon patterning but not for canonical Notch-dependent regulation of cell fate...
January 17, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343564/phenotypic-plasticity-in-an-ant-with-strong-caste-genotype-association
#16
Alexandre Kuhn, Hugo Darras, Serge Aron
Caste determination in social Hymenoptera (whether a female egg develops into a reproductive queen or a sterile worker) is a remarkable example of phenotypic plasticity where females with highly similar genomes exhibit striking differences in morphology and behaviour. This phenotypic dichotomy is typically influenced by environmental factors. However, recent studies have revealed a strong caste-genotype association in hybridogenetic ants: workers are all interlineage hybrids while queens are all purebred, suggesting that female caste fate is genetically determined...
January 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342370/fgf8-signaling-alters-the-osteogenic-cell-fate-in-the-hard-palate
#17
J Xu, Z Huang, W Wang, X Tan, H Li, Y Zhang, W Tian, T Hu, Y P Chen
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling has been implicated in the regulation of osteogenesis in both intramembranous and endochondral ossifications. In the developing palate, the anterior bony palate forms by direct differentiation of cranial neural crest (CNC)-derived mesenchymal cells, but the signals that regulate the osteogenic cell fate in the developing palate remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of FGF signaling in osteogenic fate determination of the palatal mesenchymal cells...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342317/osteoblast-like-mc3t3-e1-cells-prefer-glycolysis-for-atp-production-but-adipocyte-like-3t3-l1-cells-prefer-oxidative-phosphorylation
#18
Anyonya R Guntur, Akos A Gerencser, Phuong T Le, Victoria E DeMambro, Sheila A Bornstein, Shona A Mookerjee, David E Maridas, David E Clemmons, Martin D Brand, Clifford J Rosen
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are early progenitors that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. We hypothesized that osteoblasts and adipocytes utilize distinct bioenergetic pathways during MSC differentiation. To test this hypothesis, we compared the bioenergetic profiles of pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells and calvarial osteoblasts with pre-adipocyte 3T3L1 cells, before and after differentiation. Differentiated MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts met ATP demand mainly by glycolysis with minimal reserve glycolytic capacity, whereas non-differentiated cells generated ATP through oxidative phosphorylation...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341859/an-indoor-air-quality-evaluation-in-a-residential-retrofit-project-using-spray-polyurethane-foam
#19
Shen Tian, Scott Ecoff, John Sebroski, Jason Miller, Harold Rickenbacker, Melissa Bilec
Understanding of indoor air quality (IAQ) during and after spray polyurethane foam (SPF) application is essential to protect the health of both workers and building occupants. Previous efforts such as field monitoring, micro-chamber/spray booth emission studies and fate/transport modeling have been conducted to understand the chemical exposure of SPF and guide risk mitigation strategies. However, each type of research has its limitation and can only reveal partial information on the relationship between SPF and IAQ...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341848/protection-of-root-apex-meristem-during-stress-responses
#20
Mohamed M Mira, Shuanglong Huang, Robert D Hill, Claudio Stasollaa
By regulating the levels of nitric oxide (NO) in a cell and tissue specific fashion, Phytoglobins (Pgbs), plant hemoglobin-like proteins, interfere with many NO-mediated pathways participating in developmental and stress-related responses. Recent evidence reveals that one of the functions of Pgbs is to protect the root apical meristem (RAM) from stress conditions by retaining the viability and function of the quiescent center (QC), required to maintain the stem cells in an undifferentiated state and ensure proper tissue patterning and root viability...
January 17, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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