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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934756/tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-mediates-fibroblast-growth-factor-inducible-14-signaling
#1
Xuening Wang, Shengxiang Xiao, Yumin Xia
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) engages its sole receptor, fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14), which participates in various inflammatory and immunologic processes. TWEAK/Fn14 interaction induces different cell fates depending on the local microenvironment, which correlates with certain expression profiles of TNF receptors (TNFR). The predominant expression of TNFR1 or TNFR2 facilitates cell death or proliferation, respectively, on TWEAK/Fn14 activation. TNFR-associated factors (TRAF) interact with Fn14, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein (cIAP)-1, and TNFR, consequently transducing signals from TWEAK to downstream cytokines and cell cycle mediators...
September 21, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934712/biotransformation-of-flubendazole-and-fenbendazole-and-their-effects-in-the-ribwort-plantain-plantago-lanceolata
#2
Lucie Raisová Stuchlíková, Lenka Skálová, Barbora Szotáková, Eliška Syslová, Ivan Vokřál, Tomáš Vaněk, Radka Podlipná
Although veterinary anthelmintics represent an important source of environmental pollution, the fate of anthelmintics and their effects in plants has not yet been studied sufficiently. The aim of our work was to identify metabolic pathways of the two benzimidazole anthelmintics fenbendazole (FBZ) and flubendazole (FLU) in the ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.). Plants cultivated as in vitro regenerants were used for this purpose. The effects of anthelmintics and their biotransformation products on plant oxidative stress parameters were also studied...
September 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934682/the-fate-of-human-remains-in-a-maritime-context-and-feasibility-for-forensic-humanitarian-action-to-assist-in-their-recovery-and-identification
#3
Sarah Theresa Dorothea Ellingham, Pierre Perich, Morris Tidball-Binz
The number of annual maritime fatalities reported in the Mediterranean has more than doubled in the last two years, a phenomenon closely linked to the increase of migrants attempting to reach Europe via the Mediterranean. The majority of victims reportedly never gets recovered, which in part relates to the fact that the mechanisms and interaction of factors affecting marine taphonomy are still largely not understood. These factors include intrinsic factors such as whether the individual was alive or dead at the time of submergence, the individual's stature and clothing, as well as extrinsic factors such including ambient temperature, currents, water depth, salinity and oxygen levels...
August 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934500/a-synthetic-dna-binding-inhibitor-of-sox2-guides-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-differentiate-into-mesoderm
#4
Junichi Taniguchi, Ganesh N Pandian, Takuya Hidaka, Kaori Hashiya, Toshikazu Bando, Kyeong Kyu Kim, Hiroshi Sugiyama
Targeted differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) using only chemicals would have value-added clinical potential in the regeneration of complex cell types including cardiomyocytes. Despite the availability of several chemical inhibitors targeting proteins involved in signaling pathways, no bioactive synthetic DNA-binding inhibitors, targeting key cell fate-controlling genes such as SOX2, are yet available. Here, we demonstrate a novel DNA-based chemical approach to guide the differentiation of hiPSCs using pyrrole-imidazole polyamides (PIPs), which are sequence-selective DNA-binding synthetic molecules...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934484/regulation-of-hur-structure-and-function-by-dihydrotanshinone-i
#5
Preet Lal, Linda Cerofolini, Vito Giuseppe D'Agostino, Chiara Zucal, Carmelo Fuccio, Isabelle Bonomo, Erik Dassi, Stefano Giuntini, Danilo Di Maio, Vikalp Vishwakarma, Ranjan Preet, Sha Neisha Williams, Max S Fairlamb, Rachel Munk, Elin Lehrmann, Kotb Abdelmohsen, Saioa R Elezgarai, Claudio Luchinat, Ettore Novellino, Alessandro Quattrone, Emiliano Biasini, Leonardo Manzoni, Myriam Gorospe, Dan A Dixon, Pierfausto Seneci, Luciana Marinelli, Marco Fragai, Alessandro Provenzani
The Human antigen R protein (HuR) is an RNA-binding protein that recognizes U/AU-rich elements in diverse RNAs through two RNA-recognition motifs, RRM1 and RRM2, and post-transcriptionally regulates the fate of target RNAs. The natural product dihydrotanshinone-I (DHTS) prevents the association of HuR and target RNAs in vitro and in cultured cells by interfering with the binding of HuR to RNA. Here, we report the structural determinants of the interaction between DHTS and HuR and the impact of DHTS on HuR binding to target mRNAs transcriptome-wide...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934364/the-histone-variant-macroh2a-confers-functional-robustness-to-the-intestinal-stem-cell-compartment
#6
Ryan James Cedeno, Angela Nakauka-Ddamba, Maryam Yousefi, Stephanie Sterling, Nicolae Adrian Leu, Ning Li, John R Pehrson, Christopher Joachim Lengner
A stem cell's epigenome directs cell fate during development, homeostasis, and regeneration. Epigenetic dysregulation can lead to inappropriate cell fate decisions, aberrant cell function, and even cancer. The histone variant macroH2A has been shown to influence gene expression, guide cell fate, and safeguard against genotoxic stress. Interestingly, mice lacking functional macroH2A histones (hereafter referred to as macroH2A DKO) are viable and fertile; yet suffer from increased perinatal death and reduced weight and size compared to wildtype (WT)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934229/above-and-below-ground-carbohydrate-allocation-differs-between-ash-fraxinus-excelsior-l-and-beech-fagus-sylvatica-l
#7
Ronny Thoms, Michael Köhler, Arthur Gessler, Gerd Gleixner
We investigated soluble carbohydrate transport in trees that differed in their phloem loading strategies in order to better understand the transport of photosynthetic products into the roots and the rhizosphere as this knowledge is needed to better understand the respiratory processes in the rhizosphere. We compared beech, which is suggested to use mainly passive loading of transport sugars along a concentration gradient into the phloem, with ash that uses active loading and polymer trapping of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933985/acn-1-a-c-elegans-homologue-of-ace-genetically-interacts-with-the-let-7-microrna-and-other-heterochronic-genes
#8
Chanatip Metheetrairut, Yuri Ahuja, Frank J Slack
The heterochronic pathway in C. elegans controls the relative timing of cell fate decisions during post-embryonic development. It includes a network of microRNAs (miRNAs), such as let-7, and protein-coding genes, such as the stemness factors, LIN-28 and LIN-41. Here we identified the acn-1 gene, a homologue of mammalian angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), as a new suppressor of the stem cell developmental defects of let-7 mutants. Since acn-1 null mutants die during early larval development, we used RNAi to characterize the role of acn-1 in C...
September 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933602/lactoferrin-structure-function-denaturation-and-digestion
#9
Bo Wang, Yakindra Prasad Timilsena, Ewan Blanch, Benu Adhikari
Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein occurring in many biological secretions including milk. It possesses iron binding/transferring, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. These functional properties intimately depend on the structural integrity of LF especially its higher order conformation. LF is primarily extracted from bovine milk and it is subsequently added into many commercial products such as nutritional supplements, infant formula, cosmetics and toothpaste...
September 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933537/membrane-fluidity-sensing-on-the-single-virus-particle-level-with-plasmonic-nanoparticle-transducers
#10
Amin Feizpour, David N Stelter, Crystal Wong, Hisashi Akiyama, Suryaram Gummuluru, Tom Keyes, Bjoern M Reinhard
Viral membranes are nanomaterials whose fluidity depends on their composition, in particular the cholesterol (chol) content. As differences in the membrane composition of individual virus particles can lead to different intracellular fates, biophysical tools capable of sensing the membrane fluidity on the single-virus level are required. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that fluctuations in the polarization of light scattered off gold or silver nanoparticle (NP)-labeled virus-like-particles (VLPs) encode information about the membrane fluidity of individual VLPs...
September 21, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932704/cancer-linking-powerhouses-to-suicidal-bags
#11
REVIEW
Laia Martinez-Carreres, Anita Nasrallah, Lluis Fajas
Membrane-bound organelles are integrated into cellular networks and work together for a common goal: regulating cell metabolism, cell signaling pathways, cell fate, cellular maintenance, and pathogen defense. Many of these interactions are well established, but little is known about the interplay between mitochondria and lysosomes, and their deregulation in cancer. The present review focuses on the common signaling pathways of both organelles, as well as the processes in which they both physically interact, their changes under pathological conditions, and the impact on targeting those organelles for treating cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932642/trex1-dictates-the-immune-fate-of-irradiated-cancer-cells
#12
Claire Vanpouille-Box, Silvia C Formenti, Sandra Demaria
The optimal radiation dose and fractionation to induce anti-tumor immunity remain elusive. We recently found that the exonuclease TREX1 abrogates the immunogenicity of irradiated cancer cells by degrading interferon-stimulatory cytosolic dsDNA. TREX1 upregulation by radiation dose per fraction beyond a threshold of 10-12 Gy results in poor synergy with immune checkpoint blockers.
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932115/the-long-term-fate-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-labeled-with-magnetic-resonance-imaging-visible-polymersomes-in-cerebral-ischemia
#13
Xiaohui Duan, Liejing Lu, Yong Wang, Fang Zhang, Jiaji Mao, Minghui Cao, Bingling Lin, Xiang Zhang, Xintao Shuai, Jun Shen
Understanding the long-term fate and potential mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after transplantation is essential for improving functional benefits of stem cell-based stroke treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered an attractive and clinically translatable tool for longitudinal tracking of stem cells, but certain controversies have arisen in this regard. In this study, we used SPION-loaded cationic polymersomes to label green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing MSCs to determine whether MRI can accurately reflect survival, long-term fate, and potential mechanisms of MSCs in ischemic stroke therapy...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931948/abnormal-arterial-venous-fusions-and-fate-specification-in-mouse-embryos-lacking-blood-flow
#14
Jennifer J Hwa, Nathan Beckouche, Lawrence Huang, Yoseph Kram, Henrik Lindskog, Rong A Wang
The functions of blood flow in the morphogenesis of mammalian arteries and veins are not well understood. We examined the development of the dorsal aorta (DA) and the cardinal vein (CV) in Ncx1 (-/-) mutants, which lack blood flow due to a deficiency in a sodium calcium ion exchanger expressed specifically in the heart. The mutant DA and CV were abnormally connected. The endothelium of the Ncx1 (-/-) mutant DA lacked normal expression of the arterial markers ephrin-B2 and Connexin-40. Notch1 activation, known to promote arterial specification, was decreased in mutant DA endothelial cells (ECs), which ectopically expressed the venous marker Coup-TFII...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931747/the-cell-on-the-edge-of-life-and-death-crosstalk-between-autophagy-and-apoptosis
#15
Daniela Kasprowska-Liśkiewicz
Recently, the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis has attracted broader attention. Basal autophagy serves to maintain cell homeostasis, while the upregulation of this process is an element of stress response that enables the cell to survive under adverse conditions. Autophagy may also determine the fate of the cell through its interactions with cell death pathways. The protein networks that control the initiation and the execution phase of these two processes are highly interconnected. Several scenarios for the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis exist...
September 21, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931624/the-first-wave-of-t-lymphopoiesis-in-zebrafish-arises-from-aorta-endothelium-independent-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#16
Ye Tian, Jin Xu, Shachuan Feng, Sicong He, Shizheng Zhao, Lu Zhu, Wan Jin, Yimei Dai, Lingfei Luo, Jianan Y Qu, Zilong Wen
T lymphocytes are key cellular components of the adaptive immune system and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity in vertebrates. Despite their heterogeneities, it is believed that all different types of T lymphocytes are generated exclusively via the differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Using temporal-spatial resolved fate-mapping analysis and time-lapse imaging, here we show that the ventral endothelium in the zebrafish aorta-gonad-mesonephros and posterior blood island, the hematopoietic tissues previously known to generate HSCs and erythromyeloid progenitors, respectively, gives rise to a transient wave of T lymphopoiesis independent of HSCs...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931476/greenhouse-gas-and-ammonia-emissions-from-production-of-compost-bedding-on-a-dairy-farm
#17
M A Fillingham, A C VanderZaag, S Burtt, H Baldé, N M Ngwabie, W Smith, A Hakami, C Wagner-Riddle, S Bittman, D MacDonald
Recent developments in composting technology enable dairy farms to produce their own bedding from composted manure. This management practice alters the fate of carbon and nitrogen; however, there is little data available documenting how gaseous emissions are impacted. This study measured in-situ emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ammonia (NH3) from an on-farm solid-liquid separation system followed by continuously-turned plug-flow composting over three seasons. Emissions were measured separately from the continuously-turned compost phase, and the compost-storage phase prior to the compost being used for cattle bedding...
September 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931407/the-emerging-roles-of-phosphatases-in-hedgehog-pathway
#18
REVIEW
Long Zhao, Liguo Wang, Chunli Chi, Wenwen Lan, Ying Su
Hedgehog signaling is evolutionarily conserved and plays a pivotal role in cell fate determination, embryonic development, and tissue renewal. As aberrant Hedgehog signaling is tightly associated with a broad range of human diseases, its activities must be precisely controlled. It has been known that several core components of Hedgehog pathway undergo reversible phosphorylations mediated by protein kinases and phosphatases, which acts as an effective regulatory mechanism to modulate Hedgehog signal activities...
September 20, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931081/female-reproductive-success-and-calf-survival-in-a-north-sea-coastal-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-population
#19
Kevin P Robinson, Texa M C Sim, Ross M Culloch, Thomas S Bean, Isabel Cordoba Aguilar, Sonja M Eisfeld, Miranda Filan, Gary N Haskins, Genevieve Williams, Graham J Pierce
Between-female variation in reproductive output provides a strong measure of individual fitness and a quantifiable measure of the health of a population which may be highly informative to management. In the present study, we examined reproductive traits in female bottlenose dolphins from the east coast of Scotland using longitudinal sightings data collected over twenty years. From a total of 102 females identified between 1997 and 2016, 74 mothers produced a collective total of 193 calves. Females gave birth from 6 to 13 years of age with a mean age of 8...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931067/in-vivo-imaging-system-for-explants-analysis-a-new-approach-for-assessment-of-cell-transplantation-effects-in-large-animal-models
#20
Weronika Zarychta-Wiśniewska, Anna Burdzinska, Radosław Zagozdzon, Bartosz Dybowski, Marta Butrym, Zdzisław Gajewski, Leszek Paczek
INTRODUCTION: Despite spectacular progress in cellular transplantology, there are still many concerns about the fate of transplanted cells. More preclinical studies are needed, especially on large animal models, to bridge the translational gap between basic research and the clinic. Herein, we propose a novel approach in analysis of cell transplantation effects in large animals explants using in vivo imaging system (IVIS®) or similar equipment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the in vitro experiment cells labeled with fluorescent membrane dyes: DID (far red) or PKH26 (orange) were visualized with IVIS®...
2017: PloS One
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