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Daniele Conte, Nicholas Kolb, Aaron T Scanlan, Fabrizio Santolamazza
PURPOSE: this study aimed to characterize the weekly training load (TL) and well-being in college basketball players during the in-season phase. METHODS: Ten (6 guards and 4 forwards) male basketball players (age: 20.9 ± 0.9 years; stature: 195.0 ± 8.2 cm; body mass: 91.3 ± 11.3 kg) from the same Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association team were recruited to participate in this study. Individualized training and game loads were assessed using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) at the end of each training and game session, while well-being status was collected before each session...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Brandon McKinney, Christopher Gaunder, Ross Schumer
BACKGROUND Acute exertional compartment syndrome (AECS) is a rare cause of leg pain often associated with a delay in diagnosis and potentially leading to irreversible muscle and nerve damage. CASE REPORT We present the case of a previously healthy, high-level athlete who presented with the acute onset of unilateral anterior leg pain and foot drop the day after a strenuous workout. He was diagnosed with compartment syndrome and rhabdomyolysis. His management included emergent fluid resuscitation, fasciotomies, debridement of necrotic muscle from his anterior compartment, and delayed primary closure...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Rachel E Brinkman-Majewski, Windee M Weiss
CONTEXT: The motivational climate created by the athletic trainer in rehabilitation may be critical in influencing athletes' intrinsic motivation and other psychosocial outcomes in the rehabilitation and the recovery process. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine intercollegiate athletes' perceptions of the motivational climate in the rehabilitation setting. Specifically, examining if perceptions of the motivational climate can predict athletes' levels of intrinsic motivation with rehabilitation as well as the relationship between perceptions of the motivational climate and athlete demographics (gender, starter status, athletic trainer gender, etc)...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Simone Brand, Yao-Wen Wu
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes are powerful tools to monitor protein-protein interactions and enzyme activities in a spatiotemporal manner in live cells. Using a combination of noncanonical amino acid (ncAA) mutagenesis and bioorthogonal labeling, we have developed intramolecular FRET probes consisting of a fluorescent protein and an organic dye within an individual protein. Herein we present a general approach to establish intramolecular FRET probes for imaging of protein activity in live cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ivana Nikić-Spiegel
Super-resolution microscopy allows imaging of cellular structures at nanometer resolution. This comes with a demand for small labels which can be attached directly to the structures of interest. In the context of protein labeling, one way to achieve this is by using genetic code expansion (GCE) and click chemistry. With GCE, small labeling handles in the form of noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) are site-specifically introduced into a target protein. In a subsequent step, these amino acids can be directly labeled with small organic dyes by click chemistry reactions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xiang Li, Chang C Liu
Tyrosine sulfation is an important posttranslational modification found in bacteria and higher eukaryotes. However, the chemical synthesis or expression of homogenously sulfated proteins is particularly difficult, limiting our study and application of tyrosine-sulfated proteins. With the recent development of genomically recoded organisms and orthogonal translation components, we can often treat otherwise posttranslationally-modified amino acids as noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) encoded by an expanded genetic code...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ying Ma, Martino L Di Salvo, Nediljko Budisa
Common protocols for the incorporation of noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins require addition of the desired ncAA to the growth medium, its cellular uptake, and subsequent intracellular accumulation. This feeding scheme is generally suitable for small-scale proof-of-concept incorporation experiments. However, it is no general solution for orthogonal translation of ncAAs, as their chemical synthesis is generally tedious and expensive. Here, we describe a simple protocol that efficiently couples in situ semi-synthetic biosynthesis of L-azidohomoalanine and its incorporation into proteins at L-methionine (Met) positions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Moritz J Schmidt, Daniel Summerer
The directed evolution of orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) for the genetic encoding of noncanonical amino acids (ncAA) has paved the way for the site-specific incorporation of >170 functionally diverse ncAAs into proteins in a large number of organisms [1, 2]. Here, we describe the directed evolution of orthogonal pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) mutants with new amino acid selectivities from libraries using a two-step selection protocol based on chloramphenicol and barnase reporter systems...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Eiko Seki, Tatsuo Yanagisawa, Shigeyuki Yokoyama
Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) is an effective method for the site-specific incorporations of noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins. The nature of in vitro synthesis enables the use of experimental conditions that are toxic or reduce cellular uptake during in vivo site-specific incorporations of ncAAs. Using the Escherichia coli cell extract (S30) from the highly reproductive RF-1 deletion strains, B-60.∆A::Z and B-95.∆A, with orthogonal tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) pairs from Methanosarcina mazei, we have developed CFPS methods for the highly productive and efficient multiple incorporation of ncAAs...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ana Crnković, Oscar Vargas-Rodriguez, Anna Merkuryev, Dieter Söll
Synthesis of proteins with noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) enables the creation of protein-based biomaterials with diverse new chemical properties that may be attractive for material science. Current methods for large-scale production of ncAA-containing proteins, frequently carried out in Escherichia coli, involve the use of orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (o-aaRSs) and tRNAs (o-tRNAs). Although o-tRNAs are designed to be orthogonal to endogenous aaRSs, their orthogonality to the components of the E...
February 2, 2018: Bioengineering
Mark A Cairns, Eddie K Hasty, Mackenzie M Herzog, Robert F Ostrum, Zachary Y Kerr
BACKGROUND: The inherent risk of any time loss from physical injury in football has been extensively discussed, with many such injuries having a profound effect on the lives of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football players. However, the incidence of fractures in collegiate football has not been well established. PURPOSE: To examine the epidemiology of fractures in NCAA football. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Nicolas Canu, Pascal Belin, Robert Thai, Isabelle Correia, Olivier Lequin, Jérôme Seguin, Mireille Moutiez, Muriel Gondry
The manipulation of natural product biosynthetic pathways is a powerful means of expanding the chemical diversity of bioactive molecules. 2,5-diketopiperazines (2,5-DKPs) have been widely developed by medicinal chemists, but their biological production is yet to be exploited. We introduce here an in vivo method to incorporate non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into 2,5-DKPs using cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs), the enzymes responsible for scaffold assembly in many 2,5-DKP biosynthetic pathways. CDPSs use aminoacyl-tRNAs as substrates...
January 29, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Aaron D Heishman, Michael A Curtis, Ethan Saliba, Robert J Hornett, Steven K Malin, Arthur L Weltman
Few data exist that assess athlete tracking and monitoring for the development of strategies to optimize performance and reduce fatigue in elite athletes. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of external load and internal stress monitoring as assessment tools for examining a performance index of fatigue. A retrospective analysis was performed on data collected over the course of the pre-season in 10 elite male NCAA Division 1 basketball players. Internal stress was assessed using Omegawave Technology readiness scores and compared to the performance index of counter-movement jump (CMJ)...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Nicholas A Coker, Adam J Wells, Yftach Gepner
Measures of running performance (RP) and heart rate responses (HR) to matchplay during three different heat stress (HS) conditions were assessed in seven National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I male soccer players. Total distance (TD), as well as distance covered within distinct velocity zones [walking (WALK), jogging (JOG), low speed running (LSR), high-speed running (HSR), sprinting (SPRINT), low-intensity running (LIR), and high-intensity running (HIR)] were assessed using GPS units over 12 matches...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Avi D Goodman, Nicholas Lemme, Steven F DeFroda, Joseph A Gil, Brett D Owens
Background: Examination of the incidence of elbow dislocation and subluxation injuries in the collegiate athlete population is limited. Purpose: To determine the incidence of elbow dislocation and subluxation injuries in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and investigate the risk factors involved. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: All elbow subluxation and dislocation injuries from the 2009-2010 through 2013-2014 academic years in the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program database were extracted...
January 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
John R Harry, Leland A Barker, Roger James, Janet S Dufek
Harry, JR, Barker, LA, James, CR, and Dufek, JS. Performance differences among skilled soccer players of different playing positions during vertical jumping and landing. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 304-312, 2018-Both jumping and landing performance of skilled soccer players is diminished when task demands are increased. However, it is unclear if performance changes are specific to players of certain playing positions. Therefore, we assessed jumping and landing performance among skilled soccer players of different playing positions...
February 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Emil S Iqbal, Kara K Dods, Matthew C T Hartman
The ability to incorporate non-canonical amino acids (ncAA) using translation offers researchers the ability to extend the functionality of proteins and peptides for many applications including synthetic biology, biophysical and structural studies, and discovery of novel ligands. Here we describe the high promiscuity of an editing-deficient valine-tRNA synthetase (ValRS T222P). Using this enzyme, we demonstrate ribosomal translation of 11 ncAAs including those with novel side chains, α,α-disubstitutions, and cyclic β-amino acids...
January 25, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Caroline Lisee, Lindsay Slater, Jay Hertel, Joe M Hart
CONTEXT: Strength, functional performance and limb symmetry are common objective clinical assessments used by clinicians to guide safe return to physical activity following injury. Population-specific unilateral limb outcomes or estimates of limb symmetry of these assessments should be established. OBJECTIVE: To compare lower extremity strength, functional performance and limb symmetry in healthy participants based on sex and level of activity. DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study Setting: Laboratory Participants: 117 healthy participants (72 males/45 females, mass=73...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Adam Culiver, J Craig Garrison, Kalyssa M Creed, John E Conway, Shiho Goto, Sherry Werner
CONTEXT: Numerous studies have reported kinematic data on baseball pitchers using 3D motion analysis, but no studies to date have correlated this data with clinical outcome measures. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship among Y Balance Test-Lower Quarter (YBT-LQ) composite scores, musculoskeletal characteristics of the hip and pitching kinematics in NCAA Division I baseball pitchers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: 3D motion analysis laboratory...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Jeffrey G Williams, Hannah I Gard, Jeana M Gregory, Amy Gibson, Jennifer Austin
CONTEXT: Collegiate soccer players suffer hamstring injuries due to inflexibility and repetitive motions involving intense hamstring lengthening and contraction during sport. Although a popular intervention for muscular injury, there exists limited evidence of the effects of therapeutic cupping on hamstring flexibility. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of cupping therapy on hamstring flexibility in collegiate soccer players. DESIGN: Cohort design...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
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