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Zoe R Smith, Rosanna P Breaux, Cathrin D Green, Joshua M Langberg
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated which Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) factors (i.e., Slow, Sleepy, Daydreamer) are most strongly associated with homework motivation, and whether homework motivation mediates the path between SCT and academic impairment. METHOD: Participants were 285 middle school students (boys 209) in Grades 6 to 8 (ages 10-15 years) who were comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD. RESULTS: Parent- and self-report of SCT Slow behaviors predicted homework motivation above and beyond symptoms of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety, depression, and intelligence...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
I Hyun Ruisch, Jan K Buitelaar, Jeffrey C Glennon, Pieter J Hoekstra, Andrea Dietrich
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy factors have been implicated in offspring oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms. Literature still holds notable limitations, such as studying only a restricted set of pregnancy factors, use of screening questionnaires which assess broadly defined outcome measures, and lack of control for disruptive behavior comorbidity and genetic confounds. We aimed to address these gaps by prospectively studying a broad range of pregnancy factors in relation to both offspring ODD and CD symptomatology in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parent and Children...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Kim C M Bul, Lisa L Doove, Ingmar H A Franken, Saskia Van der Oord, Pamela M Kato, Athanasios Maras
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to identify which subgroups of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) benefitted the most from playing a Serious Game (SG) intervention shown in a randomized trial to improve behavioral outcomes. METHOD: Pre-intervention characteristics [i.e., gender, age, intellectual level of functioning, medication use, computer experience, ADHD subtype, severity of inattention problems, severity of hyperactivity/impulsivity problems, comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) symptoms] were explored as potential moderators in a Virtual Twins (VT) analysis to identify subgroups for whom the SG intervention was most effective...
2018: PloS One
Alex S Holdaway, Stephen P Becker
Although sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is associated with poorer peer functioning, no study has examined SCT in relation to student-teacher relationship quality. The current study examined whether SCT, as rated by both teachers and children, was uniquely associated with poorer student-teacher relationship quality above and beyond child demographics and other mental health symptoms (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder [ODD/CD], anxiety/depression)...
March 15, 2018: School Psychology Quarterly
Mami Miyasaka, Shogo Kajimura, Michio Nomura
Recent research has shown high rates of comorbidity between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and difficulties regarding differential diagnosis. Unlike those in Western countries, the Japanese ADHD prevalence rate is lower relative to that of ASD. This inconsistency could have occurred because of cultural diversities among professionals such as physicians. However, little is known about attitudes toward ADHD and ASD in non-Western cultural contexts. We conducted two experiments to identify biases in ASD and ADHD assessment...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Cliff McKinney, Melanie Stearns, Erica Szkody
The current study examined the indirect effect of maternal and paternal emotional and physical maltreatment on affective and behavioral symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) through parent-child relationship quality; gender and overall ODD symptoms were examined as moderators. Participants included 2,362 emerging adults who completed questionnaires about parental emotional and physical maltreatment, parent-child relationship quality, and affective and behavioral ODD symptoms. These characteristics were compared across parent and child gender (i...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Wei Liu, Yin Ting Cheung, Tara M Brinkman, Pia Banerjee, Deokumar Srivastava, Vikki G Nolan, Hongmei Zhang, James G Gurney, Ching-Hon Pui, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson, Kevin R Krull
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of emotional, behavioral and psychiatric outcomes in child and adolescent survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated on a chemotherapy-only protocol were not well defined. METHODS: Self- and parent-reported emotional and behavioral symptoms were assessed for 161 survivors of childhood ALL (51.0% female; mean [SD] age 12.1[2.6] years; 7.5[1.6] years post-diagnosis). Age- and sex-adjusted scores were calculated for standardized measures, and compared to 90th percentile of norms...
March 9, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Eoin McElroy, Mark Shevlin, Jamie Murphy, Orla McBride
The network approach suggests that psychopathology arises from complex associations between symptoms and may offer insight into the mechanisms that underpin psychiatric comorbidities. The transition from childhood to adolescence is a key period in the development of psychopathology, yet has rarely been considered from a network perspective. As such, the present study examined the network structure of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology from middle childhood through adolescence using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 4405)...
March 8, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Jillian Lee Wiggins, Margaret J Briggs-Gowan, Ryne Estabrook, Melissa A Brotman, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Lauren S Wakschlag
OBJECTIVE: Advances in developmentally sensitive measurement have enabled differentiation of normative versus clinically salient irritability in early childhood. However, clinical application of these measures is still nascent. The authors developed an optimized model of clinically salient irritable behaviors at preschool age. Based on this model, the authors derived an empirically based cutoff in relation to concurrent DSM-5 irritability-related disorders (i.e., oppositional defiant disorder, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, other depressive disorders) and used longitudinal models to test the predictive validity of the cutoff for impairment and irritability trajectories and later DSM disorders...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Jeroen Van Dessel, Sarah Morsink, Saskia Van der Oord, Jurgen Lemiere, Matthijs Moerkerke, Margaux Grandelis, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Marina Danckaerts
Impulsivity is a core feature of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It has been conceptualized in a number of different ways. In the current article, we examine how the new concept of "waiting impulsivity", which refers to premature responding before a scheduled target appears, adds to our understanding of impulsivity in ADHD. Sixty children (8-12 years old; 30 ADHD; 30 typically developing controls) completed the 4-choice serial reaction time task, a measure of waiting impulsivity, alongside tasks measuring inhibitory control and temporal discounting and questionnaires measuring behavioral disorder symptoms, delay aversion, and various aspects of impulsivity...
February 28, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
J Vugteveen, A De Bildt, C A Hartman, M E Timmerman
Knowledge on the validity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) among adolescents is limited but essential for the interpretation of SDQ scores preceding the diagnostic process. This study assessed the predictive and discriminative value of adolescent- and parent-rated SDQ scores for psychiatric disorders, diagnosed by professionals in outpatient community clinics, in a sample of 2753 Dutch adolescents aged 12-17. Per disorder, the predictive accuracy of the SDQ scale that is contentwise related to that particular disorder and the SDQ impact scale was assessed...
February 24, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Susanne Thümmler, Emmanuelle Dor, Renaud David, Graziella Leali, Michele Battista, Alexia David, Florence Askenazy, Céline Verstuyft
Background: Severe mental health disorders in children and adolescents represent a major public health problem. Despite adequate drug treatment, some patients develop pharmacoresistant disease. As a consequence, physicians are confronted with prescribing challenges, prolonged hospitalization and increased risk of adverse events, thus aggravating short-, medium-, and long-term prognosis. The majority of psychotropic treatments, particularly antipsychotics and antidepressants, are metabolized at hepatic level by cytochrome P450 (CYP), particularly by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Alexis M Garcia, Paulo A Graziano, Katie C Hart
This study examined the role of callous-unemotional (CU) traits in preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems (EBP) and their response to time-out (TO). One hundred ninety preschoolers (76% boys, Mage = 4.92) with at-risk/clinically elevated levels of EBP participated in an 8-week summer treatment program (STP-PreK). Total number of minutes spent daily in TO for intentional aggression (IA) and repeated non-compliance (RNC) were recorded during the initial (T1) and final (T2) phases of the STP-PreK. After accounting for severity of EBP and levels of TO at T1, higher levels of CU traits predicted greater total levels of TO at T2...
February 19, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Laura Duncan, Jinette Comeau, Li Wang, Irene Vitoroulis, Michael H Boyle, Kathryn Bennett
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of factors contributing to the observed variability in estimates of test-retest reliability in published studies on standardized diagnostic interviews (SDI) is needed. The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to estimate the pooled test-retest reliability for parent and youth assessments of seven common disorders, and to examine sources of between-study heterogeneity in reliability. METHODS: Following a systematic review of the literature, multilevel random effects meta-analyses were used to analyse 202 reliability estimates (Cohen's kappa = ҡ) from 31 eligible studies and 5,369 assessments of 3,344 children and youth...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Michael O Ogundele
Mental health problems in children and adolescents include several types of emotional and behavioural disorders, including disruptive, depression, anxiety and pervasive developmental (autism) disorders, characterized as either internalizing or externalizing problems. Disruptive behavioural problems such as temper tantrums, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional, defiant or conduct disorders are the commonest behavioural problems in preschool and school age children. The routine Paediatric clinic or Family Medicine/General Practitioner surgery presents with several desirable characteristics that make them ideal for providing effective mental health services to children and adolescents...
February 8, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Belén Sáez, Mateu Servera, Stephen P Becker, G Leonard Burns
A recent meta-analysis identified optimal items for assessing sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) as distinct from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention (ADHD-IN), and a preliminary study with teacher ratings of children in the United States found strong support for the convergent and discriminant validity of 15 SCT items. The current study evaluated whether the same 15 SCT items demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity from ADHD-IN in a large, community-based sample of children in Spain, and whether validity results were replicated across mother, father, and teacher ratings...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Maria Helander, John Lochman, Jens Högström, Brjánn Ljótsson, Clara Hellner, Pia Enebrink
For children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), Parent Management Training (PMT) is a recommended treatment in addition to child Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (child-CBT). There is however a lack of studies investigating the additive effect of group-based child-CBT to PMT for children between 8 and 12 years. The current study investigated the incremental effect of group-based child-CBT, based on the Coping Power Program, when added to the Swedish group-based PMT program KOMET. Outcomes were child behavior problems, child prosocial behavior, parenting skills and the moderating effect of child characteristics...
February 5, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Mollie Marr, Sarah M Horwitz, Ruth Gerson, Amy Storfer-Isser, Jennifer F Havens
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric mental health emergency department (ED) visits continue to rise with 19% to 62% of youth presenting to the ED ultimately returning for a mental health-related complaint. To better understand the needs of children returning to the ED, this study examines the clinical, demographic, and environmental factors associated with revisits to a dedicated child psychiatric ED. METHODS: Clinical factors, home environment, and mental health service utilization of 885 children presenting to a dedicated child psychiatric ED over a 1-year period were abstracted by retrospective chart review...
February 12, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Kathryn Bennett, Stephanie Duda, Melissa Brouwers, Peter Szatmari, Amanda Newton, John McLennan, Purnima Sundar, Kristin Cleverley, Alice Charach, Joanna Henderson, Darren Courtney, Maureen Rice
INTRODUCTION: The quality of clinical practice guidelines (PGs) has not been evaluated in child and youth mental health (CYMH). To address this gap, we will: (1) conduct a systematic review (SR) to answer the question 'among eligible PGs relevant to the prevention or treatment of CYMH conditions, which PGs meet criteria for minimum and high quality?'; (2) apply nominal group methods to create recommendations for how CYMH PG quality, completeness and usefulness can be strengthened. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: SR: Potentially eligible PGs will be identified in 12 databases using a reproducible search strategy developed by a research librarian...
February 6, 2018: BMJ Open
Esther Garreta, Teresa Jimeno, Mateu Servera
INTRODUCTION: Regarding the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), treatments combined with pharmacological, psychoeducational and parents training programs interventions are recommended. Parenting programs have been proven efficacy in the experimental area, but there is few data about their effectiveness and feasibility in the professional area. The objective of the study is to analyze the effectiveness of a parenting program implemented in a hospital setting to improve internalized and externalized behaviors as well as parenting styles in a sample of ADHD children...
January 2018: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
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