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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224243/discovery-of-a-novel-thermostable-zn2-dependent-alcohol-dehydrogenase-from-chloroflexus-aurantiacus-through-conserved-domains-mining
#1
Christoph Loderer, David Wagner, Frances Morgenstern, Antje Spieß, Marion B Ansorge-Schumacher
AIMS: The purpose of the study was to demonstrate feasibility of the Conserved Domains Database (CDD) for identification of novel biocatalysts with desirable properties from a class of well-characterized biocatalysts. METHODS AND RESULTS: The thermostable ADH from Sulfolobus solfataricus with a broad substrate range was applied as a template for the search for novel thermostable ADHs via Conserved Domains Database. From the resulting hits, a putative ADH gene from the thermophilic organism Chloroflexus aurantiacus was cloned and expressed in E...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224128/identification-of-a-new-begomovirus-infecting-duranta-repens-in-pakistan
#2
Sidra Anwar, Muhammad Tahir
Ornamental perennial plants may serve as reservoirs for viruses that infect field crops. Duranta repens is an ornamental shrub that frequently exhibits leaf curl symptoms typical of begomoviral infection. Two begomoviruses or DNA-A components (isolates 57SA and 58SA) along with a DNA-B component (31SA) were identified in a symptomatic D. repens plant. Isolates 57SA and 58SA showed the highest nucleotide sequence identity of 90% and 92.2% to catharanthus yellow mosaic virus (CaYMV) and chilli leaf curl India virus (ChiLCINV), respectively, whereas 31SA shared the highest nucleotide sequence identity of 95...
December 9, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223945/-heart-transplantation-in-an-hiv-infected-patient
#3
Pablo Mouras, Laura Barcán, César Belziti, Rodolfo Pizarro, Noelia Mañez, Ricardo Marenchino
Because of its own unfavourable evolution, HIV infection was until recently considered a contraindication for organ transplantation. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy prolonged the life expectancy of these patients and allowed the manifestation of disorders directly or indirectly related to HIV infection, mainly liver, kidney and cardiovascular diseases. We present a case of cardiac transplantation due to dilated cardiomyopathy that was performed in a patient with a recently detected HIV infection...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223923/plant-defenses-against-herbivory-closing-the-fitness-gap
#4
REVIEW
Matthias Erb
Many morphological and chemical features of plants are classified as plant defenses against herbivores. By definition, plant defenses should increase a plant's fitness (i.e., its contribution to the gene pool of the next generation) as a function of herbivory. Over the past years, substantial progress has been made in understanding and manipulating the mechanistic basis of many putative plant defense traits. However, most plant defenses are still characterized by proximate variables such as herbivore performance or plant damage rather than actual fitness...
December 6, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223907/analytical-indicators-to-characterize-particulate-organic-matter-pom-and-its-evolution-in-french-vertical-flow-constructed-wetlands-vfcws
#5
M Kania, M Gautier, Z Ni, E Bonjour, R Guégan, P Michel, P Jame, J Liu, R Gourdon
The design of French VFCWs leads to the formation of a sludge layer at the surface of the first filters due to the retention of suspended solids from the percolation of unsettled wastewater. This layer plays a major role in the system but still little is known on its characteristics and evolutions. In this study, suspended solids and sludge deposits sampled from two French VFCW plants were analyzed by different methods in the objective to assess the evolution of particulate organic matter (POM) along the treatment chain and within the sludge layer, and identify relevant analytical indicators of these phenomena...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223740/statistical-models-for-brain-signals-with-properties-that-evolve-across-trials
#6
REVIEW
Hernando Ombao, Mark Fiecas, Chee-Ming Ting, Yin Fen Low
Most neuroscience cognitive experiments involve repeated presentations of various stimuli across several minutes or a few hours. It has been observed that brain responses, even to the same stimulus, evolve over the course of the experiment. These changes in brain activation and connectivity are believed to be associated with learning and/or habituation. In this paper, we present two general approaches to modeling dynamic brain connectivity using electroencephalograms (EEGs) recorded across replicated trials in an experiment...
December 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223657/the-evolutionary-field-hypothesis-non-mendelian-transgenerational-inheritance-mediates-diversification-and-evolution
#7
REVIEW
Corrado Spadafora
Epigenetics is increasingly regarded as a potential contributing factor to evolution. Building on apparently unrelated results, here I propose that RNA-containing nanovesicles, predominantly small regulatory RNAs, are released from somatic tissues in the bloodstream, cross the Weismann barrier, reach the epididymis, and are eventually taken up by spermatozoa; henceforth the information is delivered to oocytes at fertilization. In the model, a LINE-1-encoded reverse transcriptase activity, present in spermatozoa and early embryos, plays a key role in amplifying and propagating these RNAs as extrachromosomal structures...
December 6, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223611/individuals-exhibit-consistent-differences-in-their-metabolic-rates-across-changing-thermal-conditions
#8
Sonya K Auer, Karine Salin, Graeme J Anderson, Neil B Metcalfe
Metabolic rate has been linked to growth, reproduction, and survival at the individual level and is thought to have far reaching consequences for the ecology and evolution of organisms. However, differences in metabolic rate among individuals must be consistent (i.e. repeatable) over at least some portion of their lifetime in order to predict their longer-term effects on population dynamics and how they will respond to selection. Previous studies demonstrate that metabolic rates are repeatable under constant conditions but potentially less so in more variable environments...
December 6, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223494/dental-functional-morphology-predicts-the-scaling-of-chewing-rate-in-mammals
#9
Indrė Žliobaitė, Mikael Fortelius
How food intake and mastication scale to satisfy the metabolic needs of mammals has been the subject of considerable scientific debate. Existing theory suggests that the negative allometric scaling of metabolic rate with body mass is compensated by a matching allometric scaling of the chewing rate. Why empirical studies have found that the scaling coefficients of the chewing rate seem to be systematically smaller than expected from theory remains unknown. Here we explain this imparity by decoupling the functional surface area of teeth from overall surface area...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223477/immuno-oncology-from-the-perspective-of-somatic-evolution
#10
REVIEW
Santiago González, Nadezda Volkova, Philip Beer, Moritz Gerstung
The past years have witnessed significant success for cancer immunotherapies that activate a patient's immune system against their cancer cells. At the same time our understanding of the genetic changes driving tumor evolution have progressed dramatically. The study of cancer genomes has shown that tumors are best understood as cell populations governed by the rules of evolution, leading to the emergence and spread of cell lineages with pathogenic mutations. Moreover, somatic evolution can explain the acquisition of mutations conferring drug resistance in the ever-lasting battle for reaching even fitter cell states...
December 6, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223465/biomedical-applications-of-genome-scale-metabolic-network-reconstructions-of-human-pathogens
#11
REVIEW
Laura J Dunphy, Jason A Papin
The growing global threat of antibiotic resistant human pathogens has coincided with improved methods for developing and using genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions. Consequently, there has been an increase in the number of high-quality reconstructions of relevant human and zoonotic pathogens. Novel biomedical applications of pathogen reconstructions focus on three key aspects of pathogen behavior: the evolution of antibiotic resistance, virulence factor production, and host-pathogen interactions. New methods using these reconstructions aim to improve understanding of microbe pathogenicity and guide the development of new therapeutic strategies...
December 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223462/social-identity-and-cooperation-in-cultural-evolution
#12
REVIEW
Paul E Smaldino
I discuss the function of social identity signaling in facilitating cooperative group formation, and how the nature of that function changes with the structure of social organization. I propose that signals of social identity facilitate assortment for successful coordination in large-scale societies, and that the multidimensional, context-dependent nature of social identity is crucial for successful coordination when individuals have to cooperate in different contexts. Furthermore, the structure of social identity is tied to the structure of society, so that as societies grow larger and more interconnected, the landscape of social identities grows more heterogeneous...
December 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223357/phylogenomic-detection-and-functional-prediction-of-genes-potentially-important-for-plant-meiosis
#13
Luoyan Zhang, Hongzhi Kong, Hong Ma, Ji Yang
Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division necessary for sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. A better understanding of the cytological procedures of meiosis has been achieved by comprehensive cytogenetic studies in plants, while the genetic mechanisms regulating meiotic progression remain incompletely understood. The increasing accumulation of complete genome sequences and large-scale gene expression datasets has provided a powerful resource for phylogenomic inference and unsupervised identification of genes involved in plant meiosis...
December 6, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223318/a-7-year-old-boy-with-preseptal-cellulitis-of-torpid-evolution
#14
Natalia Llanos Alonso, Cristina Epalza Ibarrondo, Octavio Carretero Vicario, Luis Manuel Prieto Tato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222942/microbial-communities-in-natural-rubber-coagula-during-maturation-impacts-on-technological-properties-of-dry-natural-rubber
#15
Mélanie Salomez, Maeva Subileau, Tatiana Vallaeys, Sylvain Santoni, Fréderic Bonfils, Jérôme Sainte-Beuve, Jutharat Intapun, Françoise Granet, Laurent Vaysse, Éric Dubreucq
AIM: To characterize microbial communities present in natural rubber coagula from Hevea brasiliensis latex during maturation and identify microbial taxa (bacteria and fungi) having an impact on dry natural rubber properties. METHODS AND RESULTS: Microbial community dynamics in natural rubber coagula maturated under controlled conditions were compared and related with the evolution of dry natural rubber properties. The pyrosequencing of 16S (119,837 effective reads) and 18S (131,879 effective reads) rRNA gene regions was performed on 21 samples covering different maturation times and two aeration conditions...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222836/biochemical-and-structural-insights-into-a-thermostable-cellobiohydrolase-from-myceliophthora-thermophila
#16
Marco Antonio Seiki Kadowaki, Paula Higasi, Mariana Ortiz de Godoy, Rolf A Prade, Igor Polikarpov
Cellobiohydrolases hydrolyze cellulose, a linear polymer with glucose monomers linked exclusively by β-1,4 glycosidic linkages. The widespread hydrogen bonding network tethers individual cellulose polymers forming crystalline cellulose, which prevent the access of hydrolytic enzymes and water molecules. The most abundant enzyme secreted by Myceliophthora thermophila M77 in response to the presence of biomass is the cellobiohydrolase MtCel7A, which is composed by a GH7-catalytic domain (CD), a linker and a CBM1-type carbohydrate binding module...
December 8, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222702/molecular-insights-into-the-non-recombining-nature-of-the-spinach-male-determining-region
#17
Tomohiro Kudoh, Mitsuhiko Takahashi, Takayuki Osabe, Atsushi Toyoda, Hideki Hirakawa, Yutaka Suzuki, Nobuko Ohmido, Yasuyuki Onodera
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is a dioecious plant with male heterogametic sex determination and homomorphic sex chromosomes (XY). The dioecism is utilized for producing commercial hybrid seeds, and hence understanding the molecular-genetic basis of the species' sex determining locus is an important issue for spinach breeding. In this study, seven dominant DNA markers were shown to completely co-segregate with the male-determining gene in segregating spinach populations comprising > 1500 plants. In addition, these seven dominant DNA markers were completely associated with the male-determining gene in over 100 spinach germplasm accessions and cultivars...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222700/perspectives-from-the-patient-and-the-healthcare-professional-in-multiple-sclerosis-social-media-and-participatory-medicine
#18
Daniel Kantor, Jeremy R Bright, Jeri Burtchell
When faced with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS), patients often turn to the Internet and social media to find support groups, read about the experiences of other people affected by MS and seek their advice, and research their condition and treatment options to discuss with their healthcare professionals (HCPs). Here, we examine the use of social media and the Internet among patients with MS, considering its impact on patient empowerment and patient participation in treatment decision-making and MS research...
December 8, 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222693/neuroblastoma-pathogenesis-deregulation-of-embryonic-neural-crest-development
#19
REVIEW
Julie A Tomolonis, Saurabh Agarwal, Jason M Shohet
Neuroblastoma (NB) is an aggressive pediatric cancer that originates from neural crest tissues of the sympathetic nervous system. NB is highly heterogeneous both from a clinical and a molecular perspective. Clinically, this cancer represents a wide range of phenotypes ranging from spontaneous regression of 4S disease to unremitting treatment-refractory progression and death of high-risk metastatic disease. At a cellular level, the heterogeneous behavior of NB likely arises from an arrest and deregulation of normal neural crest development...
December 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222689/long-term-quantitative-evaluation-of-muscle-and-bone-wasting-induced-by-botulinum-toxin-in-mice-using-microcomputed-tomography
#20
Hélène Libouban, Claude Guintard, Nicolas Minier, Eric Aguado, Daniel Chappard
Muscle and bone masses are highly correlated and muscles impose large loads on bone. Muscle wasting that accompanies bone loss has been poorly investigated. 21 female mice were spread into seven groups. At day 0, 18 mice received Botulinum toxin (BTX) injection in the quadriceps muscle to induce paralysis of the right hind limb; the left contralateral side was used as control. Mice were sacrificed at 7, 14, 21, 28, 56 and 90 days post-injection. A remaining group was sacrificed at day 0. Trabecular bone volume was determined by microcomputed tomography (microCT) at the distal femur and tibia proximal metaphyses on both sides...
December 8, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
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