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Flavia da Cunha Vasconcelos, Marcos Antonio Mauricio Scheiner, Arthur Moellman-Coelho, André Luiz Mencalha, Ilana Zalcberg Renault, Vivian Mary Rumjanek, Raquel Ciuvalschi Maia
Despite the favorable clinical evolution of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), resistance or intolerance to imatinib is present in approximately 35% of patients. Sokal score is a widely used risk factor, however efflux and influx transporters are provisional risk factors implicated in imatinib resistance. This study analyzed Sokal score, ABCB1, ABCG2 and OCT1 mRNA transporter expression levels as well as P-glycoprotein expression and efflux transporters activity to seek a possible correlation between these factors and the molecular response at 12 months from imatinib start as well as 8-year overall survival (OS)...
October 12, 2016: Leukemia Research
Dewei Zhao, Frank Witte, Faqiang Lu, Jiali Wang, Junlei Li, Ling Qin
As a new generation of medical metallic material, magnesium (Mg) and its alloys with or without surface coating have attracted a great deal of attention due to its biodegradability and potential for avoiding a removal operation after the implant has fulfilled its function for surgical fixation of injured musculoskeletal tissues. Although a few clinical cases on Mg-based orthopaedic implants were reported more than a century ago, it was not until recently that clinical trials using these implants with improved physicochemical properties were carried out in Germany, China and Korea for bone fracture fixation...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
M P Machado, I Matos, A R Grosso, M Schartl, M M Coelho
Sex determination is a highly variable process that utilizes many different mechanisms to initiate the cascade of differentiation processes. The molecular pathways controlling sexual development are less conserved than previously assumed, and appear to require active maintenance in some species; indeed, the developmental decision of gonad phenotype in gonochoristic species is not fixed at an early developmental stage. Much of the knowledge about sex determination mechanisms was derived from research on gonochoristic, non-seasonal breeders...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Paula Sosenski, Sergio Ramos-Castro, César A Domínguez, Karina Boege, Juan Fornoni
The evolution of monomorphisms from heterostylous ancestors has been related with the presence of homostyly and the loss of self-incompatibility allowing the occurrence of selfing, which could be advantageous under pollinator limitation. However, flowers of some monomorphic species show herkogamy, attraction and rewarding traits that presumably favour cross-pollination and/or a mixed mating system. This study evaluated the contributions of pollinators, breeding system and floral traits to the reproduction of Turnera velutina, a herkogamous monomorphic species...
October 22, 2016: Plant Biology
L Chasmer, C Hopkinson
This study demonstrates linkages between the 1997/98 El Niño/Southern Oscillation index and a threshold shift to increased permafrost loss within a southern Taiga Plains watershed, Northwest Territories, Canada. Three-dimensional contraction of permafrost plateaus and changes in vegetation structural characteristics are determined from multi-temporal airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) surveys in 2008, 2011 and 2015. Morphological changes in permafrost cover are compared with optical image analogues from 1970, 1977, 2000, and 2008 and time-series hydro-climate data...
October 22, 2016: Global Change Biology
Marta Marchetti, Camille Clerissi, Yasmine Yousfi, Carine Gris, Olivier Bouchez, Eduardo Rocha, Stéphane Cruveiller, Alain Jauneau, Delphine Capela, Catherine Masson-Boivin
Experimental evolution is a powerful approach to study the process of adaptation to new environments, including the colonization of eukaryotic hosts. Facultative endosymbionts, including pathogens and mutualists, face changing and spatially structured environments during the symbiotic process, which impose diverse selection pressures. Here we provide evidence that different selection regimes, involving different times spent in the plant environment, can result in either intra- or extracellular symbiotic adaptations...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Omar Navarro Leija, Sanju Varghese, Mira V Han
Evolutionary constraint for insertions and deletions (indels) is not necessarily equal to constraint for nucleotide substitutions for any given region of a genome. Knowing the variation in indel-specific evolutionary rates across the sequence will aid our understanding of evolutionary constraints on indels, and help us infer how indels have contributed to the evolution of the sequence. However, unlike for nucleotide substitutions, there has been no phylogenetic method that can statistically infer significantly different rates of indels across the sequence space independent of substitution rates...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Guillaume Martin, Lionel Roques
Various models describe asexual evolution by mutation, selection and drift. Some focus directly on fitness, typically modelling drift but ignoring or simplifying both epistasis and the distribution of mutation effects (travelling wave models). Others follow the dynamics of quantitative traits determining fitness (Fisher's geometrical model), imposing a complex but fixed form of mutation effects and epistasis, and often ignoring drift. In all cases, predictions are typically obtained in high or low mutation rate limits and for long-term stationary regimes, thus loosing information on transient behaviors and the effect of initial conditions...
October 21, 2016: Genetics
Daniel Nichol, Mark Robertson-Tessi, Peter Jeavons, Alexander R A Anderson
Non-genetic variation in phenotypes, or bet-hedging, has been observed as a driver of drug resistance in both bacterial infections and cancers. Here, we study how bet-hedging emerges in the genotype-phenotype mapping through a simple interaction model: a molecular switch. We use simple Chemical Reaction Networks to implement stochastic switches that map gene products to phenotypes and investigate the impact of structurally distinct mappings on the evolution of phenotypic heterogeneity. Bet-hedging naturally emerges within this model and is robust to evolutionary loss through mutations to both the expression of individual genes and to the network itself...
October 21, 2016: Genetics
Masayuki Onishi, John R Pringle
The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model organism that provides an opportunity to understand the evolution and functional biology of the lineage that includes the land plants, as well as aspects of the fundamental core biology conserved throughout the eukaryotic phylogeny. Although many tools are available to facilitate genetic, molecular biological, biochemical, and cell biological studies in Chlamydomonas, expression of unselected transgenes of interest (GOIs) has been challenging. In most methods used previously, the GOI and a selectable marker are expressed from two separate mRNAs, so that their concomitant expression is not guaranteed...
October 21, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
(no author information available yet)
Most pancreatic tumors display complex rearrangements linked to mitotic errors and chromothripsis.
October 21, 2016: Cancer Discovery
Pierre Charpentier, Frederic Mouriaux
We reported the case of a 43-year-old woman with a rapid progressive visual loss. The diagnosis of primary optic nerve sheath meningioma was made thanks to atypia evolution, clinical and radiological findings. The patient was treated with an intensity-modulated radiotherapy of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions 2 months after the diagnosis. Visual acuity and visual field were completely recovered after 2 years of follow-up. No late side effects of irradiation were recorded.
October 21, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Adam R Smith, Melissa R Proffitt, Winnie W Ho, Claire B Mullaney, Javier A Maldonado-Ocampo, Nathan R Lovejoy, José A Alves-Gomes, G Troy Smith
The electric communication signals of weakly electric ghost knifefishes (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae) provide a valuable model system for understanding the evolution and physiology of behavior. Apteronotids produce continuous wave-type electric organ discharges (EODs) that are used for electrolocation and communication. The frequency and waveform of EODs, as well as the structure of transient EOD modulations (chirps), vary substantially across species. Understanding how these signals have evolved, however, has been hampered by the lack of a well-supported phylogeny for this family...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Eduardo Galdón, Marta Casas, Manuel Gayango, Isidoro Caraballo
The deep understanding of products and processes has become a requirement for pharmaceutical industries to follow the Quality by Design principles promoted by the regulatory authorities. With this aim, SeDeM expert system was developed as a useful preformulation tool to predict the likelihood to process drugs and excipients through direct compression. SeDeM system is a step forward in the rational development of a formulation, allowing the normalisation of the rheological parameters and the identification of the weaknesses and strengths of a powder or a powder blend...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Nourridine Siewe, Abdul-Aziz Yakubu, Abhay R Satoskar, Avner Friedman
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the Leishmania parasites. The two common forms of leishmaniasis are cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). VL is the more severe of the two and, if untreated, may become fatal. The hallmark of VL is the formation of granuloma in the liver or the spleen. In this paper, we develop a mathematical model of the evolution of granuloma in the liver. The model is represented by a system of partial differential equations and it includes migration of cells from the adaptive immune system into the granuloma; the rate of the influx is determined by the strength of the immune response of the infected individual...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Kattina Zavala, Michael W Vandewege, Federico G Hoffmann, Juan C Opazo
The study of the evolutionary history of genes related to human disease lies at the interface of evolution and medicine. These studies provide the evolutionary context on which medical researchers should work, and are also useful in providing information to suggest further genetic experiments, especially in model species where genetic manipulations can be made. Here we studied the evolution of the β-adrenoreceptor gene family in vertebrates with the aim of adding an evolutionary framework to the already abundant physiological information...
October 18, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Denis Querleu, Jacques Meurette, Emile Daraï, Philippe Morice, François Planchamp
Surgery has evolved as a mainstay of the management of ovarian cancer since evidence of the major benefit of complete surgery, i.e. achieving complete resection of the disease without visible macroscopic residue in a comprehensively explored abdominal cavity, has been made available. This objective may be difficult to complete in case of advanced ovarian cancer, as it requires the use of advanced techniques of peritoneal and visceral surgery, in the setting of adapted perioperative care, generally in institutions where the caseload is sufficient to ensure an appropriate surgical experience, and where specifically trained surgeons are available...
October 18, 2016: Bulletin du Cancer
Ilaria Degano, Jacopo La Nasa, Elisa Ghelardi, Francesca Modugno, Maria Perla Colombini
Lipid binders have traditionally been determined in paintings by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the characteristic profiles and ratios of fatty acids . However, the presence of mixtures in contemporary and modern oil paints makes the GC/MS determination of fatty acids insufficient to fully characterize the lipid binding media. In this study we prove that triacylglycerol (TAG) profiling by high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, using ESI in positive and negative ionization modes is highly effective...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Diyendo Massilani, Silvia Guimaraes, Jean-Philip Brugal, E Andrew Bennett, Malgorzata Tokarska, Rose-Marie Arbogast, Gennady Baryshnikov, Gennady Boeskorov, Jean-Christophe Castel, Sergey Davydov, Stéphane Madelaine, Olivier Putelat, Natalia N Spasskaya, Hans-Peter Uerpmann, Thierry Grange, Eva-Maria Geigl
BACKGROUND: Climatic and environmental fluctuations as well as anthropogenic pressure have led to the extinction of much of Europe's megafauna. The European bison or wisent (Bison bonasus), one of the last wild European large mammals, narrowly escaped extinction at the onset of the 20th century owing to hunting and habitat fragmentation. Little is known, however, about its origin, evolutionary history and population dynamics during the Pleistocene. RESULTS: Through ancient DNA analysis we show that the emblematic European bison has experienced several waves of population expansion, contraction, and extinction during the last 50,000 years in Europe, culminating in a major reduction of genetic diversity during the Holocene...
October 21, 2016: BMC Biology
Allan M Showalter, Brian D Keppler, Xiao Liu, Jens Lichtenberg, Lonnie R Welch
BACKGROUND: Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) constitute a plant cell wall protein superfamily that functions in diverse aspects of growth and development. This superfamily contains three members: the highly glycosylated arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs), the moderately glycosylated extensins (EXTs), and the lightly glycosylated proline-rich proteins (PRPs). Chimeric and hybrid HRGPs, however, also exist. A bioinformatics approach is employed here to identify and classify AGPs, EXTs, PRPs, chimeric HRGPs, and hybrid HRGPs from the proteins predicted by the completed genome sequence of poplar (Populus trichocarpa)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
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