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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545255/frozen-accident-pushing-50-stereochemistry-expansion-and-chance-in-the-evolution-of-the-genetic-code
#1
Eugene V Koonin
Nearly 50 years ago, Francis Crick propounded the frozen accident scenario for the evolution of the genetic code along with the hypothesis that the early translation system consisted primarily of RNA. Under the frozen accident perspective, the code is universal among modern life forms because any change in codon assignment would be highly deleterious. The frozen accident can be considered the default theory of code evolution because it does not imply any specific interactions between amino acids and the cognate codons or anticodons, or any particular properties of the code...
May 23, 2017: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545218/temporal-variability-in-taxonomic-and-trait-compositions-of-invertebrate-assemblages-in-two-climatic-regions-with-contrasting-flow-regimes
#2
Sylvain Dolédec, Jessica Tilbian, Núria Bonada
CONTEXT: Understanding natural temporal changes in Mediterranean rivers with contrasting flow regimes in relation to those of temperate rivers may prove helpful in predicting effects of climate change on aquatic biodiversity. GOAL: We aimed to compare temporal variability in taxonomic and trait compositions of nearly natural rivers in two climatic regions with varying flow regimes to address the effects of future climate changes on aquatic biodiversity in reference conditions...
May 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545207/quality-and-reactivity-of-dissolved-organic-matter-in-a-mediterranean-river-across-hydrological-and-spatial-gradients
#3
Elisabet Ejarque, Anna Freixa, Eusebi Vazquez, Alba Guarch, Stefano Amalfitano, Stefano Fazi, Anna M Romaní, Andrea Butturini
Understanding DOM transport and reactivity in rivers is essential to having a complete picture of the global carbon cycle. In this study, we explore the effects of hydrological variability and downstream transport on dissolved organic matter (DOM) dynamics in a Mediterranean river. We sampled the main stem of the river Tordera from the source to the sea, over a range of fifteen hydrological conditions including extreme events (flood and drought). By exploring spatial and temporal gradients of DOM fluorescence properties, river hydrology was found to be a significant predictor of DOM spatial heterogeneity...
May 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545149/persistence-of-lineage-iv-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus-within-israel-since-1993-an-evolutionary-perspective
#4
Brian Clarke, Mana Mahapatra, Orly Friedgut, Velizar Bumbarov, Satya Parida
Peste-des-petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the most important infectious diseases of domesticated small ruminants. From the initial identification in 1942 in West Africa, PPR virus (PPRV) has spread throughout much of the developing world. PPRV is now considered endemic throughout Africa, with the notable exception of South Africa, the Middle-East and Israel, as well as South-, East-, and Central Asia. Despite this widespread dispersal, the evolution and transmission of PPRV in endemic populations is not well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545148/mitochondrial-genome-evolution-in-alismatales-size-reduction-and-extensive-loss-of-ribosomal-protein-genes
#5
Gitte Petersen, Argelia Cuenca, Athanasios Zervas, Gregory T Ross, Sean W Graham, Craig F Barrett, Jerrold I Davis, Ole Seberg
The order Alismatales is a hotspot for evolution of plant mitochondrial genomes characterized by remarkable differences in genome size, substitution rates, RNA editing, retrotranscription, gene loss and intron loss. Here we have sequenced the complete mitogenomes of Zostera marina and Stratiotes aloides, which together with previously sequenced mitogenomes from Butomus and Spirodela, provide new evolutionary evidence of genome size reduction, gene loss and transfer to the nucleus. The Zostera mitogenome includes a large portion of DNA transferred from the plastome, yet it is the smallest known mitogenome from a non-parasitic plant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545147/chromosome-divergence-during-evolution-of-the-tetraploid-clawed-frogs-xenopus-mellotropicalis-and-xenopus-epitropicalis-as-revealed-by-zoo-fish
#6
Martin Knytl, Ondřej Smolík, Svatava Kubíčková, Tereza Tlapáková, Ben J Evans, Vladimír Krylov
Whole genome duplication (WGD) generates new species and genomic redundancy. In African clawed frogs of the genus Xenopus, this phenomenon has been especially important in that (i) all but one extant species are polyploid and (ii) whole genome sequences of some species provide an evidence for genomic rearrangements prior to or after WGD. Within Xenopus in the subgenus Silurana, at least one allotetraploidization event gave rise to three extant tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) species-Xenopus mellotropicalis, X. epitropicalis, and X...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545140/the-role-of-the-zinc-finger-protein-zc3h32-in-bloodstream-form-trypanosoma-brucei
#7
Cornelia Klein, Monica Terrao, Christine Clayton
Kinetoplastids rely heavily on post-transcriptional mechanisms for control of gene expression, with regulation of mRNA processing, translation and degradation by RNA-binding proteins. ZC3H32 is a cytosolic mRNA-binding protein with three non-canonical CCCH zinc finger domains. It is much more abundant in bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucei than in procyclic forms. Tethering of ZC3H32 to a reporter mRNA suppressed translation and resulted in mRNA degradation, and deletion analysis suggested that this activity was present in both the N- and C-terminal domains, but not the central zinc finger-containing domain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545123/predictability-of-arousal-in-mouse-slow-wave-sleep-by-accelerometer-data
#8
Gustavo Zampier Dos Santos Lima, Sergio Roberto Lopes, Thiago Lima Prado, Bruno Lobao-Soares, George C do Nascimento, John Fontenele-Araujo, Gilberto Corso
Arousals can be roughly characterized by punctual intrusions of wakefulness into sleep. In a standard perspective, using human electroencephalography (EEG) data, arousals are associated to slow-wave rhythms and K-complex brain activity. The physiological mechanisms that give rise to arousals during sleep are not yet fully understood. Moreover, subtle body movement patterns, which may characterize arousals both in human and in animals, are usually not detectable by eye perception and are not in general present in sleep studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545115/network-architecture-associated-with-the-highly-specialized-hindlimb-of-frogs
#9
Daniel Andrés Dos Santos, Jéssica Fratani, María Laura Ponssa, Virginia Abdala
Network analyses have been increasingly used in the context of comparative vertebrate morphology. The structural units of the vertebrate body are treated as discrete elements (nodes) of a network, whose interactions at their physical contacts (links) determine the phenotypic modules. Here, we use the network approach to study the organization of the locomotor system underlying the hindlimb of frogs. Nodes correspond to fibrous knots, skeletal and muscular units. Edges encode the ligamentous and monoaxial tendinous connections in addition to joints...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545003/adaptation-specialization-and-coevolution-within-phytobiomes
#10
REVIEW
David A Baltrus
Growth patterns of individual plants and evolutionary trajectories of plant communities are intimately linked with and are critically affected by host-associated microbiomes. Research across systems has begun to shed light on how these phytobiomes are established under laboratory and natural conditions, and have cultivated hope that a better understanding of the governing principles for host-microbe interactions can guide attempts to engineer microbiomes to boost agricultural yields. One important, yet relatively understudied, parameter in regards to phytobiome membership is the degree to which specialization and coevolution between plant species and microbes provides structure to these communities...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544996/temperate-bacteriophages-as-regulators-of-host-behavior
#11
REVIEW
Tal Argov, Gil Azulay, Anna Pasechnek, Olga Stadnyuk, Shai Ran-Sapir, Ilya Borovok, Nadejda Sigal, Anat A Herskovits
Bacteriophages are ubiquitous and affect most facets of life, from evolution of bacteria, through ecology and global biochemical cycling to human health. The interactions between phages and bacteria often lead to biological novelty and an important milestone in this process is the ability of phages to regulate their host's behavior. In this review article, we will focus on newly reported cases that demonstrate how temperate phages regulate bacterial gene expression and behavior in a variety of bacterial species, pathogenic and environmental...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544882/inference-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-genome-scale-regulatory-networks-in-large-phylogenies
#12
Christopher Koch, Jay Konieczka, Toni Delorey, Ana Lyons, Amanda Socha, Kathleen Davis, Sara A Knaack, Dawn Thompson, Erin K O'Shea, Aviv Regev, Sushmita Roy
Changes in transcriptional regulatory networks can significantly contribute to species evolution and adaptation. However, identification of genome-scale regulatory networks is an open challenge, especially in non-model organisms. Here, we introduce multi-species regulatory network learning (MRTLE), a computational approach that uses phylogenetic structure, sequence-specific motifs, and transcriptomic data, to infer the regulatory networks in different species. Using simulated data from known networks and transcriptomic data from six divergent yeasts, we demonstrate that MRTLE predicts networks with greater accuracy than existing methods because it incorporates phylogenetic information...
May 24, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544877/what-is-the-role-of-circuit-design-in-the-advancement-of-synthetic-biology-part-2
#13
(no author information available yet)
Embracing the constraints and principles of variation, environment, evolution, and ecology.
May 24, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544876/principles-of-systems-biology-no-17
#14
(no author information available yet)
This month: understanding spatial arrangements (Süel/Laue/Schweisguth/de Lorenzo), a giant virus sheds light on evolution (Koonin), synthetic systems (Comtet, Wang, Pósfai), and omics tools (Siuzdak, Kim).
May 24, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544862/narcissistic-force-meets-systemic-resistance-the-energy-clash-model
#15
Constantine Sedikides, W Keith Campbell
This article focuses on the interplay between narcissistic leaders and organizations. It attempts to capture the gist of this interplay with a model outlining the narcissistic organizational trajectory. The Energy Clash Model borrows and adapts a phase/state physics metaphor to conceptualize narcissism as a force that enters or emerges in a stable system (i.e., organization) as a leader, destabilizes it, and stabilizes it at a different state or is expelled. The model consists of three time-contingent phases: perturbation, conflict, and resolution...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544849/co-catalytic-effects-of-cos2-on-activity-of-mos2-catalyst-for-electrochemical-hydrogen-evolution
#16
Ranjith Bose, Zhenyu Jin, Seokhee Shin, Sungjoon Kim, Sun Young Lee, Yo-Sep Min
MoS2 is a promising material to replace Pt catalyst for electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). It is well known that the activity of the MoS2 catalyst in the HER is significantly promoted by doping cobalt atoms. Recently, the Co-Mo-S phase, in which cobalt atoms decorate the edge positions of the MoS2 slabs, has been identified as a co-catalytic phase in the Co-doped MoS2 (Co-MoSx) with a low Co content. Here, we report the effect of the incorporation of cobalt atoms on the chemical state of Co-MoSx catalyst which gives rise to the co-catalytic effect...
May 25, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544760/a-novel-pattern-of-yolk-processing-in-developing-snake-eggs-colubridae-lampropeltini-and-its-functional-and-evolutionary-implications
#17
Kathryn G Powers, Daniel G Blackburn
Early amniotic vertebrates evolved large-yolked eggs that permitted production of well-developed, terrestrial hatchlings. This reproductive pattern required new mechanisms for cellularizing the yolk and mobilizing it for embryonic use. In birds, cells that line the yolk sac cavity phagocytose and digest the yolk material, a pattern that is commonly assumed to be universal among oviparous amniotes. However, recent evidence challenges the assumption that all squamate reptiles conform to the avian developmental pattern...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544727/ultraviolet-radiation-accelerates-nras-mutant-melanomagenesis-a-cooperative-effect-blocked-by-sunscreen
#18
Rebecca C Hennessey, Andrea M Holderbaum, Anamaria Bonilla, Conor Delaney, James E Gillahan, Kathleen L Tober, Tatiana M Oberyszyn, Jonathan H Zippin, Christin E Burd
To mitigate melanoma risk, sunscreen use is widely advocated; yet, the ability of sunscreens to prevent melanoma remains controversial. Here, we test the tenet that sunscreens limit melanoma risk by blocking ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced DNA damage using murine models that recapitulate the genetics and spontaneous evolution of human melanoma. We find that a single, non-erythematous dose of UV dramatically accelerates melanoma onset and increases tumor multiplicity in mice carrying an endogenous, melanocyte-specific NRas(61R) allele...
May 24, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544664/to-reproduce-or-work-insect-castes-emerge-from-socially-induced-changes-in-nutrition-related-genes
#19
Amy L Toth
In social species, there is a fundamental trade-off between 'me' and 'we'; that is, should I reproduce, or should I work to help others to reproduce? In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Okada et al. () delve into the evolution and genetic mechanisms of this core question, focusing on social caste formation in insects. The authors take advantage of a unique ant in the genus Diacamma, which has secondarily lost the classic, highly different queens and workers found in many other ants, bees and wasps. Instead, Diacamma ant castes are decided via aggressive dominance interactions among adult females, similar to dominance hierarchies seen in primitively social insects and many social vertebrates...
June 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544663/from-song-dialects-to-speciation-in-white-crowned-sparrows
#20
David P L Toews
The behavioural signals used in mate selection are a key component in the evolution of premating isolating barriers and, subsequently, the formation of new species. The importance of mating signals has a long tradition of study in songbirds, where many species differ in their song characteristics. In oscine songbirds, individual birds usually learn their songs from a tutor. Mistakes during learning can help generate geographic dialects, akin to those within human language groups. In songbirds, dialect differences can often be substantial and there is an intuitive connection between the evolution of song amongst populations at a small scale, and the more substantive song differences between bird species and presumably used in species recognition...
June 2017: Molecular Ecology
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