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Gisele Alborghetti Nai, Andressa Bazan, Caroline Andrade Rocha, Juliana Souza Nagy, Isadora Tanaka Campos
Melanomas of the female genital tract may occur in the vulva, the vagina, the ovary or the cervix. Pregnancy has been considered an aggravating factor in the evolution and prognosis of melanoma. A 35-year-old female presented with vaginal bleeding 2 months after a term cesarean delivery. An endovaginal ultrasound revealed a lesion in the uterine cervix. The pathological report revealed a small round-cell neoplasm, and the immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. A positron emission tomography revealed an expansive hypermetabolic lesion centered on the cervix, and hypermetabolic lesions in the liver and right kidney...
February 23, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Xiaohu Hao, Guijun Zhang, Xiaogen Zhou
Computing conformations which are essential to associate structural and functional information with gene sequences, is challenging due to the high dimensionality and rugged energy surface of the protein conformational space. Consequently, the dimension of the protein conformational space should be reduced to a proper level, and an effective exploring algorithm should be proposed. In this paper, a plug-in method for guiding exploration in conformational feature space with Lipschitz underestimation (LUE) for ab-initio protein structure prediction is proposed...
February 6, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Muhammad AlMatter, Marta Aguilar Péreza, Pervinder Bhogal, Victoria Hellstern, Oliver Ganslandt, Hans Henkes
OBJECTIVES: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is associated with high rates of morbidities and fatalities. The continuous evolution of neurosurgical, endovascular and neuro-intensive cares has improved the overall mortality. In this study we sought to evaluate the clinical outcome after aSAH from a single tertiary center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified and reviewed all consecutive patients with aSAH treated at our center between 2007 and 2016...
February 13, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Paul McVeigh, Erin McCammick, Paul McCusker, Duncan Wells, Jane Hodgkinson, Steve Paterson, Angela Mousley, Nikki J Marks, Aaron G Maule
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are established drug targets. Despite their considerable appeal as targets for next-generation anthelmintics, poor understanding of their diversity and function in parasitic helminths has thwarted progress towards GPCR-targeted anti-parasite drugs. This study facilitates GPCR research in the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, by generating the first profile of GPCRs from the F. hepatica genome. Our dataset describes 147 high confidence GPCRs, representing the largest cohort of GPCRs, and the largest set of in silico ligand-receptor predictions, yet reported in any parasitic helminth...
February 5, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Neelagandan Kamariah, Birgit Eisenhaber, Frank Eisenhaber, Gerhard Grüber
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) catalyse the rapid reduction of hydrogen peroxide, organic hydroperoxide and peroxynitrite, using a fully conserved peroxidatic cysteine (CP ) located in a conserved sequence Pxxx(T/S)xxCP motif known as CP -loop. In addition, Prxs are involved in cellular signaling pathways and regulate several redox-dependent process related disease. The effective catalysis of Prxs is associated with alterations in the CP -loop between reduced, Fully Folded (FF), and oxidized, Locally Unfolded (LU) conformations, which are linked to dramatic changes in the oligomeric structure...
February 20, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Nicolas Loeuille, Céline Hauzy
Plant defenses are very diverse and often involve contrasted costs and benefits. Quantitative defenses, whose protective effect is dependent on the dose, are effective against a wide range of herbivores, but often divert energy from growth and reproduction. Qualitative defenses often have little allocation costs. However, while deterrent to some herbivores, they often incur costs through other interactions within the community (eg, decrease in pollination or attraction of other enemies). In the present work, we model the evolutionary dynamics of these two types of defenses, as well and the evolutionary dynamics of the herbivore niche...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Shawna L Rowe, Jeffrey S Norman, Maren Friesen
Plants and microbes are dependent on chemical signals as a means of inter-kingdom communication. There are two predicted paths for the evolution of these signals. Ritualization, the evolution of signals from cues, is the oft-assumed pathway for the evolution of plant-microbe communication systems. However, plant-microbe signaling may evolve from coercive interactions as well, a process known as sensory manipulation. Here, we aim to highlight the prevalence of coercive interactions and discuss sensory manipulation in the context of plant-microbe interactions...
February 23, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Aleksi Sipola, Pekka Marttinen, Jukka Corander
Summary: The advent of genomic data from densely sampled bacterial populations has created a need for flexible simulators by which models and hypotheses can be efficiently investigated in the light of empirical observations. Bacmeta provides fast stochastic simulation of neutral evolution within a large collection of interconnected bacterial populations with completely adjustable connectivity network. Stochastic events of mutations, recombinations, insertions/deletions, migrations and microepidemics can be simulated in discrete non-overlapping generations with a Wright-Fisher model that operates on explicit sequence data of any desired genome length...
February 20, 2018: Bioinformatics
Florian Rümpler, Günter Theißen, Rainer Melzer
The development of angiosperm flowers is regulated by homeotic MIKC-type MADS-domain transcription factors that activate or repress target genes via the formation of DNA-bound, organ specific tetrameric complexes. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) capabilities differ considerably between different MIKC-type proteins. The floral homeotic protein SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) acts as a hub that incorporates numerous other MADS-domain proteins into tetrameric complexes that would otherwise not form. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie these promiscuous interactions remain largely unknown...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Haiyang Hu, Jian-Mei Liu, Zhenyu Hu, Xi Jiang, Xiaode Yang, Jiangxia Li, Yao Zhang, Haijing Yu, Philipp Khaitovich
MicroRNA (miRNA) sponges are vital components of posttranscriptional gene regulation. Yet, only a limited number of miRNA sponges have been identified. Here, we show that the recently evolved non-coding tumor suppressor transcript, antisense RNA to TP73 gene (TP73-AS1), functions as a natural sponge of human-specific miRNA miR-941. We find unusually nine high-affinity miR-941 binding sites clustering within 1kb region on TP73-AS1, which forms miR-941 sponge region. This sponge region displays increased sequence constraint only in humans, and its formation can be traced to the tandem expansion of a 71-nt-long sequence containing a single miR-941 binding site in old world monkeys...
February 20, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Fumihiro Kano, Stephen V Shepherd, Satoshi Hirata, Josep Call
When viewing social scenes, humans and nonhuman primates focus on particular features, such as the models' eyes, mouth, and action targets. Previous studies reported that such viewing patterns vary significantly across individuals in humans, and also across closely-related primate species. However, the nature of these individual and species differences remains unclear, particularly among nonhuman primates. In large samples of human and nonhuman primates, we examined species differences and the effects of experience on patterns of gaze toward social movies...
2018: PloS One
Srayan Datta, Eytan Adar
In many scientific disciplines, each new 'product' of research (method, finding, artifact, etc.) is often built upon previous findings-leading to extension and branching of scientific concepts over time. We aim to understand the evolution of scientific concepts by placing them in phylogenetic hierarchies where scientific keyphrases from a large, longitudinal academic corpora are used as a proxy of scientific concepts. These hierarchies exhibit various important properties, including power-law degree distribution, power-law component size distribution, existence of a giant component and less probability of extending an older concept...
2018: PloS One
Christian S Scheer, Sven-Olaf Kuhn, Sebastian Rehberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Critical Care Medicine
A Pal, W Prellier, P Murugavel
The evolution of various spin structures in Yb doped GdMnO3 distorted orthorhombic perovskite system was investigated from their magnetic, dielectric and magnetodielectric characteristics. The Gd1-x Ybx MnO3 (0  ⩽  x  ⩽  0.15) revealed an enhanced magnetodielectric coupling when their magnetic structure is guided from ab to the bc-cycloidal spin structure upon Yb doping. The compounds exhibit magnetic field and temperature controlled spin-flop from c to a-axis. Additionally, magnetodielectric reversal is observed for the x  =  0...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Samantha J Van Nest, Leah M Nicholson, Lindsay DeVorkin, Alexandre G Brolo, Julian J Lum, Andrew Jirasek
Radiation therapy plays a crucial role in the management of breast cancer. However, current standards of care have yet to accommodate patient-specific radiation sensitivity. Raman spectroscopy is promising for applications in radiobiological studies and as a technique for personalized radiation oncology, since it can detect spectral changes in irradiated tissues. In this study, we used established Raman spectroscopic approaches to investigate the biochemical nature and temporal evolution of spectral changes in human breast adenocarcinoma xenografts after in vivo irradiation...
February 23, 2018: Radiation Research
Anne Pihl Bali, Hans Jasper Genee, Morten Sommer
Understanding and engineering solute transporters is important for metabolic engineering and the development of therapeutics. However, limited available experimental data on membrane transporters makes sequence-function relationships complex to predict. Here we apply a ligand-responsive biosensor systems that enable selective growth of E. coli cells only if they functionally express an importer that is specific to the biosensor ligand. Using this system in a directed evolution framework, we successfully engineer the specificity of nicotinamide riboside transporters, PnuC, to accept thiamine as a substrate...
February 23, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Elisa E Greciano, Beatriz Matarranz, Luis- Sanchez
The self-assembly of a series of N-annulated perylenes are investigated. Compound 1, endowed with inner amides, shows a pathway complexity in which the inactivated monomeric species, stored as an off-pathway aggregate, kinetically switch into on-pathway, helical structures. This out-of-equilibrium process can be accelerated by the addition of seeds. The outer amides in 2 also affords kinetically trapped monomers that evolve to form superhelical structures. The fast evolution of the monomeric species and the high stability of the final interdigitated supramolecular entities impede performing a seeded supramolecular polymerization...
February 23, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Joseph T Wade, David C Grainger
The histone-like nucleoid structuring (H-NS) protein and its analogues bind large stretches of horizontally acquired AT-rich DNA in a broad range of bacterial species. Binding by H-NS silences the promoters within such DNA that would otherwise deplete the cellular pool of RNA polymerase. Selective de-repression can occur when sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins locally disrupt H-NS function; this mechanism is important for the regulation of many virulence genes. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Rangarajan and Schnetz show that when transcription from a neighbouring region invades an H-NS-bound locus, it can disrupt local H-NS repression...
February 23, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Rafael Kretschmer, Thays Duarte de Oliveira, Ivanete de Oliveira Furo, Fabio Augusto Oliveira Silva, Ricardo José Gunski, Analía Del Valle Garnero, Marcelo de Bello Cioffi, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa de Oliveira, Thales Renato Ochotorena de Freitas
An extensive karyotype variation is found among species belonging to the Columbidae family of birds (Columbiformes), both in diploid number and chromosomal morphology. Although clusters of repetitive DNA sequences play an important role in chromosomal instability, and therefore in chromosomal rearrangements, little is known about their distribution and amount in avian genomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of 11 distinct microsatellite sequences, as well as clusters of 18S rDNA, in nine different Columbidae species, correlating their distribution with the occurrence of chromosomal rearrangements...
February 19, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Francisco Solano
The production of pigment in mammalian melanocytes requires the contribution of at least three melanogenic enzymes, tyrosinase and two other accessory enzymes called the tyrosinase-related proteins (Trp1 and Trp2), which regulate the type and amount of melanin. The last two proteins are paralogues to tyrosinase, and they appeared late in evolution by triplication of the tyrosinase gene. Tyrosinase is a copper-enzyme, and Trp2 is a zinc-enzyme. Trp1 has been more elusive, and the direct identification of its metal cofactor has never been achieved...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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