keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Spiegelman

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930628/estimation-and-inference-for-the-mediation-proportion
#1
Daniel Nevo, Xiaomei Liao, Donna Spiegelman
In epidemiology, public health and social science, mediation analysis is often undertaken to investigate the extent to which the effect of a risk factor on an outcome of interest is mediated by other covariates. A pivotal quantity of interest in such an analysis is the mediation proportion. A common method for estimating it, termed the "difference method", compares estimates from models with and without the hypothesized mediator. However, rigorous methodology for estimation and statistical inference for this quantity has not previously been available...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910845/the-association-between-fetal-fibronectin-cervical-length-and-amniotic-fluid-sludge-with-histological-indicators-of-placental-inflammation-in-twin-gestations
#2
Aboluwade Ayodele, Nathan S Fox, Simi Gupta, Jessica Spiegelman, Daniel H Saltzman, Whitney Booker, Andrei Rebarber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872273/identification-of-misdiagnosed-hiv-clients-in-an-early-access-to-art-for-all-implementation-study-in-swaziland
#3
Shaukat Khan, Emma Mafara, Munyaradzi Pasipamire, Donna Spiegelman, Sikhathele Mazibuko, Nombuso Ntshalintshali, Anita Hettema, Charlotte Lejeune, Fiona Walsh, Velephi Okello
INTRODUCTION: Rapid diagnostic testing has made HIV diagnosis and subsequent treatment more accessible. However, multiple factors, including improper implementation of testing strategies and clerical errors, have been reported to lead to HIV misdiagnosis. The World Health Organization has recommended HIV retesting prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation which has become pertinent with scaling up of Early Access to ART for All (EAAA). In this analysis, misdiagnosed clients are identified from a subgroup of clients enrolled in EAAA implementation study in Swaziland...
August 29, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852538/forensic-bitemark-identification-weak-foundations-exaggerated-claims
#4
Michael J Saks, Thomas Albright, Thomas L Bohan, Barbara E Bierer, C Michael Bowers, Mary A Bush, Peter J Bush, Arturo Casadevall, Simon A Cole, M Bonner Denton, Shari Seidman Diamond, Rachel Dioso-Villa, Jules Epstein, David Faigman, Lisa Faigman, Stephen E Fienberg, Brandon L Garrett, Paul C Giannelli, Henry T Greely, Edward Imwinkelried, Allan Jamieson, Karen Kafadar, Jerome P Kassirer, Jonathan 'Jay' Koehler, David Korn, Jennifer Mnookin, Alan B Morrison, Erin Murphy, Nizam Peerwani, Joseph L Peterson, D Michael Risinger, George F Sensabaugh, Clifford Spiegelman, Hal Stern, William C Thompson, James L Wayman, Sandy Zabell, Ross E Zumwalt
Several forensic sciences, especially of the pattern-matching kind, are increasingly seen to lack the scientific foundation needed to justify continuing admission as trial evidence. Indeed, several have been abolished in the recent past. A likely next candidate for elimination is bitemark identification. A number of DNA exonerations have occurred in recent years for individuals convicted based on erroneous bitemark identifications. Intense scientific and legal scrutiny has resulted. An important National Academies review found little scientific support for the field...
December 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851765/history-of-breast-feeding-and-risk-of-incident-endometriosis-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Leslie V Farland, A Heather Eliassen, Rulla M Tamimi, Donna Spiegelman, Karin B Michels, Stacey A Missmer
Objective To investigate the association between lifetime breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, postpartum amenorrhea, and incidence of endometriosis among parous women.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Nurses' Health Study II, 1989-2011.Participants 72 394women who reported having one or more pregnancies that lasted at least six months, 3296 of whom had laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis. For each pregnancy, women reported duration of total breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, and postpartum amenorrhea...
August 29, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844881/genetic-depletion-of-adipocyte-creatine-metabolism-inhibits-diet-induced-thermogenesis-and-drives-obesity
#6
Lawrence Kazak, Edward T Chouchani, Gina Z Lu, Mark P Jedrychowski, Curtis J Bare, Amir I Mina, Manju Kumari, Song Zhang, Ivan Vuckovic, Dina Laznik-Bogoslavski, Petras Dzeja, Alexander S Banks, Evan D Rosen, Bruce M Spiegelman
Diet-induced thermogenesis is an important homeostatic mechanism that limits weight gain in response to caloric excess and contributes to the relative stability of body weight in most individuals. We previously demonstrated that creatine enhances energy expenditure through stimulation of mitochondrial ATP turnover, but the physiological role and importance of creatine energetics in adipose tissue have not been explored. Here, we have inactivated the first and rate-limiting enzyme of creatine biosynthesis, glycine amidinotransferase (GATM), selectively in fat (Adipo-Gatm KO)...
August 24, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843294/metabo-mir-mir-211-regulates-mitochondrial-energy-metabolism-in-vitiligo
#7
Vladimir S Spiegelman, Irina A Elcheva
The study by Sahoo et al. established miR-211 as a critical regulator of cellular metabolism in vitiligo cells. miR-211, which is expressed from the transient receptor potential melastatin 1 intronic region, regulates oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial energy metabolism in vitiligo. Loss of miR-211 in melanocytes was shown to alter expression patterns of newly identified target genes, and those that regulate respiratory functions in melanocytes are among them. This study highlights the importance of miR-211 for the melanocyte biology and development of vitiligo...
September 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842500/mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-and-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis-bridging-physiology-and-mechanisms
#8
Edward T Chouchani, Lawrence Kazak, Bruce M Spiegelman
Brown and beige adipose tissues can catabolize stored energy to generate heat, relying on the principal effector of thermogenesis: uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). This unique capability could be leveraged as a therapy for metabolic disease. Numerous animal and cellular models have now demonstrated that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal to support adipocyte thermogenic identity and function. Herein, we contextualize these findings within established principles of redox signaling, and mechanistic studies of UCP1 function...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821264/impact-of-early-initiation-versus-national-standard-of-care-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-swaziland-s-public-sector-health-system-study-protocol-for-a-stepped-wedge-randomized-trial
#9
Fiona J Walsh, Till Bärnighausen, Wim Delva, Yvette Fleming, Gavin Khumalo, Charlotte L Lejeune, Sikhathele Mazibuko, Charmaine Khudzie Mlambo, Ria Reis, Donna Spiegelman, Mandisa Zwane, Velephi Okello
BACKGROUND: There is robust clinical evidence to support offering early access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) to all HIV-positive individuals, irrespective of disease stage, to both improve patient health outcomes and reduce HIV incidence. However, as the global treatment guidelines shift to meet this evidence, it is still largely unknown if early access to ART for all (also referred to as "treatment as prevention" or "universal test and treat") is a feasible intervention in the resource-limited countries where this approach could have the biggest impact on the course of the HIV epidemics...
August 18, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797054/large-scale-wheat-flour-folic-acid-fortification-program-increases-plasma-folate-levels-among-women-of-reproductive-age-in-urban-tanzania
#10
Ramadhani A Noor, Ajibola I Abioye, Nzovu Ulenga, Salum Msham, George Kaishozi, Nilupa S Gunaratna, Ramadhani Mwiru, Erin Smith, Christina Nyhus Dhillon, Donna Spiegelman, Wafaie Fawzi
There is widespread vitamin and mineral deficiency problem in Tanzania with known deficiencies of at least vitamin A, iron, folate and zinc, resulting in lasting negative consequences especially on maternal health, cognitive development and thus the nation's economic potential. Folate deficiency is associated with significant adverse health effects among women of reproductive age, including a higher risk of neural tube defects. Several countries, including Tanzania, have implemented mandatory fortification of wheat and maize flour but evidence on the effectiveness of these programs in developing countries remains limited...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782117/risk-factors-for-blood-transfusion-in-patients-undergoing-high-order-cesarean-delivery
#11
Jessica Spiegelman, Mirella Mourad, Stephanie Melka, Simi Gupta, Jennifer Lam-Rachlin, Andrei Rebarber, Daniel H Saltzman, Nathan S Fox
BACKGROUND: The objective was to identify risk factors associated with blood transfusion in patients undergoing high-order Cesarean delivery (CD). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing third or more CD by a single maternal-fetal medicine practice between 2005 and 2016. We compared risk factors between women who did and did not receive a red blood cell transfusion during the operation or before discharge. Repeat analysis was performed after excluding women with placenta previa...
August 7, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742357/size-effect-in-the-ionization-energy-of-pah-clusters
#12
C Joblin, L Dontot, G A Garcia, F Spiegelman, M Rapacioli, L Nahon, P Parneix, T Pino, P Bréchignac
We report the first experimental measurement of the near-threshold photoionization spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon clusters made of pyrene C16H10 and coronene C24H12, obtained using imaging photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectrometry with a VUV synchrotron beamline. The experimental results of the ionization energy are compared to calculated ones obtained from simulations using dedicated electronic structure treatment for large ionized molecular clusters. Experiment and theory consistently find a decrease of the ionization energy with cluster size...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741475/cachexia-and-brown-fat-a-burning-issue-in-cancer
#13
Serkan Kir, Bruce M Spiegelman
Cachexia, a progressive weight loss in cancer patients that results from tumor-induced energy wasting, is a serious problem that interferes with response to treatment and affects quality of life. Recent studies suggest that thermogenesis of adipose tissues is involved in energy wasting and also point to a link between the atrophy of fat and muscle. Tumor-derived PTHrP has emerged as a key molecule playing multiple roles in cachexia, from fat 'browning' factor to potential therapeutic target.
September 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728684/healthful-and-unhealthful-plant-based-diets-and-the-risk-of-coronary-heart%C3%A2-disease-in-u-s-adults
#14
Ambika Satija, Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, Donna Spiegelman, Stephanie E Chiuve, JoAnn E Manson, Walter Willett, Kathryn M Rexrode, Eric B Rimm, Frank B Hu
BACKGROUND: Plant-based diets are recommended for coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention. However, not all plant foods are necessarily beneficial for health. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine associations between plant-based diet indices and CHD incidence. METHODS: We included 73,710 women in NHS (Nurses' Health Study) (1984 to 2012), 92,329 women in NHS2 (1991 to 2013), and 43,259 men in Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986 to 2012), free of chronic diseases at baseline...
July 25, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715281/admission-for-copd-exacerbation-is-associated-with-the-clinical-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-hypertension-results-from-a-retrospective-longitudinal-study-of-a-veteran-population
#15
Sarah K Medrek, Amir Sharafkhaneh, Andrew M Spiegelman, Arnav Kak, Lavannya M Pandit
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary hypertension (PH-COPD) have an increased risk of hospitalizations and death compared to COPD alone. Identifying PH in COPD is challenging because performing right heart catheterization, the gold standard for PH diagnosis, is invasive and not routinely performed. Clinical characterization of COPD patients at risk who are progressing toward PH will aid therapeutic development at earlier stages of progressively fatal PH-COPD. We studied the records of 5,45,086 patients in a large Veterans Affairs healthcare network (2000-2012) with a primary discharge diagnosis of COPD based on encounters' ICD-9 codes and further stratified into those who received an additional ICD-9 code for a PH diagnosis...
July 17, 2017: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692301/high-dose-vitamin-d3-during-tuberculosis-treatment-in-mongolia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Davaasambuu Ganmaa, Baatar Munkhzul, Wafaie Fawzi, Donna Spiegelman, Walter C Willett, Purev Bayasgalan, Erkhembayar Baasansuren, Burneebaatar Buyankhishig, Sereeter Oyun-Erdene, David A Jolliffe, Theodoros Xenakis, Sabri Bromage, Barry R Bloom, Adrian R Martineau
RATIONALE: Existing trials of adjunctive vitamin D in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are variously limited by small sample sizes, inadequate dosing regimens, and high baseline vitamin D status among participants. Comprehensive analyses of the effects of genetic variation in the vitamin D pathway on response to vitamin D supplementation are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of high-dose vitamin D3 on response to antimicrobial therapy for PTB and to evaluate the influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in vitamin D pathway genes on response to adjunctive vitamin D3...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630339/ucp1-deficiency-causes-brown-fat-respiratory-chain-depletion-and-sensitizes-mitochondria-to-calcium-overload-induced-dysfunction
#17
Lawrence Kazak, Edward T Chouchani, Irina G Stavrovskaya, Gina Z Lu, Mark P Jedrychowski, Daniel F Egan, Manju Kumari, Xingxing Kong, Brian K Erickson, John Szpyt, Evan D Rosen, Michael P Murphy, Bruce S Kristal, Steven P Gygi, Bruce M Spiegelman
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondria exhibit high oxidative capacity and abundant expression of both electron transport chain components and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). UCP1 dissipates the mitochondrial proton motive force (Δp) generated by the respiratory chain and increases thermogenesis. Here we find that in mice genetically lacking UCP1, cold-induced activation of metabolism triggers innate immune signaling and markers of cell death in BAT. Moreover, global proteomic analysis reveals that this cascade induced by UCP1 deletion is associated with a dramatic reduction in electron transport chain abundance...
July 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621569/down-regulation-of-slcyp1-in-the-phloem-reduces-auxin-response-and-photosynthetic-rate-in-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-plants
#18
Ziv Spiegelman, Amit Shahar, Shmuel Wolf
The tomato dgt mutant, containing a single mutation in the Cyclophilin1 (SlCyp1) gene, is auxin insensitive and exhibits a pleotropic phenotype that includes lack of lateral roots, malformed xylem structure and reduced root-to-shoot ratio. Recently, we found that the SlCyp1 protein is phloem-mobile and traffic from shoot to root to induce lateral root formation. These processes are achieved through activation of auxin-mediated developmental programs. Inhibition of the trafficked SlCyp1 activity at the target site resulted in inhibition of the auxin response, supporting the hypothesis that this protein is indeed a mobile signal...
June 3, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590865/evaluating-public-health-interventions-6-modeling-ratios-or-differences-let-the-data-tell-us
#19
Donna Spiegelman, Tyler J VanderWeele
We provide an overview of the relative merits of ratio measures (relative risks, risk ratios, and rate ratios) compared with difference measures (risk and rate differences). We discuss evidence that the multiplicative model often fits the data well, so that rarely are interactions with other risk factors for the outcome observed when one uses a logistic, relative risk, or Cox regression model to estimate the intervention effect. As a consequence, additive models, which estimate the risk or rate difference, will often exhibit interactions...
July 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559401/association-between-endometriosis-and-hypercholesterolemia-or-hypertension
#20
Fan Mu, Janet Rich-Edwards, Eric B Rimm, Donna Spiegelman, John P Forman, Stacey A Missmer
An altered hormonal or chronic systemic inflammatory milieu characterizing endometriosis may result in a higher risk of hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Conversely, elevated low-density lipoprotein in hypercholesterolemia and chronic systemic inflammation resulting from hypertension may increase the risk of endometriosis. We assessed the association of laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis with hypercholesterolemia and hypertension in a large prospective cohort study. In 1989, 116 430 registered female nurses aged 25 to 42 completed the baseline questionnaire and were followed for 20 years...
July 2017: Hypertension
keyword
keyword
62564
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"