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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350431/mifast-a-novel-and-rapid-microrna-target-capture-method
#1
Ashley M Poenitzsch Strong, Scott M Berry, David J Beebe, Jian-Liang Li, Vladimir S Spiegelman
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small 22-25 nucleotide non-coding RNAs, play important roles in cellular and tumor biology. However, characterizing miRNA function remains challenging due to an abundance of predicted targets and an experimental bottleneck in identifying biologically relevant direct targets. Here we developed a novel technique (miFAST) to identify direct miRNA target genes. Using miFAST, we confirmed several previously reported miR-340 target genes and identified five additional novel direct miR-340 targets in melanoma cells...
January 19, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333614/the-effect-of-risk-factor-misclassification-on-the-partial-population-attributable-risk
#2
Benedict H W Wong, Sarah B Peskoe, Donna Spiegelman
The partial population attributable risk (pPAR) is used to quantify the population-level impact of preventive interventions in a multifactorial disease setting. In this paper, we consider the effect of nondifferential risk factor misclassification on the direction and magnitude of bias of pPAR estimands and related quantities. We found that the bias in the uncorrected pPAR depends nonlinearly and nonmonotonically on the sensitivities, specificities, relative risks, and joint prevalence of the exposure of interest and background risk factors, as well as the associations between these factors...
January 15, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324348/dependence-among-randomly-acquired-characteristics-on-shoeprints-and-their-features
#3
Naomi Kaplan Damary, Micha Mandel, Sarena Wiesner, Yoram Yekutieli, Yaron Shor, Clifford Spiegelman
Randomly acquired characteristics (RACs), also known as accidental marks, are random markings on a shoe sole, such as scratches or holes, that are used by forensic experts to compare a suspect's shoe with a print found at the crime scene. This article investigates the relationships among three features of a RAC: its location, shape type and orientation. If these features, as well as the RACs, are independent of each other, a simple probabilistic calculation could be used to evaluate the rarity of a RAC and hence the evidential value of the shoe and print comparison, whereas a correlation among the features would complicate the analysis...
December 11, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295932/noncanonical-agonist-ppar%C3%AE-ligands-modulate-the-response-to-dna-damage-and-sensitize-cancer-cells-to-cytotoxic-chemotherapy
#4
Melin J Khandekar, Alexander S Banks, Dina Laznik-Bogoslavski, James P White, Jang Hyun Choi, Lawrence Kazak, James C Lo, Paul Cohen, Kwok-Kin Wong, Theodore M Kamenecka, Patrick R Griffin, Bruce M Spiegelman
The peroxisome-proliferator receptor-γ (PPARγ) is expressed in multiple cancer types. Recently, our group has shown that PPARγ is phosphorylated on serine 273 (S273), which selectively modulates the transcriptional program controlled by this protein. PPARγ ligands, including thiazolidinediones (TZDs), block S273 phosphorylation. This activity is chemically separable from the canonical activation of the receptor by agonist ligands and, importantly, these noncanonical agonist ligands do not cause some of the known side effects of TZDs...
January 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239724/sirt2-and-lysine-fatty-acylation-regulate-the-transforming-activity-of-k-ras4a
#5
Hui Jing, Xiaoyu Zhang, Stephanie A Wisner, Xiao Chen, Nicole A Spiegelman, Maurine E Linder, Hening Lin
Ras proteins play vital roles in numerous biological processes and Ras mutations are found in many human tumors. Understanding how Ras proteins are regulated is important for elucidating cell signaling pathways and identifying new targets for treating human diseases. Here we report that one of the K-Ras splice variants, K-Ras4a, is subject to lysine fatty acylation, a previously under-studied protein post-translational modification. Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), one of the mammalian nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent lysine deacylases, catalyzes the removal of fatty acylation from K-Ras4a...
December 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230839/prevalence-estimation-when-disease-status-is-verified-only-among-test-positives-applications-in-hiv-screening-programs
#6
Emma G Thomas, Sarah B Peskoe, Donna Spiegelman
The first goal of the United Nations' 90-90-90 HIV/AIDS elimination strategy is to ensure that, by 2020, 90% of HIV-positive people know their HIV status. Estimating the prevalence of HIV among people eligible for screening allows assessment of the number of additional cases that might be diagnosed through continued screening efforts in this group. Here, we present methods for estimating prevalence when HIV status is verified by a gold standard only among those who test positive on an initial, imperfect screening test with known sensitivity and specificity...
December 11, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225703/facilitators-and-barriers-to-healthy-eating-in-a-worksite-cafeteria-a-qualitative-study-from-nepal
#7
Archana Shrestha, Prajjwal Pyakurel, Abha Shrestha, Rabin Gautam, Nisha Manandhar, Elizabeth Rhodes, Dipesh Tamrakar, Biraj Man Karmacharya, Vasanti Malik, Josiemer Mattei, Donna Spiegelman
Objective: Worksite interventions can serve as a potential platform for translating existing knowledge of diabetes prevention and facilitate healthy food choices. The study explored perceptions about healthy eating as well as potential facilitators and barriers to healthy eating among employees in a wire manufacturing factory in Nepal. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional exploratory qualitative study in a wire manufacturing industry in eastern Nepal...
2017: Heart Asia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200298/molecular-dynamics-study-of-the-collision-induced-reaction-of-h-with-co-on-small-water-clusters
#8
Kseniia A Korchagina, Fernand Spiegelman, Jérôme Cuny
The successive hydrogenation of CO is supposed to be the main mechanism leading to the formation of complex oxygenated species in the interstellar medium, possibly mediated by ice layers or ice grains. In order to simulate the dynamical influence of a water environment on the first step of the hydrogenation process, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of the reactive collision of H with CO adsorbed on water clusters in the framework of the self-consistent-charge density functional based tight-binding approach (SCC-DFTB) to calculate potential energy surfaces...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187673/dietary-interventions-to-prevent-and-manage-diabetes-in-worksite-settings-a-meta-analysis
#9
Archana Shrestha, Biraj Man Karmacharya, Polyna Khudyakov, Mary Beth Weber, Donna Spiegelman
OBJECTIVES: The translation of lifestyle intervention to improve glucose tolerance into the workplace has been rare. The objective of this meta-analysis is to summarize the evidence for the effectiveness of dietary interventions in worksite settings on lowering blood sugar levels. METHODS: We searched for studies in PubMed, Embase, Econlit, Ovid, Cochrane, Web of Science, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Search terms were as follows: (1) Exposure-based: nutrition/diet/dietary intervention/health promotion/primary prevention/health behavior/health education/food /program evaluation; (2) Outcome-based: diabetes/ hyperglycemia/glucose/HbA1c/glycated hemoglobin; and (3) Setting-based: workplace/ worksite/occupational/industry/job/employee...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161073/evaluating-public-health-interventions-7-let-the-subject-matter-choose-the-effect-measure-ratio-difference-or-something-else-entirely
#10
Donna Spiegelman, Polyna Khudyakov, Molin Wang, Tyler J Vanderweele
We define measures of effect used in public health evaluations, which include the risk difference and the risk ratio, the population-attributable risk, years of life lost or gained, disability-adjusted life years, quality-adjusted life years, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Except for the risk ratio, all of these are absolute effect measures. For constructing externally generalizable absolute measures of effect when there is superior fit of the multiplicative model, we suggest using the multiplicative model to estimate relative risks, which will often be obtained in simple linear form with no interactions, and then converting these to the desired absolute measure...
January 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158579/rare-susceptibility-variants-for-bipolar-disorder-suggest-a-role-for-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#11
C Cruceanu, J-F Schmouth, S G Torres-Platas, J P Lopez, A Ambalavanan, E Darcq, F Gross, B Breton, D Spiegelman, D Rochefort, P Hince, J M Petite, J Gauthier, R G Lafrenière, P A Dion, C M Greenwood, B L Kieffer, M Alda, G Turecki, G A Rouleau
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a prevalent mood disorder that tends to cluster in families. Despite high heritability estimates, few genetic susceptibility factors have been identified over decades of genetic research. One possible interpretation for the shortcomings of previous studies to detect causative genes is that BD is caused by highly penetrant rare variants in many genes. We explored this hypothesis by sequencing the exomes of affected individuals from 40 well-characterized multiplex families. We identified rare variants segregating with affected status in many interesting genes, and found an enrichment of deleterious variants in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family genes, which are important drug targets...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147054/service-readiness-of-health-facilities-in-bangladesh-haiti-kenya-malawi-namibia-nepal-rwanda-senegal-uganda-and-the-united-republic-of-tanzania
#12
Hannah H Leslie, Donna Spiegelman, Xin Zhou, Margaret E Kruk
Objective: To evaluate the service readiness of health facilities in Bangladesh, Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Nepal, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. Methods: Using existing data from service provision assessments of the health systems of the 10 study countries, we calculated a service readiness index for each of 8443 health facilities. This index represents the percentage availability of 50 items that the World Health Organization considers essential for providing health care...
November 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133445/conceptualizing-the-origin-of-life-in-terms-of-evolution
#13
REVIEW
N Takeuchi, P Hogeweg, K Kaneko
In this opinion piece, we discuss how to place evolution in the context of origin-of-life research. Our discussion starts with a popular definition: 'life is a self-sustained chemical system capable of undergoing Darwinian evolution'. According to this definition, the origin of life is the same as the origin of evolution: evolution is the 'end' of the origin of life. This perspective, however, has a limitation, in that the ability of evolution in and of itself is insufficient to explain the origin of life as we know it, as indicated by Spiegelman's and Lincoln and Joyce's experiments...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122988/king-is-a-plant-specific-kinesin-that-regulates-both-intra-and-intercellular-movement-of-short-root
#14
Ziv Spiegelman, Chin-Mei Lee, Kimberly L Gallagher
Both endogenous plant proteins and viral movement proteins associate with microtubules to promote their movement through plasmodesmata. The association of viral movement proteins with microtubules facilitates the formation of virus-associated replication complexes, which are required for the amplification and subsequent spread of the virus. However, the role of microtubules in the intercellular movement of plant proteins is less clear. Here we show that the SHORT-ROOT (SHR) protein, which moves between cells in the root to regulate root radial patterning, interacts with a type-14 kinesin, KINESIN G (KinG)...
November 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100083/high-rate-of-recurrent-de-novo-mutations-in-developmental-and-epileptic-encephalopathies
#15
Fadi F Hamdan, Candace T Myers, Patrick Cossette, Philippe Lemay, Dan Spiegelman, Alexandre Dionne Laporte, Christina Nassif, Ousmane Diallo, Jean Monlong, Maxime Cadieux-Dion, Sylvia Dobrzeniecka, Caroline Meloche, Kyle Retterer, Megan T Cho, Jill A Rosenfeld, Weimin Bi, Christine Massicotte, Marguerite Miguet, Ledia Brunga, Brigid M Regan, Kelly Mo, Cory Tam, Amy Schneider, Georgie Hollingsworth, David R FitzPatrick, Alan Donaldson, Natalie Canham, Edward Blair, Bronwyn Kerr, Andrew E Fry, Rhys H Thomas, Joss Shelagh, Jane A Hurst, Helen Brittain, Moira Blyth, Robert Roger Lebel, Erica H Gerkes, Laura Davis-Keppen, Quinn Stein, Wendy K Chung, Sara J Dorison, Paul J Benke, Emily Fassi, Nicole Corsten-Janssen, Erik-Jan Kamsteeg, Frederic T Mau-Them, Ange-Line Bruel, Alain Verloes, Katrin Õunap, Monica H Wojcik, Dara V F Albert, Sunita Venkateswaran, Tyson Ware, Dean Jones, Yu-Chi Liu, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Peyman Bizargity, Carlos A Bacino, Vincenzo Leuzzi, Simone Martinelli, Bruno Dallapiccola, Marco Tartaglia, Lubov Blumkin, Klaas J Wierenga, Gabriela Purcarin, James J O'Byrne, Sylvia Stockler, Anna Lehman, Boris Keren, Marie-Christine Nougues, Cyril Mignot, Stéphane Auvin, Caroline Nava, Susan M Hiatt, Martina Bebin, Yunru Shao, Fernando Scaglia, Seema R Lalani, Richard E Frye, Imad T Jarjour, Stéphanie Jacques, Renee-Myriam Boucher, Emilie Riou, Myriam Srour, Lionel Carmant, Anne Lortie, Philippe Major, Paola Diadori, François Dubeau, Guy D'Anjou, Guillaume Bourque, Samuel F Berkovic, Lynette G Sadleir, Philippe M Campeau, Zoha Kibar, Ronald G Lafrenière, Simon L Girard, Saadet Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Cyrus Boelman, Guy A Rouleau, Ingrid E Scheffer, Heather C Mefford, Danielle M Andrade, Elsa Rossignol, Berge A Minassian, Jacques L Michaud
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) is a group of conditions characterized by the co-occurrence of epilepsy and intellectual disability (ID), typically with developmental plateauing or regression associated with frequent epileptiform activity. The cause of DEE remains unknown in the majority of cases. We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in 197 individuals with unexplained DEE and pharmaco-resistant seizures and in their unaffected parents. We focused our attention on de novo mutations (DNMs) and identified candidate genes containing such variants...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071721/erythrocyte-membrane-fatty-acids-and-breast-cancer-risk-a-prospective-analysis-in-the-nurses-health-study-ii
#16
Kelly A Hirko, Boyang Chai, Donna Spiegelman, Hannia Campos, Maryam S Farvid, Susan E Hankinson, Walter C Willett, A Heather Eliassen
The roles of specific fatty acids in breast cancer etiology are unclear, particularly among premenopausal women. We examined 34 individual fatty acids, measured in blood erythrocytes collected between 1996-1999, and breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study of primarily premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II. Breast cancer cases diagnosed after blood collection and before June 2010 (n=794) were matched to controls and conditional logistic regression was used to estimate OR's (95% CI's) for associations of fatty acids with breast cancer; unconditional logistic regression was used for stratified analyses...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036411/relative-validity-of-nutrient-intakes-assessed-by-questionnaire-24-hour-recalls-and-diet-records-compared-with-urinary-recovery-and-plasma-concentration-biomarkers-findings-for-women
#17
Changzheng Yuan, Donna Spiegelman, Eric B Rimm, Bernard A Rosner, Meir J Stampfer, Junaidah B Barnett, Jorge E Chavarro, Jennifer C Rood, Lisa J Harnack, Laura K Sampson, Walter C Willett
The authors evaluated the performance of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ), web-based 24-hour recalls (ASA24s), and 7-day dietary records (7DDRs) compared to biomarkers among 627 women in Women's Lifestyle Validation Study (US, 2010-2012). Two paper SFFQs, one web-based SFFQ, four ASA24s (beta version), two 7DDRs, four 24-hour urine samples, one doubly-labeled water (repeated among 76 participants), and two fasting blood samples were collected over a 15-months-period. Dietary variables evaluated were energy, energy-adjusted intakes of protein, sodium, potassium, and specific fatty acids, carotenoids, α-tocopherol, retinol and folate...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034148/does-a-grill-menu-redesign-influence-sales-nutrients-purchased-and-consumer-acceptance-in-a-worksite-cafeteria
#18
Maya K Vadiveloo, Vasanti S Malik, Donna Spiegelman, Walter C Willett, Josiemer Mattei
Worksite cafeterias are compelling venues to improve diet quality through environmental changes. We conducted a pre-post study to evaluate how a cafeteria-initiated grill menu redesign influenced sales, revenue, and nutrient content of foods purchased. Secondly, we evaluated consumer opinions about menu changes to inform practices for worksite environment interventions. Monthly sales data (2012-2015) were used to compute gross sales and revenue of entrées and side dishes pre-post menu changes. Alternative protein sources replaced red meat; nutrient composition and nutrients purchased were compared using Food Pro software...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024998/response-to-serious-danger-signals-response-to-the-effect-of-neonatal-vitamin-a-supplementation-on-morbidity-and-mortality-at-12-months-a-randomized-trial
#19
Emily R Smith, Alfa Muhihi, Salum Mshamu, Christopher R Sudfeld, Ramadhani Abdallah Noor, Donna Spiegelman, Roger L Shapiro, Honorati Masanja, Wafaie Fawzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992341/a-prospective-study-of-inflammatory-markers-and-risk-of-endometriosis
#20
Fan Mu, Holly R Harris, Janet W Rich-Edwards, Susan E Hankinson, Eric B Rimm, Donna Spiegelman, Stacey A Missmer
A body of evidence suggests a role for inflammation in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Numerous case-control studies have found that inflammatory markers were elevated in endometriosis cases compared to controls. However, results are not consistent and no prior prospective study exists. We conducted a case-control study study nested within the Nurses' Health Study II examining the associations between plasma levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), IL-6, soluble tumor necrosis factor α receptor-1 (sTNFR-1), sTNFR-2, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and laparoscopically-confirmed endometriosis risk...
July 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
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