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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923781/population-attributable-risk-of-modifiable-and-nonmodifiable-breast-cancer-risk-factors-in-postmenopausal-breast-cancer
#1
Rulla M Tamimi, Donna Spiegelman, Stephanie A Smith-Warner, Molin Wang, Mathew Pazaris, Walter C Willett, A Heather Eliassen, David J Hunter
We examined the proportions of multiple types of breast cancers in the population that were attributable to established risk factors, focusing on behaviors that are modifiable at menopause. We estimated the full and partial population attributable risk percentages (PAR%) by combining the relative risks and the observed prevalence rates of the risk factors of interest. A total of 8,421 cases of invasive breast cancer developed in postmenopausal women (n = 121,700) in the Nurses' Health Study from 1980-2010...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872756/prevalence-of-hypertension-and-its-associated-risk-factors-among-34-111-haart-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-adults-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#2
Marina Njelekela, Alfa Muhihi, Akum Aveika, Donna Spiegelman, Claudia Hawkins, Catharina Armstrong, Enju Liu, James Okuma, Guerino Chalamila, Sylvia Kaaya, Ferdinand Mugusi, Wafaie Fawzi
Background. Elevated blood pressure has been reported among treatment naïve HIV-infected patients. We investigated prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors in a HAART naïve HIV-infected population in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among HAART naïve HIV-infected patients. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg. Overweight and obesity were defined as body mass index (BMI) between 25...
2016: International Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871269/institutionalizing-postpartum-intrauterine-device-iud-services-in-sri-lanka-tanzania-and-nepal-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-stepped-wedge-trial
#3
David Canning, Iqbal H Shah, Erin Pearson, Elina Pradhan, Mahesh Karra, Leigh Senderowicz, Till Bärnighausen, Donna Spiegelman, Ana Langer
BACKGROUND: During the year following the birth of a child, 40% of women are estimated to have an unmet need for contraception. The copper IUD provides safe, effective, convenient, and long-term contraceptive protection that does not interfere with breastfeeding during the postpartum period. Postpartum IUD (PPIUD) insertion should be performed by a trained provider in the early postpartum period to reduce expulsion rates and complications, but these services are not widely available. The International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (FIGO) will implement an intervention that aims to institutionalize PPIUD training as a regular part of the OB/GYN training program and to integrate it as part of the standard practice at the time of delivery in intervention hospitals...
November 21, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861238/complementary-feeding-and-diarrhea-and-respiratory-infection-among-hiv-exposed-tanzanian-infants
#4
P Kamenju, E Liu, E Hertzmark, D Spiegelman, R R Kisenge, R Kupka, S Aboud, K P Manji, C Duggan, W W Fawzi
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between complementary feeding (CF) and risks of diarrhea and acute respiratory infection (ARI) among HIV-exposed infants aged 6-24 months. DESIGN: We prospectively employed an Infant and Child Feeding Index (ICFI) to measure CF practices (breastfeeding status, food consistency, dietary diversity, food group frequency and meal frequency). We determined the association of ICFI and each of its components with the risk of diarrhea and ARI...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856289/rna-binding-protein-igf2bp1-in-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#5
TaeWon Kim, Thomas Havighurst, KyungMann Kim, Scott J Hebbring, Zhan Ye, Juliet Aylward, Sunduz Keles, Yaohui G Xu, Vladimir S Spiegelman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854526/evaluating-public-health-interventions-5-causal-inference-in-public-health-research-do-sex-race-and-biological-factors-cause-health-outcomes
#6
M Maria Glymour, Donna Spiegelman
Counterfactual frameworks and statistical methods for supporting causal inference are powerful tools to clarify scientific questions and guide analyses in public health research. Counterfactual accounts of causation contrast what would happen to a population's health under alternative exposure scenarios. A long-standing debate in counterfactual theory relates to whether sex, race, and biological characteristics, including obesity, should be evaluated as causes, given that these variables do not directly correspond to clearly defined interventions...
January 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830448/estimating-the-effect-of-intravenous-acetaminophen-for-postoperative-pain-management-on-length-of-stay-and-inpatient-hospital-costs
#7
E Eve Shaffer, An Pham, Robert L Woldman, Andrew Spiegelman, Scott A Strassels, George J Wan, Thomas Zimmerman
INTRODUCTION: The provision of safe, effective, cost-efficient perioperative inpatient acute pain management is an important concern among clinicians and administrators within healthcare institutions. Overreliance on opioid monotherapy in this setting continues to present health risks for patients and increase healthcare costs resulting from preventable adverse events. The goal of this study was to model length of stay (LOS), potential opioid-related complications, and costs for patients reducing opioid use and adding intravenous acetaminophen (IV APAP) for management of postoperative pain...
November 9, 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809528/structural-characterization-of-sulfur-containing-water-clusters-using-a-density-functional-based-tight-binding-approach
#8
Kseniia A Korchagina, Aude Simon, Mathias Rapacioli, Fernand Spiegelman, Jérôme Cuny
A global optimization search of low-energy isomers is carried out to investigate the structural and stability properties of sulfur-containing water clusters, including both (H2O)nSO4(2-) and (H2O)nH2SO4 aggregates. The systematic optimization algorithm involves a combination of parallel-tempering molecular dynamics and periodic gradient-driven quenches with energy and energy-gradient calculations performed using the Self-Consistent-Charge Density-Functional based Tight-Binding (SCC-DFTB) scheme. Comparisons with new MP2 and DFT calculations on the smallest systems and previous ab initio investigations of the literature show that the SCC-DFTB approach provides a fairly accurate description of both neutral and ionic species, comparable to that of DFT...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793143/urban-rural-and-geographic-differences-in-overweight-and-obesity-in-four-sub-saharan-african-adult-populations-a-multi-country-cross-sectional-study
#9
IkeOluwapo O Ajayi, Clement Adebamowo, Hans-Olov Adami, Shona Dalal, Megan B Diamond, Francis Bajunirwe, David Guwatudde, Marina Njelekela, Joan Nankya-Mutyoba, Faraja S Chiwanga, Jimmy Volmink, Robert Kalyesubula, Carien Laurence, Todd G Reid, Douglas Dockery, David Hemenway, Donna Spiegelman, Michelle D Holmes
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are on the rise in developing countries including sub-Saharan Africa. We undertook a four-country survey to show the collective burden of these health conditions as they occur currently in sub-Saharan Africa and to determine the differences between urban and rural populations and other socio-economic factors. METHODS: Participants were nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria (200), school teachers in South Africa (489) and Tanzania (229), and village residents in one peri-urban (297) and one rural location in Uganda (200) who completed a standardised questionnaire...
October 28, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789674/the-effect-of-neonatal-vitamin-a-supplementation-on-morbidity-and-mortality-at-12-months-a-randomized-trial
#10
Emily R Smith, Alfa Muhihi, Salum Mshamu, Christopher R Sudfeld, Ramadhani Abdallah Noor, Donna Spiegelman, Roger L Shapiro, Honorati Masanja, Wafaie Fawzi
BACKGROUND: Neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) is an intervention hypothesized to reduce infant morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of neonatal vitamin A supplementation in reducing infant morbidity and mortality and assess potential sources of heterogeneity of the effect of NVAS. METHODS: We completed an individually randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Tanzania. Infants were randomized within 3 days of birth to a single dose of vitamin A (50 000 IU) or placebo...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766318/intra-cluster-correlation-estimates-for-hiv-related-outcomes-from-care-and-treatment-clinics-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#11
Dale Barnhart, Ellen Hertzmark, Enju Liu, Ester Mungure, Aisa N Muya, David Sando, Guerino Chalamilla, Nzovu Ulenga, Till Bärnighausen, Wafaie Fawzi, Donna Spiegelman
INTRODUCTION: Researchers planning cluster-randomized controlled trials (cRCTs) require estimates of the intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) from previous studies for sample size calculations. This paper fills a persistent gap in the literature by providing estimates of ICCs for many key HIV-related clinical outcomes. METHODS: Data from HIV-positive patients from 47 HIV care and treatment clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were used to calculate ICCs by site of enrollment or site of ART initiation for various clinical outcomes using cross-sectional and longitudinal data...
December 15, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745834/rnf213-is-associated-with-intracranial-aneurysms-in-the-french-canadian-population
#12
Sirui Zhou, Amirthagowri Ambalavanan, Daniel Rochefort, Pingxing Xie, Cynthia V Bourassa, Pascale Hince, Alexandre Dionne-Laporte, Dan Spiegelman, Ziv Gan-Or, Cathy Mirarchi, Vessela Zaharieva, Nicolas Dupré, Hatasu Kobayashi, Toshiaki Hitomi, Kouji Harada, Akio Koizumi, Lan Xiong, Patrick A Dion, Guy A Rouleau
Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are the result of focal weakness in the artery wall and have a complex genetic makeup. To date, genome-wide association and sequencing studies have had limited success in identifying IA risk factors. Distinct populations, such as the French-Canadian (FC) population, have increased IA prevalence. In our study, we used exome sequencing to prioritize risk variants in a discovery cohort of six FC families affected by IA, and the analysis revealed an increased variation burden for ring finger protein 213 (RNF213)...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741204/laparoscopically-confirmed-endometriosis-and-breast-cancer-in-the-nurses-health-study-ii
#13
Leslie V Farland, Rulla M Tamimi, A Heather Eliassen, Donna Spiegelman, Susan E Hankinson, Wendy Y Chen, Stacey A Missmer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis and the risk of breast cancer. Previous research on endometriosis and breast cancer has reported mixed results. METHODS: Our prospective cohort study included 116,430 women from the Nurses' Health Study II cohort followed from 1989 until 2013. Our primary analysis investigated the association between self-reported laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis and the risk of breast cancer...
November 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736213/changes-in-reported-sexual-orientation-following-us-states-recognition-of-same-sex-couples
#14
Brittany M Charlton, Heather L Corliss, Donna Spiegelman, Kerry Williams, S Bryn Austin
OBJECTIVES: To compare changes in self-reported sexual orientation of women living in states with any recognition of same-sex relationships (e.g., hospital visitation, domestic partnerships) with those of women living in states without such recognition. METHODS: We calculated the likelihood of women in the Nurses' Health Study II (n = 69 790) changing their reported sexual orientation between 1995 and 2009. RESULTS: We used data from the Nurses' Health Study II and found that living in a state with same-sex relationship recognition was associated with changing one's reported sexual orientation, particularly from heterosexual to sexual minority...
December 2016: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735183/benchmarking-density-functional-based-tight-binding-for-silver-and-gold-materials-from-small-clusters-to-bulk
#15
Luiz F L Oliveira, Nathalie Tarrat, Jérôme Cuny, Joseph Morillo, Didier Lemoine, Fernand Spiegelman, Mathias Rapacioli
We benchmark existing and improved self-consistent-charge density functional based tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) parameters for silver and gold clusters as well as for bulk materials. In the former case, our benchmarks focus on both the structural and energetic properties of small-size AgN and AuN clusters (N from 2 to 13), medium-size clusters with N = 20 and 55, and finally larger nanoparticles with N = 147, 309, and 561. For bulk materials, structural, energetics and elastic properties are discussed. We show that SCC-DFTB is quite satisfactory in reproducing essential differences between silver and gold aggregates, in particular their 2D-3D structural transitions, and their dependency upon cluster charge...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686370/nutritional-status-and-complementary-feeding-among-hiv-exposed-infants-a-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Pili Kamenju, Enju Liu, Ellen Hertzmark, Donna Spiegelman, Rodrick Kisenge, Roland Kupka, Said Aboud, Karim P Manji, Christopher Duggan, Wafaie W Fawzi
Complementary feeding is crucial for improving child survival and promoting growth and development, particularly among HIV-exposed children who have higher risk of morbidity and mortality than their un-exposed peers. This prospective study employed an infant and child feeding index (ICFI) to measure complementary feeding and determine its association with nutritional status among 2092 HIV-exposed infants followed from 6 to 24 months of age in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The ICFI measured both quality and quantity of complementary feeding, including current breastfeeding status, food consistency, dietary diversity scores (DDS), food group frequency score, and meal frequency...
September 30, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661473/mortality-in-patients-admitted-for-concurrent-copd-exacerbation-and-pneumonia
#17
Amir Sharafkhaneh, Andrew M Spiegelman, Kevin Main, Shahriar Tavakoli-Tabasi, Charlie Lan, Daniel Musher
It is unclear whether concurrent pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a higher mortality than either condition alone. Further, it is unknown how this interaction changes over time. We explored the effect of pneumonia and COPD on inpatient, 30-day and overall mortality. We used a Veterans Health Affairs database to compare patients who were hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation without pneumonia (AECOPD), patients hospitalized for pneumonia without COPD (PNA) and patients hospitalized for pneumonia who had a concurrent diagnosis of COPD (PCOPD)...
September 23, 2016: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648720/determinants-of-high-blood-pressure-and-barriers-to-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#18
Rachel M Zack, Kahema Irema, Patrick Kazonda, Germana H Leyna, Enju Liu, Donna Spiegelman, Wafaie Fawzi, Marina Njelekela, Japhet Killewo, Goodarz Danaei
OBJECTIVES: We assessed the prevalence and determinants of high blood pressure (BP), and barriers to diagnosis and treatment, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: We surveyed and screened 2174 community-dwelling adults aged at least 40 years in 2014 and conducted a follow-up after 1 year. RESULTS: Median BP was 131/81 mmHg, and hypertension prevalence was 37%. Mean adjusted difference in SBP was 4.0 mmHg for overweight, 6.3 mmHg for obese class I, and 10...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604359/a-prospective-study-of-endometriosis-and-risk-of-benign-breast-disease
#19
Leslie V Farland, Rulla M Tamimi, A Heather Eliassen, Donna Spiegelman, Laura C Collins, Stuart J Schnitt, Stacey A Missmer
PURPOSE: Given the altered hormonal and inflammatory environment of women with endometriosis, several studies have suggested a positive association between endometriosis and breast cancer, although findings have been mixed. This study investigates the relationship between endometriosis and benign breast disease (BBD), benign lesions that are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. METHODS: Among women in the Nurses' Health Study II followed from 1991-2003 (n = 76,393), we investigated the association between laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis and biopsy-confirmed BBD...
October 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589085/the-cancer-drug-dasatinib-increases-pgc-1%C3%AE-in-adipose-tissue-but-has-adverse-effects-on-glucose-tolerance-in-obese-mice
#20
Lykke Sylow, Jonathan Z Long, Isha A Lokurkar, Xing Zeng, Erik A Richter, Bruce M Spiegelman
Dasatinib (Sprycel) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. In this study, we identify dasatinib as a potent inducer of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)-1α mRNA. Dasatinib increased PGC-1α mRNA expression up to 6-fold in 3T3-F442A adipocytes, primary adipocytes, and epididymal white adipose tissue from lean and diet-induced obese mice. Importantly, gene expression translated into increased PGC-1α protein content analyzed in melanoma cells and isolated mitochondria from adipocytes...
November 2016: Endocrinology
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