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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903119/the-learning-curve-in-endoscopic-endonasal-resection-of-craniopharyngiomas
#1
Varun R Kshettry, Hyunwoo Do, Khaled Elshazly, Christopher J Farrell, Gurston Nyquist, Marc Rosen, James J Evans
OBJECTIVE There is a paucity of literature regarding the learning curve associated with performing endoscopic endonasal cranial base surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent a learning curve might exist for endoscopic endonasal resection in cases of craniopharyngiomas. METHODS A retrospective review was performed for all endoscopic endonasal craniopharyngioma resections performed at Thomas Jefferson University from 2005 to 2015. To assess for a learning curve effect, patients were divided into an early cohort (2005-2009, n = 20) and a late cohort (2010-2015, n = 23)...
December 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857874/minimizing-septectomy-for-endoscopic-transsphenoidal-approaches-to-the-sellar-and-suprasellar-regions-a-cadaveric-morphometric-study
#2
Hermes G Garcia, Marc Otten, Marc Pyfer, Saurabh J Singhal, Alfred Marc Iloreta, Varun R Kshettry, Christopher J Farrell, Gurston Nyquist, Marc Rosen, James J Evans
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of posterior septectomy size on surgical exposure and surgical freedom during the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach to the sella and parasellar region. Dissections were performed on 10 embalmed cadaver heads. Dissections started with wide bilateral sphenoidotomies, lateralization of middle turbinates, and a 5-mm posterior septectomy. The posterior septectomy was increased in 5-mm increments to a maximum of 35 mm, followed by bilateral middle turbinectomies...
December 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853960/phase-ii-study-of-tivozanib-an-oral-vegfr-inhibitor-in-patients-with-recurrent-glioblastoma
#3
Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Vyshak Chandra, Xiao Da, Yangming Ou, Kyrre E Emblem, Alona Muzikansky, Xuezhu Cai, Linda Douw, John G Evans, Jorg Dietrich, Andrew S Chi, Patrick Y Wen, Stephen Stufflebeam, Bruce Rosen, Dan G Duda, Rakesh K Jain, Tracy T Batchelor, Elizabeth R Gerstner
Targeting tumor angiogenesis is a potential therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma because of its high vascularization. Tivozanib is an oral pan-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that hits a central pathway in glioblastoma angiogenesis. We conducted a phase II study to test the effectiveness of tivozanib in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Ten adult patients were enrolled and treated with tivozanib 1.5 mg daily, 3 weeks on/1 week off in 28-day cycles. Brain MRI and blood biomarkers of angiogenesis were performed at baseline, within 24-72 h of treatment initiation, and monthly thereafter...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812140/early-outcomes-of-decentralized-care-for-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-in-johannesburg-south-africa-an-observational-cohort-study
#4
Rebecca Berhanu, Kathryn Schnippel, Erika Mohr, Kamban Hirasen, Denise Evans, Sydney Rosen, Ian Sanne
OBJECTIVE: We describe baseline characteristics, time to treatment initiation and interim patient outcomes at a decentralized, outpatient treatment site for rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB). METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study of RR-TB patients from March 2013 until December 2014. Study subjects were followed until completion of the intensive phase of treatment (6 months), transfer out, or a final outcome (loss from treatment (LFT) or death). RESULTS: 214 patients with RR-TB were enrolled in the study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798041/economic-evaluation-of-a-shortened-standardised-treatment-regimen-of-antituberculosis-drugs-for-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-stream-study-protocol
#5
Elvis Gama, Jason Madan, Ivor Langley, Mamo Girma, Denise Evans, Sydney Rosen, S Bertel Squire
INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses a serious financial challenge to health systems and patients. The current treatment for patients with MDR-TB takes up to 24 months to complete. Evidence for a shorter regimen which differs from the standard WHO recommended MDR-TB regimen and typically lasts between 9 and 12 months has been reported from Bangladesh. This evaluation aims to assess the economic impact of a shortened regimen on patients and health systems. This evaluation is innovative as it combines patient and health system costs, as well as operational modelling in assessing the impact...
October 17, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753066/diagnosis-of-elder-abuse-in-u-s-emergency-departments
#6
Christopher S Evans, Katherine M Hunld, Tony Rosen, Timothy F Platts-Mills
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the proportion of visits to U.S. emergency departments (EDs) in which a diagnosis of elder abuse is reached using two nationally representative datasets. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: U.S. ED visits recorded in the 2012 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) or the 2011 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). PARTICIPANTS: All ED visits of individuals aged 60 and older...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749844/prospective-functional-classification-of-all-possible-missense-variants-in-pparg
#7
Amit R Majithia, Ben Tsuda, Maura Agostini, Keerthana Gnanapradeepan, Robert Rice, Gina Peloso, Kashyap A Patel, Xiaolan Zhang, Marjoleine F Broekema, Nick Patterson, Marc Duby, Ted Sharpe, Eric Kalkhoven, Evan D Rosen, Inês Barroso, Sian Ellard, Sekar Kathiresan, Stephen O'Rahilly, Krishna Chatterjee, Jose C Florez, Tarjei Mikkelsen, David B Savage, David Altshuler
Clinical exome sequencing routinely identifies missense variants in disease-related genes, but functional characterization is rarely undertaken, leading to diagnostic uncertainty. For example, mutations in PPARG cause Mendelian lipodystrophy and increase risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although approximately 1 in 500 people harbor missense variants in PPARG, most are of unknown consequence. To prospectively characterize PPARγ variants, we used highly parallel oligonucleotide synthesis to construct a library encoding all 9,595 possible single-amino acid substitutions...
December 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725021/outcomes-of-treatment-of-drug-susceptible-tuberculosis-at-public-sector-primary-healthcare-clinics-in-johannesburg-south-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
E P Budgell, D Evans, K Schnippel, P Ive, L Long, S Rosen
BACKGROUND: Despite the large number of tuberculosis (TB) patients treated in South Africa (SA), there are few descriptions in the published literature of drug-susceptible TB patient characteristics, mode of diagnosis or treatment outcomes in routine public sector treatment programmes. OBJECTIVE: To enhance the evidence base for public sector TB treatment service delivery, we reported the characteristics of and outcomes for a retrospective cohort of adult TB patients at public sector clinics in the Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality (JHB), SA...
September 5, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546484/the-extended-nasoseptal-flap-for-coverage-of-large-cranial-base-defects
#9
Ethan Bassett, Alexander Farag, Alfred Iloreta, Christopher Farrell, James Evans, Marc Rosen, Ameet Singh, Gurston Nyquist
BACKGROUND: The nasoseptal flap (NSF) is commonly used to repair skull base defects via a transnasal endoscopic approach. The original description of the technique includes 2 parallel incisions that follow the sagittal plane of the septum. We describe a novel modification to the traditional NSF that allows coverage along the posterior wall of the frontal sinus. METHODS: In addition to the 2 sagittal incisions, a third incision is made between these coursing along the maxillary crest from the posterior edge to the midportion of the flap...
August 22, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435961/small-molecule-proteostasis-regulators-that-reprogram-the-er-to-reduce-extracellular-protein-aggregation
#10
Lars Plate, Christina B Cooley, John J Chen, Ryan J Paxman, Ciara M Gallagher, Franck Madoux, Joseph C Genereux, Wesley Dobbs, Dan Garza, Timothy P Spicer, Louis Scampavia, Steven J Brown, Hugh Rosen, Evan T Powers, Peter Walter, Peter Hodder, R Luke Wiseman, Jeffery W Kelly
Imbalances in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis are associated with etiologically-diverse degenerative diseases linked to excessive extracellular protein misfolding and aggregation. Reprogramming of the ER proteostasis environment through genetic activation of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR)-associated transcription factor ATF6 attenuates secretion and extracellular aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins. Here, we employed a screening approach that included complementary arm-specific UPR reporters and medium-throughput transcriptional profiling to identify non-toxic small molecules that phenocopy the ATF6-mediated reprogramming of the ER proteostasis environment...
2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400129/irf3-promotes-adipose-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-and-represses-browning
#11
Manju Kumari, Xun Wang, Louise Lantier, Anna Lyubetskaya, Jun Eguchi, Sona Kang, Danielle Tenen, Hyun Cheol Roh, Xingxing Kong, Lawrence Kazak, Rasheed Ahmad, Evan D Rosen
The chronic inflammatory state that accompanies obesity is a major contributor to insulin resistance and other dysfunctional adaptations in adipose tissue. Cellular and secreted factors promote the inflammatory milieu of obesity, but the transcriptional pathways that drive these processes are not well described. Although the canonical inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB is considered to be the major driver of adipocyte inflammation, members of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family may also play a role in this process...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280164/synthetic-organic-electrochemistry-an-enabling-and-innately-sustainable-method
#12
REVIEW
Evan J Horn, Brandon R Rosen, Phil S Baran
While preparative electrolysis of organic molecules has been an active area of research over the past century, modern synthetic chemists have generally been reluctant to adopt this technology. In fact, electrochemical methods possess many benefits over traditional reagent-based transformations, such as high functional group tolerance, mild conditions, and innate scalability and sustainability. In this Outlook we highlight illustrative examples of electrochemical reactions in the context of the synthesis of complex molecules, showcasing the intrinsic benefits of electrochemical reactions versus traditional reagent-based approaches...
May 25, 2016: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251354/u-s-dental-school-deans-views-on-the-value-of-patient-reported-outcome-measures-in-dentistry
#13
Evan B Rosen, R Bruce Donoff, Christine A Riedy
There has historically been limited development and utilization of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in clinical dentistry. However, in recent years PROMs have been recognized by other health care fields as valuable in the comprehensive assessment of patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to survey deans of U.S. dental schools to better understand their vision for the role of PROMs in the field of dentistry. A 13-question online survey was emailed to the deans of the 64 accredited U.S. dental schools at the time to gather their opinions about the value of patient-reported outcomes in dentistry...
June 2016: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27096371/scalable-and-sustainable-electrochemical-allylic-c-h-oxidation
#14
Evan J Horn, Brandon R Rosen, Yong Chen, Jiaze Tang, Ke Chen, Martin D Eastgate, Phil S Baran
New methods and strategies for the direct functionalization of C-H bonds are beginning to reshape the field of retrosynthetic analysis, affecting the synthesis of natural products, medicines and materials. The oxidation of allylic systems has played a prominent role in this context as possibly the most widely applied C-H functionalization, owing to the utility of enones and allylic alcohols as versatile intermediates, and their prevalence in natural and unnatural materials. Allylic oxidations have featured in hundreds of syntheses, including some natural product syntheses regarded as "classics"...
May 5, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27049383/aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-and-neuroinflammation-a-comprehensive-review
#15
REVIEW
Brandon P Lucke-Wold, Aric F Logsdon, Branavan Manoranjan, Ryan C Turner, Evan McConnell, George Edward Vates, Jason D Huber, Charles L Rosen, J Marc Simard
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can lead to devastating outcomes including vasospasm, cognitive decline, and even death. Currently, treatment options are limited for this potentially life threatening injury. Recent evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in injury expansion and brain damage. Red blood cell breakdown products can lead to the release of inflammatory cytokines that trigger vasospasm and tissue injury. Preclinical models have been used successfully to improve understanding about neuroinflammation following aneurysmal rupture...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27044992/the-pulsatility-volume-index-an-indicator-of-cerebrovascular-compliance-based-on-fast-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-cardiac-and-respiratory-pulsatility
#16
Marta Bianciardi, Nicola Toschi, Jonathan R Polimeni, Karleyton C Evans, Himanshu Bhat, Boris Keil, Bruce R Rosen, David A Boas, Lawrence L Wald
The influence of cardiac activity on the viscoelastic properties of intracranial tissue is one of the mechanisms through which brain-heart interactions take place, and is implicated in cerebrovascular disease. Cerebrovascular disease risk is not fully explained by current risk factors, including arterial compliance. Cerebrovascular compliance is currently estimated indirectly through Doppler sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of blood velocity changes. In order to meet the need for novel cerebrovascular disease risk factors, we aimed to design and validate an MRI indicator of cerebrovascular compliance based on direct endogenous measures of blood volume changes...
May 13, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27028299/migraine-and-the-risk-of-suicide
#17
Zarmeneh Aly, Noah Rosen, Randolph W Evans
Rarely and tragically, migraineurs commit suicide or overdose on medications we prescribe.
April 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26962910/burning-fat-by-bugging-the-system
#18
Evan D Rosen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26895558/visual-speech-perception-in-children-with-language-learning-impairments
#19
Victoria C P Knowland, Sam Evans, Caroline Snell, Stuart Rosen
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to assess the ability of children with developmental language learning impairments (LLIs) to use visual speech cues from the talking face. METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, 41 typically developing children (mean age: 8 years 0 months, range: 4 years 5 months to 11 years 10 months) and 27 children with diagnosed LLI (mean age: 8 years 10 months, range: 5 years 2 months to 11 years 6 months) completed a silent speechreading task and a speech-in-noise task with and without visual support from the talking face...
February 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26885977/the-high-cost-of-hiv-positive-inpatient-care-at-an-urban-hospital-in-johannesburg-south-africa
#20
Lawrence C Long, Matthew P Fox, Celeste Sauls, Denise Evans, Ian Sanne, Sydney B Rosen
BACKGROUND: While most HIV care is provided on an outpatient basis, hospitals continue to treat serious HIV-related admissions, which is relatively resource-intensive and expensive. This study reports the primary reasons for HIV-related admission at a regional, urban hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa and estimates the associated lengths of stay and costs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A retrospective cohort study of adult, medical admissions was conducted. Each admission was assigned a reason for admission and an outcome...
2016: PloS One
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