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Antidepressant efficacy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334636/impact-of-demographic-factors-on-the-antidepressant-effect-a-patient-level-data-analysis-from-depression-trials-submitted-to-the-pharmaceuticals-and-medical-devices-agency-in-japan
#1
Tetsuo Nakabayashi, Ayako Hara, Hirofumi Minami
A substantial and variable placebo response can cause unreliable findings in clinical trials designed to demonstrate the efficacy of antidepressants, and the high rate of failed trials represents a major obstacle in the development of new drugs for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the influence of demographic and symptom factors on the antidepressant effect remains to be established. The purpose of this study was to estimate the magnitude of this influence. A patient-level meta-analysis of data from double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials involving the use of antidepressants for adults with MDD was performed...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331703/the-effects-of-vortioxetine-on-cognitive-performance-in-working-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-short-term-randomized-double-blind-exploratory-study
#2
Bernhard T Baune, Lasse B Sluth, Christina K Olsen
BACKGROUND: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a complex disease characterized by emotional, physical and cognitive symptoms. We explored the efficacy of vortioxetine versus placebo on outcomes of cognition, functioning and mood symptoms in working patients with depression, using paroxetine as an active reference. METHODS: Gainfully employed patients (18-65 years, N = 152) with MDD were randomized 1:1:1 to 8 weeks' double-blind, parallel treatment either with vortioxetine (10mg/day) or paroxetine (20mg/day), or with placebo...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330217/a-systematic-review-of-network-meta-analyses-for-pharmacological-treatment-of-common-mental-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Taryn Williams, Dan J Stein, Jonathan Ipser
QUESTION: Network meta-analyses (NMAs) of treatment efficacy across different pharmacological treatments help inform clinical decision-making, but their methodological quality may vary a lot depending also on the quality of the included primary studies. We therefore conducted a systematic review of NMAs of pharmacological treatment for common mental disorders in order to assess the methodological quality of these NMAs, and to relate study characteristics to the rankings of efficacy and tolerability...
January 12, 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330149/voluntary-exercise-and-depression-like-behavior-in-rodents-are-we-running-in-the-right-direction
#4
Joram D Mul
Acute or chronic exposure to stress can increase the risk to develop major depressive disorder, a severe, recurrent and common psychiatric condition. Depression places an enormous social and financial burden on modern society. Although many depressed patients are treated with antidepressants, their efficacy is only modest, underscoring the necessity to develop clinically-effective pharmaceutical or behavioral treatments. Exercise training produces beneficial effects on stress-related mental disorders, indicative of clinical potential...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329499/a-pilot-study-of-the-comparative-efficacy-of-100%C3%A2-hz-magnetic-seizure-therapy-and-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-persistent-depression
#5
Paul B Fitzgerald, Kate E Hoy, David Elliot, Susan McQueen, Lenore E Wambeek, Leo Chen, Anne Maree Clinton, Glenn Downey, Zafiris J Daskalakis
BACKGROUND: Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is a novel brain stimulation technique that uses a high-powered transcranial magnetic stimulation device to produce therapeutic seizures. Preliminary MST studies have found antidepressant effects in the absence of cognitive side effects but its efficacy compared to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy and cognitive profile of MST compared to standard right unilateral ECT treatment...
January 12, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327372/relative-short-term-efficacy-and-acceptability-of-agomelatine-versus-vortioxetine-in-adult-patients-suffering-from-major-depressive-disorder
#6
Sidney H Kennedy, Jean-Marie Grouin, Stéphanie Cadour, Véronique Robert, Françoise Picarel-Blanchot
Agomelatine and vortioxetine are antidepressants with different mechanisms of action compared to other pharmaceutical treatment options. The objective of this present analysis is to determine the relative efficacy and acceptability of agomelatine (25-50 mg) compared to vortioxetine (10-15-20 mg) in adult patients with major depressive disorder. We performed an adjusted indirect comparison using placebo as a common control. The main outcomes were efficacy (response to treatment by Montgomery-Åsberg depression rating scale/Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression) and acceptability (withdrawal rate for any reason or due to adverse events)...
January 12, 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327213/add-on-treatment-with-curcumin-has-antidepressive-effects-in-thai-patients-with-major-depression-results-of-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#7
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sookjaroen Tangwongchai, Atapol Sughondhabhirom, Siriluck Suppapitiporn, Solaphat Hemrunrojn, André F Carvalho, Michael Maes
Activation of immune-inflammatory and oxidative-nitrosative (IO&NS) stress pathways plays a role in major depression (MDD). Evidence suggests that curcumin (500-1000 mg/day), a polyphenol with strong anti-IO&NS properties, may have efficacy either as monotherapy or as an adjunctive treatment for depression. Further controlled trials with extended treatment periods (> 8 weeks) and higher curcumin doses are warranted. This 12-week study was carried out to examine the effects of adjunctive curcumin for the treatment of MDD...
January 11, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326058/sleep-architecture-is-altered-in-the-reserpine-induced-fibromyalgia-model-in-ovariectomized-rats
#8
Alberto Hernandez-Leon, Alonso Fernández-Guasti, Adrián Martínez, Francisco Pellicer, María Eva González-Trujano
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a musculoskeletal chronic pain syndrome with various concomitant symptoms like sleep disorders. FM patients are mainly women and menopause might play an important role in the altered processing of somatosensory information. Adverse effects and moderated efficacy of drugs promote treatment discontinuation by patients. Animal models of FM report pain and depression-like behaviors, but none of them have explored sleep disturbance as possible marker in the preclinic diagnostic. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations of the sleep architecture in the reserpine (RES)-induced FM model in ovarectomized (OVX) rats...
January 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324370/model-based-comparing-efficacy-of-fluoxetine-between-elderly-and-non-elderly-participants-with-major-depressive-disorder
#9
Lidan Dong, Ling Xu, Yanfei Li, Yinghua Lv, Hongxia Liu, Yunfei Li, Fengyan Xu, Junyi Wu, Qingshan Zheng, Lujin Li
BACKGROUND: The high heterogeneity was existed among the studies of the elderly participants with major depressive disorder (MDD), which may lead to incorrect conclusions in the previous meta-analysis. This study used model based meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of fluoxetine between the elderly and non-elderly participants with MDD and to explain the heterogeneity among the studies. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in the public databases, involving utilization of fluoxetine for treating MDD in the acute-phase...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321994/the-effect-of-ethanolic-extract-of-thymus-kotschyanus-on-cancer-cell-growth-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-depression-like-behavior-in-the-mouse
#10
Mohammad-Hossein Doosti, Kazem Ahmadi, Mahdi Fasihi-Ramandi
Cancer and depression are known as two of the most debilitating disease and disorder increasing evidence suggest an urgent need for new therapeutic agents with lower toxicity and high efficacy. Some Thyme species extracts have remarkably been shown to positively affect depression and cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Thymus kotschyanus on depression and cancer cells. To this end, in experiment 1, NMRI mice were treated orally with the ethanolic extract of T. kotschyanus (50, 150 and 250 mg/ml) for seven days and then depression-like behavior was measured by Forced Swim Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST)...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306886/comparative-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-new-generation-antidepressants-for-major-depressive-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-protocol-of-an-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis
#11
Xinyu Zhou, Andrea Cipriani, Toshi A Furukawa, Pim Cuijpers, Yuqing Zhang, Sarah E Hetrick, Juncai Pu, Shuai Yuan, Cinzia Del Giovane, Peng Xie
INTRODUCTION: Although previous conventional meta-analyses and network meta-analyses have provided some important findings about pharmacological treatments for children and adolescents with depressive disorders in the past decades, several questions still remain unsolved by the aggregate data from those meta-analyses. Individual participant data meta-analysis (IPD-MA) enables exploration of the impacts of individual characteristics on treatment effects, allowing matching of treatments to specific subgroups of patients...
January 5, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306690/differential-change-on-depressive-symptom-factors-with-antidepressant-medication-and-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-major-depressive-disorder
#12
Boadie W Dunlop, Steven P Cole, Charles B Nemeroff, Helen S Mayberg, W Edward Craighead
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous condition and individual patients are likely to be differentially responsive to specific treatments. In an exploratory factor analysis of three rating scales, the Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) trial identified three factors that were differentially associated with outcome to nortriptyline and escitalopram. However, this factor analysis has neither been replicated or applied to a psychotherapy treatment...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305627/antagonism-at-the-nr2b-subunit-of-nmda-receptors-induces-increased-connectivity-of-the-prefrontal-and-subcortical-regions-regulating-reward-behavior
#13
Natalia Gass, Robert Becker, Markus Sack, Adam J Schwarz, Jonathan Reinwald, Alejandro Cosa-Linan, Lei Zheng, Christian Clemm von Hohenberg, Dragos Inta, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr, Peter Gass, Alexander Sartorius
RATIONALE: Evidence indicates that ketamine's rapid antidepressant efficacy likely results from its antagonism of NR2B-subunit-containing NMDA receptors (NMDAR). Since ketamine equally blocks NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDAR, and has affinity to other receptors, NR2B-selective drugs might have improved therapeutic efficiency and side effect profile. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the effects of (S)-ketamine and two different types of NR2B-selective antagonists on functional brain networks in rats, in order to find common circuits, where their effects intersect, and that might explain their antidepressant action...
January 5, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301160/-pharmacotherapy-of-vestibular-disorders-nystagmus-and-cerebellar-disorders
#14
K Feil, N Böttcher, O Kremmyda, C Muth, J Teufel, A Zwergal, T Brandt, M Strupp
There are currently different groups of drugs for the pharmacotherapy of vertigo, nystagmus and cerebellar disorders: antiemetics; anti-inflammatories, antimenieres, and antimigraineous medications and antidepressants, anticonvulsants, aminopyridines as well as acetyl-DL-leucine. In acute unilateral vestibulopathy, corticosteroids improve the recovery of peripheral vestibular function, but currently there is not sufficient evidence for a general recommendation. There is insufficient evidence to support the view that 16 mg t...
January 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286104/treatment-with-shuyu-capsule-increases-5-ht1ar-level-and-activation-of-camp-pka-creb-pathway-in-hippocampal-neurons-treated-with-serum-from-a-rat-model-of-depression
#15
Xiao-Long Wang, Jie Gao, Xiao-Yu Wang, Xiao-Fei Mu, Sheng Wei, Ling Xue, Ming-Qi Qiao
Depressive disorder (DD) is one of the typical affective disorders with a high morbidity, high suicide rate and high recurrence rate. Dysfunction of the 5‑hydroxytryptamine 1A receptor (5‑HT1AR) in the brain may serve an important role in the pathogenesis of DD. Currently, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line antidepressants with 60‑70% efficacy and severe adverse effects. Previous studies have demonstrated that Chinese herbal medicines, including the Shuyu capsule (SYC), are effective antidepressants with few side effects...
December 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284368/estimation-of-the-relative-difference-or-relative-risk-reduction-under-the-sequential-parallel-comparison-design
#16
Kung-Jong Lui
To increase power or reduce the number of patients needed in trials studying treatments for psychiatric or mental disorders with a high placebo response rate, we may consider use of the sequential parallel comparison design proposed elsewhere. Because statistical significance does not necessarily imply that the difference between treatment and placebo is of clinical importance, it is always of importance to quantify the treatment effect in clinical trials. When the patient responses are dichotomous, the treatment and other covariates effects are not likely additive...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283065/we-are-not-alone-in-our-body-insights-into-the-involvement-of-microbiota-in-the-etiopathogenesis-and-pharmacology-of-mental-illness
#17
Claudia Pisanu, Alessio Squassina
BACKGROUND: The etiopathogenesis of psychiatric disorders is still not completely understood. Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that mental illness and related disturbances in the brain neurobiology do not necessarily originate in the brain. Inflammation has been suggested to play a central role in psychiatric disorders, and altered levels of peripheral cytokines have been reported in several studies. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In this review, we present and discuss studies exploring the role of dysbiosis and products of the gut-microbiota in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, as well as its potential involvement in mediating the effect of antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics...
December 27, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282469/efficacy-and-safety-of-intranasal-esketamine-adjunctive-to-oral-antidepressant-therapy-in-treatment-resistant-depression-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
Ella J Daly, Jaskaran B Singh, Maggie Fedgchin, Kimberly Cooper, Pilar Lim, Richard C Shelton, Michael E Thase, Andrew Winokur, Luc Van Nueten, Husseini Manji, Wayne C Drevets
Importance: Approximately one-third of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) do not respond to available antidepressants. Objective: To assess the efficacy, safety, and dose-response of intranasal esketamine hydrochloride in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Design, Setting, and Participants: This phase 2, double-blind, doubly randomized, delayed-start, placebo-controlled study was conducted in multiple outpatient referral centers from January 28, 2014, to September 25, 2015...
December 27, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275445/issues-on-the-diagnosis-and-etiopathogenesis-of-mood-disorders-reconsidering-dsm-5
#19
REVIEW
Kazuyoshi Ogasawara, Yukako Nakamura, Hiroyuki Kimura, Branko Aleksic, Norio Ozaki
The authors present a narrative review from the diagnostic and nosologic viewpoints of mood disorders (bipolar and depressive ones) by revisiting the revision from the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision to DSM-5, including the following: the separation of the bipolar and depressive sections; the addition of increased energy and continuation of symptoms to the hypo/manic criteria; the elimination of mixed episodes; the creation of new categories and specifiers ("other specified bipolar and related disorder", "disruptive mood dysregulation disorder", "with anxious distress", "with mixed features", "with peripartum onset"); the categorization of hypo/manic episodes during antidepressant treatment into bipolar disorder; the elimination of the "bereavement exclusion"; the ambiguous separation between bipolar I and II; the insufficient distinction between "other specified bipolar and related disorders" and major depressive disorder; the differentiation regarding borderline personality disorder; agitation; premenstrual dysphoric disorder; and society and psychiatry...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274805/prospective-validation-that-subgenual-connectivity-predicts-antidepressant-efficacy-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-sites
#20
Anne Weigand, Andreas Horn, Ruth Caballero, Danielle Cooke, Adam P Stern, Stephan F Taylor, Daniel Press, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Michael D Fox
BACKGROUND: The optimal target in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for treating depression with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) remains unknown. Better efficacy has been associated with stimulation sites that are 1) more anterior and lateral and 2) more functionally connected to the subgenual cingulate. Here we prospectively test whether these factors predict response in individual patients. METHODS: A primary cohort (Boston, n = 25) with medication-refractory depression underwent conventional open-label rTMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
November 10, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
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